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See detailMethod for the preliminary design of Piano Key Weirs
Machiels, Olivier ULg; Erpicum, Sébastien ULg; Archambeau, Pierre ULg et al

in Houille Blanche (2012), 4

The Piano Key Weir (PKW) is a particular geometry of weir associating to a labyrinth shape the use of overhangs to reduce the basis length. The PKW could thus be directly placed on a dam crest. Together ... [more ▼]

The Piano Key Weir (PKW) is a particular geometry of weir associating to a labyrinth shape the use of overhangs to reduce the basis length. The PKW could thus be directly placed on a dam crest. Together with its important discharge capacity for low heads, this geometric feature makes the PKW an interesting solution for dam rehabilitation. However, its hydraulic design remains problematic, even at a preliminary stage. This paper presents a preliminary design method based on results of experimental tests. The method enables to design project models by extrapolation of characteristics of existing idealized scale models. A practical application is presented to illustrate the method. [less ▲]

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See detailComposite modeling to enhance hydraulic structures studies
Erpicum, Sébastien ULg; Dewals, Benjamin ULg; Archambeau, Pierre ULg et al

in Houille Blanche (2012), 6

Physical modeling and numerical modeling are two efficient analysis approaches in hydraulic engineering. The interactive application of both methods is obviously the more effective response to most flow ... [more ▼]

Physical modeling and numerical modeling are two efficient analysis approaches in hydraulic engineering. The interactive application of both methods is obviously the more effective response to most flow problems analyses. Indeed, it enables combining the inherent advantages of both approaches, which are complementary, while being beneficial to the delays as well as the quality of the analysis. The paper presents the way composite modeling is applied for years at the HECE - Laboratory of Engineering Hydraulics (University of Liege) to enhance hydraulic structures studies. Besides numerical model validation for which experimental benchmarks constitute the first reliable data source, simultaneous application of both modeling approaches may be envisaged in three different ways. Composite modeling may be used to increase the scale factor of physical models by reducing the layout of the real structure to be modeled, to provide a better answer to specific problems than a single approach study or to maximize the efficiency of experimental tests by reducing the range of variation of the unknown parameters to be tested. For each of these three issues depicted in the paper, several examples show how the combined use of efficient numerical solvers together with physical scale models enables to increase the overall quality and scope of the analyses while decreasing the delays and possibly the costs. [less ▲]

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See detailCaractérisation micro-échelle du risque d’inondation : modélisation hydraulique détaillée et quantification des impacts socio-économiques
Dewals, Benjamin ULg; Detrembleur, Sylvain ULg; Archambeau, Pierre ULg et al

in Houille Blanche (2011), (2), 28-34

The paper presents a consistent micro-scale flood risk analysis procedure, relying on detailed 2D inundation modelling as well as on high resolution topographic and land use database. The flow model is ... [more ▼]

The paper presents a consistent micro-scale flood risk analysis procedure, relying on detailed 2D inundation modelling as well as on high resolution topographic and land use database. The flow model is based on the shallow-water equations, solved by means of a finite volume scheme on multiblock structured grids. Using highly accurate laser altimetry, the simulations are performed with a typical grid spacing of 2m, which is fine enough to represent the flow at the scale of individual buildings. The methodology is first described, both in terms of hydraulic modelling and evaluation of people and assets vulnerability. The analysis scale of the procedure enables its development following an object-oriented approach. Finally, the applicability of the procedure is demonstrated through a case study for which three different protection measures are evaluated. Detailed analysis of these measures highlights significantly different influences from those measures on the risk curves. [less ▲]

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See detailEfficient hydraulic numerical modeling with multiblock grids and linked models
Erpicum, Sébastien ULg; Archambeau, Pierre ULg; Dewals, Benjamin ULg et al

in Houille Blanche (2011), 3

In the field of numerical hydraulic engineering, the size of the simulations is one of the current challenges to consider with sufficient precision the large areas involved by practical applications. In ... [more ▼]

In the field of numerical hydraulic engineering, the size of the simulations is one of the current challenges to consider with sufficient precision the large areas involved by practical applications. In this scope, the linking in the same computational domain of different solvers, each one used in the part of the simulation where its characteristics are most suitable, opens the door to huge modeling possibilities. Such optimized hydraulic numerical modeling is presented in this paper with a multiblock multimodel 2D solver and its linking to a 1D model. After a description of the solvers, with emphasis on the linking procedures, theoretical test cases and real applications are presented. [less ▲]

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See detailModélisation numérique 2D unifiée des écoulements sur des évacuateurs de crue avec déversoir
Dewals, Benjamin ULg; Erpicum, Sébastien ULg; Archambeau, Pierre ULg et al

in Houille Blanche (2010), (6), 102-108

The hydrodynamic modelling system WOLF 2D enables to combine different hydrodynamic sub-models within one single computation domain. For instance, for the purpose of simulating flows in the vicinity of ... [more ▼]

