References of "Forest Ecology & Management"
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See detailManaging understory light to maintain a mixture of species with different shade tolerance
Ligot, Gauthier ULg; Balandier, Philippe; Courbaud, Benoît et al

in Forest Ecology & Management (2014)

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See detailA new insight in the structure, composition and functioning of central African moist forests
Fayolle, Adeline ULg; Picard, Nicolas; Doucet, Jean-Louis ULg et al

in Forest Ecology & Management (2014), (329), 195-205

The greater part of the semi-deciduous moist forests of the Congo basin has been given to logging companies for exploitation. In the next decades, very few of these forests will remain intact. In this ... [more ▼]

The greater part of the semi-deciduous moist forests of the Congo basin has been given to logging companies for exploitation. In the next decades, very few of these forests will remain intact. In this paper, we aimed to identify large-scale variations in the structure, composition and functioning of African moist forests that could serve as a baseline for both management and conservation purposes. Commercial forest inventory data were assembled for 49,711 0.5-ha plots, covering an area of more than six million hectares, crossing the borders of Cameroon, Central African Republic and Republic of Congo. Floristic composition was analyzed for a subset of 176 genera reliably identified in the field. Three key functional traits of tropical trees: regeneration guild, leaf phenology, and wood specific gravity, were collected at the species level from various sources, and assigned at the genus level. We first investigated the main variations in forest structure and composition, and identified seven forest types based on these variations. Differences in the percentage of pioneer and deciduous stems, and mean wood specific gravity were tested between forest types. Most of the study area was composed of a mosaic of the structural variations of the forests characterized by the occurrence of Celtis (Ulmaceae) species, which are mostly composed of frequent and abundant genera that formed the common floristic pool of the region. Secondary Musanga (Moraceae) forest is located in repeatedly disturbed areas, along roads and around main cities; mixed Manilkara (Sapotaceae) forest covers a huge area in the southern Central African Republic and in the northern Republic of Congo; and monodominant Gilbertiodendron (Fabaceae) forest is sparsely distributed along rivers. The contrasted structure, composition, and functioning of the forest types imply pronounced differences in population and ecosystem processes, and call for adapted management and conservation strategies. [less ▲]

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See detailHeight competition between Quercus petraea and Fagus sylvatica natural regeneration in mixed and uneven-aged stands
Ligot, Gauthier ULg; Balandier, Philippe; Fayolle, Adeline ULg et al

in Forest Ecology & Management (2013), 304

We monitored in situ natural regeneration in 23 uneven-aged stands. We modelled height growth in the regeneration of Quercus petraea and Fagus sylvatica. Beech saplings grew faster than oak saplings at ... [more ▼]

We monitored in situ natural regeneration in 23 uneven-aged stands. We modelled height growth in the regeneration of Quercus petraea and Fagus sylvatica. Beech saplings grew faster than oak saplings at all light levels. Oak gained greater benefit from direct radiation than did beech. Canopy opening is insufficient to promote oak over beech regeneration. [less ▲]

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See detailModelling the top-height growth and site index of Norway spruce in Southern Belgium
Perin, Jérôme ULg; Hebert, Jacques ULg; Brostaux, Yves ULg et al

in Forest Ecology & Management (2013), 298

Top-height growth in even-aged stands of Norway spruce (Piceaabies (L.) Karst.) from Southern Belgium was modelled using functions which provide an algebraic solution for site index (SI) calculation. 16 ... [more ▼]

Top-height growth in even-aged stands of Norway spruce (Piceaabies (L.) Karst.) from Southern Belgium was modelled using functions which provide an algebraic solution for site index (SI) calculation. 16 well known growth model formulations were parameterized using a method which accounts for heterogeneous variance and autocorrelation on a dataset composed of stem analysis data completed by measuring the heights of all the branch whorls to allow for accurate height–age estimates. Comparison of the parameterized models showed that the oblique asymptotic function known as the Duplat and Tran-Ha III model was the most efficient on our dataset. Validation of the selected model on permanent sample plot data showed no evidence of bias over the full range of possible age, height, site index and densities encountered in Norway spruce stands of Southern Belgium. The new height growth model described represents a significant improvement over the previous model of Dagnelie et al. (1988), which was found to be unreliable and required the use of an iterative process to estimate SI. [less ▲]

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See detailTree allometry in Central Africa: Testing the validity of pantropical multi-species allometric equations for estimating biomass and carbon stocks
Fayolle, Adeline ULg; Doucet, Jean-Louis ULg; Gillet, Jean-François et al

in Forest Ecology & Management (2013), (305), 29-37

There is a lot of uncertainty in the amount and spatial variations of above-ground biomass in Africa, partly because very few allometric equations are available. The aim of this study was to assess the ... [more ▼]

There is a lot of uncertainty in the amount and spatial variations of above-ground biomass in Africa, partly because very few allometric equations are available. The aim of this study was to assess the validity of using pan-tropical multispecies allometric equations developed by Chave et al. (2005) for estimating the above-ground biomass of trees in Central Africa and/or to develop site-specific equations. The study was conducted in lowland tropical forests of South-eastern Cameroon, at the edge between evergreen and semi-evergreen forests. Data of above-ground woody biomass were obtained from destructive sampling of 138 trees belonging to 47 taxa across a huge range of diameter (5.30–192.50 cm) and wood specific gravity (0.284–1.152 g cm 3). A set of local site-specific multi- and single-species models relating above-ground biomass to tree diameter and wood specific gravity were fitted to the data. The best model was selected using information criterion. Both tree diameter and wood specific gravity were important predictor to consider for the estimation of above-ground biomass at tree scale. Single-species models were not necessarily better than multi-species models including wood specific gravity as a predictor. The best local multi-species model had the same structure and parameters as the pan-tropical equation developed by Chave et al. (2005) for moist forests. The estimates from the pan-tropical multi-species equation were nearly as good as those of the local multi-species equation. Using wood specific gravity from the global data base only slightly increased the estimation errors, because for the study taxa wood specific gravity was highly correlated to wood specific gravity from the global data base. In this study, we showed that the pantropical multi-species allometric equation developped for moist forests can be used to produce accurate estimates of biomass and carbon stocks from diameter measurement in forest inventory and wood specific gravity from global data base at species level. These findings are especially timely given the urgent need to quantify biomass and carbon stocks in the tropics, and given the spatial extent of moist forests in Central Africa. [less ▲]

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See detailSilvicultural disturbance has little impact on tree species diversity in a Central African moist forest
Gourlet-Fleury, Sylvie; Beina, D.; Fayolle, