On drawing a line through the spectrogram: how do we understand deficits of vocal pitch imitation?
; Larrouy, Pauline
in Frontiers in Human Neuroscience (2015), 9
In recent years there has been a remarkable increase in research focusing on deficits of pitch production in singing. A critical concern has been the identification of “poor pitch singers,” which we refer ... [more ▼]
In recent years there has been a remarkable increase in research focusing on deficits of pitch production in singing. A critical concern has been the identification of “poor pitch singers,” which we refer to more generally as individuals having a “vocal pitch imitation deficit.” The present paper includes a critical assessment of the assumption that vocal pitch imitation abilities can be treated as a dichotomy. Though this practice may be useful for data analysis and may be necessary within educational practice, we argue that this approach is complicated by a series of problems. Moreover, we argue that a more informative (and less problematic) approach comes from analyzing vocal pitch imitation abilities on a continuum, referred to as effect magnitude regression, and offer examples concerning how researchers may analyze data using this approach. We also argue that the understanding of this deficit may be better served by focusing on the effects of experimental manipulations on different individuals, rather than attempt to treat values of individual measures, and isolated tasks, as absolute measures of ability. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 31 (0 ULg)
Detection of response to command using voluntary control of breathing in disorders of consciousness
Charland-Verville, Vanessa ; ; et al
in Frontiers in Human Neuroscience (2014), 8(1020),
BACKGROUND: Detecting signs of consciousness in patients in a vegetative state/unresponsive wakefulness syndrome (UWS/VS) or minimally conscious state (MCS) is known to be very challenging. Plotkin et al ... [more ▼]
BACKGROUND: Detecting signs of consciousness in patients in a vegetative state/unresponsive wakefulness syndrome (UWS/VS) or minimally conscious state (MCS) is known to be very challenging. Plotkin et al. (2010) recently showed the possibility of using a breathing-controlled communication device in patients with locked in syndrome. We here aim to test a breathing-based "sniff controller" that could be used as an alternative diagnostic tool to evaluate response to command in severely brain damaged patients with chronic disorders of consciousness (DOC). METHODS: Twenty-five DOC patients were included. Patients' resting breathing-amplitude was measured during a 5 min resting condition. Next, they were instructed to end the presentation of a music sequence by sniffing vigorously. An automated detection of changes in breathing amplitude (i.e., >1.5 SD of resting) ended the music and hence provided positive feedback to the patient. RESULTS: None of the 11 UWS/VS patients showed a sniff-based response to command. One out of 14 patients with MCS was able to willfully modulate his breathing pattern to answer the command on 16/19 trials (accuracy 84%). Interestingly, this patient failed to show any other motor response to command. DISCUSSION: We here illustrate the possible interest of using breathing-dependent response to command in the detection of residual cognition in patients with DOC after severe brain injury. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 26 (1 ULg)
Near-death experiences in non-life-threatening events and coma of different etiologies.
Charland-Verville, Vanessa ; ; Thonnard, Marie et al
in Frontiers in human neuroscience (2014), 8(203),
BACKGROUND: Near death experiences (NDEs) are increasingly being reported as a clearly identifiable physiological and psychological reality of clinical significance. However, the definition and causes of ... [more ▼]
BACKGROUND: Near death experiences (NDEs) are increasingly being reported as a clearly identifiable physiological and psychological reality of clinical significance. However, the definition and causes of the phenomenon as well as the identification of NDE experiencers is still a matter of debate. To date, the most widely used standardized tool to identify and characterize NDEs in research is the Greyson NDE scale. Using this scale, retrospective and prospective studies have been trying to estimate their incidence in various populations but few studies have attempted to associate the experiences' intensity and content to etiology. METHODS: This retrospective investigation assessed the intensity and the most frequently recounted features of self-reported NDEs after a non-life-threatening event (i.e., "NDE-like" experience) or after a pathological coma (i.e., "real NDE") and according to the etiology of the acute brain insult. We also compared our retrospectively acquired data in anoxic coma with historical data from the published literature on prospective post-anoxic studies using the Greyson NDE scale. RESULTS: From our 190 reports who met the criteria for NDE (i.e., Greyson NDE scale total score >7/32), intensity (i.e., Greyson NDE scale total score) and content (i.e., Greyson NDE scale features) did not differ between "NDE-like" (n = 50) and "real NDE" (n = 140) groups, nor within the "real NDE" group depending on the cause of coma (anoxic/traumatic/other). The most frequently reported feature was peacefulness (89-93%). Only 2 patients (1%) recounted a negative experience. The overall NDE core features' frequencies were higher in our retrospective anoxic cohort when compared to historical published prospective data. CONCLUSIONS: It appears that "real NDEs" after coma of different etiologies are similar to "NDE-like" experiences occurring after non-life threatening events. Subjects reporting NDEs retrospectively tend to have experienced a different content compared to the prospective experiencers. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 30 (7 ULg)
Executive function and grey matter atrophy in healthy aging: A “voxel-based morphometry” analysis
Manard, Marine ; François, Sarah ; Salmon, Eric et al
in Frontiers in Human Neuroscience (2014)Detailed reference viewed: 35 (11 ULg)
The neural bases of proactive and reactive control processes in normal aging
Manard, Marine ; François, Sarah ; Salmon, Eric et al
in Frontiers in Human Neuroscience (2014)Detailed reference viewed: 34 (13 ULg)
Functional connectivity and recognition of familiar faces in Alzheimer’s disease
Kurth, Sophie ; Bahri, Mohamed Ali ; Moyse, Evelyne et al
in Frontiers in Human Neuroscience (2014)Detailed reference viewed: 23 (6 ULg)
Exploration of unitization processes in episodic memory in Alzheimer's disease
Delhaye, Emma ; Salmon, Eric ; Bastin, Christine
in Frontiers in Human Neuroscience (2014)Detailed reference viewed: 34 (9 ULg)
The Mental Whiteboard Hypothesis on Serial Order in Working Memory
; ; Majerus, Steve et al
in Frontiers in Human Neuroscience (2014), 8Detailed reference viewed: 12 (0 ULg)
Stop, look and listen: The need for philosophical phenomenological perspectives on auditory verbal hallucinations
; ; Laroi, Frank et al
in Frontiers in Human Neuroscience (2013), 7Detailed reference viewed: 31 (3 ULg)
On the role of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex in self-processing: the valuation hypothesis
in Frontiers in Human Neuroscience (2013), 7Detailed reference viewed: 15 (2 ULg)
Language repetition and short-term memory : an integrative framework
in Frontiers in Human Neuroscience (2013), 7(357),
Short-term maintenance of verbal information is a core factor of language repetition, especially when reproducing multiple or unfamiliar stimuli. Many models of language processing locate the verbal short ... [more ▼]
Short-term maintenance of verbal information is a core factor of language repetition, especially when reproducing multiple or unfamiliar stimuli. Many models of language processing locate the verbal short-term maintenance function in the left posterior superior temporo-parietal area and its connections with the inferior frontal gyrus. However, research in the field of short-term memory has implicated bilateral fronto-parietal networks, involved in attention and serial order processing, as being critical for the maintenance and reproduction of verbal sequences. We present here an integrative framework aimed at bridging research in the language processing and short-term memory fields. This framework considers verbal short-term maintenance as an emergent function resulting from synchronized and integrated activation in dorsal and ventral language processing networks as well as fronto-parietal attention and serial order processing networks. To-be-maintained item representations are temporarily activated in the dorsal and ventral language processing networks, novel phoneme and word serial order information is proposed to be maintained via a right fronto-parietal serial order processing network, and activation in these different networks is proposed to be coordinated and maintained via a left fronto-parietal attention processing network. This framework provides new perspectives for our understanding of information maintenance at the nonword-, word- and sentence-level as well as of verbal maintenance deficits in case of brain injury. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 94 (5 ULg)
Looking for the self in pathological unconsciousness.
Demertzi, Athina ; Vanhaudenhuyse, Audrey ; Brédart, Serge et al
in Frontiers in Human Neuroscience (2013), 7
There is an intimate relationship between consciousness and the notion of self. By studying patients with disorders of consciousness, we are offered with a unique lesion approach to tackle the neural ... [more ▼]
There is an intimate relationship between consciousness and the notion of self. By studying patients with disorders of consciousness, we are offered with a unique lesion approach to tackle the neural correlates of self in the absence of subjective reports. Studies employing neuroimaging techniques point to the critical involvement of midline anterior and posterior cortices in response to the passive presentation of self-referential stimuli, such as the patient’s own name and own face. Also, resting state studies show that these midline regions are severely impaired as a function of the level of consciousness. Theoretical frameworks combining all this progress surpass the functional localization of self-related cognition and suggest a dynamic system-level approach to the phenomenological complexity of subjectivity. Importantly for non-communicating patients suffering from disorders of consciousness, the clinical translation of these technologies will allow medical professionals and families to better comprehend these disorders and plan efficient medical management for these patients. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 19 (2 ULg)
Does processing speed protect from age-related decline in cognitive control?
Manard, Marine ; ; Collette, Fabienne
in Frontiers in Human Neuroscience (2012, October 27)
Age-related difficulties have been reported on proactive control whereas reactive control seems to remain intact (Braver, Gray, & Burgess, 2007; Braver, 2012). This study investigated the potential ... [more ▼]
Age-related difficulties have been reported on proactive control whereas reactive control seems to remain intact (Braver, Gray, & Burgess, 2007; Braver, 2012). This study investigated the potential influence of speed of processing abilities on the age-related decline in proactive control. We used a working memory recognition paradigm involving proactive or reactive cognitive control by manipulating the interference level across items. 80 young adults (18-29 years old) and 80 healthy older adults (60-89 years old) were included. The main results revealed significant effects of age on sensitivity to interference. As expected, reactive control performance remained intact with aging (similar interference effect in the two groups). In contrast, we observed a larger interference effect in the proactive condition in aging. Finally, when the groups are matched according to their processing speed (assessed by the Code task of the WAIS III, with both younger and older adults having a score comprised between 60 and 93), the effect of age on sensitivity to interference disappeared. In other words, when younger and older adults had similar speed of processing abilities, no age-related proactive control decline was observed. In conclusion, beyond the fact that this study confirms the selective age-related decline in proactive control, it also indicates that speed of processing, a measure considered as reflecting the integrity of cognitive functioning during aging (Salthouse, 1996), influences the efficiency of proactive control in that population. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 66 (17 ULg)
High frequency headache prevalence and management in primary care. A survey among general practitioners of the Liege area, Belgium
MAGIS, Delphine ; Schoenen, Jean
in Frontiers in Human Neuroscience (2012, September 12)Detailed reference viewed: 17 (1 ULg)
Theta burst and quadripulse repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) may have therapeutic potentials in migraine prevention: a proof-of-concept study in healthy volunteers and a pilot-trial in migraine patients.
; ; SAVA, Simona Liliana et al
in Frontiers in Human Neuroscience (2012, September)Detailed reference viewed: 46 (2 ULg)
Brain mechanisms underlying automatic and unconscious control of motor action
D'Ostilio, Kevin ; GARRAUX, Gaëtan
in Frontiers in Human Neuroscience (2012)Detailed reference viewed: 28 (7 ULg)
Anodal transcranial direct current stimulation over the visual cortex as a preventive treatment of migraine: a proof-of-concept study.
; ; SAVA, Simona Liliana et al
in Frontiers in Human Neuroscience (2012, September)Detailed reference viewed: 41 (2 ULg)
Item familiarity and controlled associative retrieval in Alzheimer’s disease: An fMRI study.
Genon, Sarah ; Collette, Fabienne ; Feyers, Dorothée et al
in Frontiers in Human Neuroscience (2012)
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is characterised by altered recollection function, with impaired controlled retrieval of associations. In contrast, familiarity-based memory for individual items may sometimes be ... [more ▼]
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is characterised by altered recollection function, with impaired controlled retrieval of associations. In contrast, familiarity-based memory for individual items may sometimes be preserved in the early stages of the disease. This is the first study that directly examines whole brain regional activity during one core aspect of the recollection function: associative controlled episodic retrieval (CER), contrasted to item familiarity in AD patients. Cerebral activity related to associative CER and item familiarity in AD patients and healthy controls (HC) was measured with functional magnetic resonance imaging during a word-pair recognition task to which the process dissociation procedure was applied. Some patients had null CER estimates (AD–), whereas others did show some CER abilities (AD+), although significantly less than HC. In contrast, familiarity estimates were equivalent in the three groups. In AD+, as in controls, associative CER activated the inferior precuneus/posterior cingulate cortex (PCC). However, during associative CER, functional connection between this region and the hippocampus, the inferior parietal and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) was significantly higher in HC than in AD+. In all three groups, item familiarity was related to activation along the intraparietal sulcus (IPS). In conclusion, whereas the preserved automatic detection of an old item (without retrieval of accurate word association) is related to parietal activation centred on the IPS, the inferior precuneus/PCC supports associative CER ability in AD patients, as in HC. However, AD patients have deficient functional connectivity during associative CER, suggesting that the residual recollection function in these patients might be impoverished by the lack of some recollection-related aspects such as autonoetic quality, episodic details and verification. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 46 (2 ULg)
Memory impairments in dementia: Which memory and how does it fail?
Salmon, Eric ; Collette, Fabienne ; Genon, Sarah et al
in Frontiers in Human Neuroscience (2012)Detailed reference viewed: 22 (4 ULg)
How do auditory verbal hallucinations in patients differ from those in nonpatients?
in Frontiers in Human Neuroscience (2012), 6Detailed reference viewed: 15 (2 ULg)