The hydrodynamic modelling system WOLF 2D enables to combine different hydrodynamic sub-models within one single computation domain. For instance, for the purpose of simulating flows in the vicinity of spillways, the following three hydrodynamic sub-models are interconnected: (i) a conventional “shallow-water” model, (ii) a suitable model for the simulation of the flow on the topographic step directly upstream of the spillway and (iii) a model able to accurately account for the bottom curvature near the spillway crest, along the spillway and at its bottom. In the latter model, based on curvilinear coordinates in the vertical plane, takes into consideration not only the bottom slope but also the bottom curvature in the vertical plane. As a result, the velocity profile along the water depth is generalized compared to the uniform profile usually assumed in the standard shallow-water equations and the pressure distribution is also modified as a function of the bottom curvature and is thus not purely hydrostatic but accounts for the effect of centrifugal forces. This extended mathematical model has been implemented within the modelling system WOLF 2D, based on a new finite volume scheme. Several validation examples and a real application demonstrate the accuracy and the practical applicability of the new model. [less ▲]

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See detailAnalyse expérimentale de l'influence des largeurs d'alvéoles sur la débitance des déversoirs en touches de piano
Machiels, Olivier ULg; Erpicum, Sébastien ULg; Archambeau, Pierre ULg et al

in Houille Blanche (2010), (2), 22-28

Within the framework of updating the release and storage capacities of existing reservoirs, the use of piano keys weirs (PKW) can be an interesting alternative either to increase the discharge of a free ... [more ▼]

Within the framework of updating the release and storage capacities of existing reservoirs, the use of piano keys weirs (PKW) can be an interesting alternative either to increase the discharge of a free weir without changing the weir layout or the reservoir level, or increase the reservoir level before discharge while keeping the weir layout and the level of safety. In order to help to the understanding of the behavior of this new type of weirs and to characterize their hydraulic potential, the results of an experimental study with for objectives to study the influence of the relative width of the inlets and outlets on the hydrodynamic characteristics of the structure are presented. A process oriented analytical formulation for the evaluation of the discharge coefficient of the PKW tested on scale models is proposed. It is in satisfactory agreement with the experimental results and leads to an objective evaluation of the optimal ratio of the alveoli widths. [less ▲]

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See detailModélisation hydrologique à grande échelle des zones imperméables égouttées
Khuat Duy, Bruno; Archambeau, Pierre ULg; Erpicum, Sébastien ULg et al

in Houille Blanche (2009), (5), 167-173

En hydrologie, la manière de prendre en compte les zones urbaines diffère sensiblement selon les dimensions des bassins et la résolution temporelle des événements pluvieux étudiés. A petite échelle, les ... [more ▼]

En hydrologie, la manière de prendre en compte les zones urbaines diffère sensiblement selon les dimensions des bassins et la résolution temporelle des événements pluvieux étudiés. A petite échelle, les zones urbaines peuvent être modélisées grâce à une description détaillée des divers écoulements existants. En particulier, le réseau d’égouttage peut être décrit explicitement. A grande échelle cependant, les zones urbaines sont souvent représentées par des approches moins détaillées. Les modèles actuels prennent généralement en compte les surfaces imperméables par une adaptation des coefficients de ruissellement ou d’infiltration. Cette approche permet de générer des volumes de ruissellement corrects, mais ne permet pas de tenir compte de la modification de la dynamique de transfert des apports liée à la présence de réseaux d’égouttage. Une méthode de modélisation particulière a donc été développée pour tenir compte de ces éléments dans un modèle hydrologique global (WOLF), en quantifiant de façon précise les apports des surfaces imperméables grâce à des données d’occupation du sol en format vectoriel et en les propageant sans devoir implémenter l’entièreté du réseau d’égouttage. Ces développements ont alors été appliqués avec succès sur le bassin de la Berwinne, en Belgique. [less ▲]

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See detailHétérogénéité des échelles spatio-temporelles d'écoulements hydrosédimentaires et modélisation numérique
Dewals, Benjamin ULg; Erpicum, Sébastien ULg; Archambeau, Pierre ULg et al

in Houille Blanche (2008), (5), 109-114

Les modèles numériques hydrosédimentaires doivent être aptes à prendre en compte la très grande hétérogénéité des échelles spatiales et surtout temporelles affectant les divers phénomènes à simuler. Pour ... [more ▼]

Les modèles numériques hydrosédimentaires doivent être aptes à prendre en compte la très grande hétérogénéité des échelles spatiales et surtout temporelles affectant les divers phénomènes à simuler. Pour ce faire, différents niveaux de couplage entre sous-modèles doivent être prévus (calcul hydrodynamique stationnaire, quasi stationnaire ou instationnaire complet). Outre une discussion du formalisme mathématique sous-jacent, la présente communication décrit le système de modélisation WOLF, développé à l’Université de Liège et permettant de couvrir la majorité des échelles de temps pertinentes au moyen d’approches numériques spécifiquement adaptées. L’applicabilité du système de modélisation est illustrée sur base de plusieurs exemples de simulations relatives à la conception et aux modes de gestion d’un grand ouvrage hydroélectrique en Inde. [less ▲]

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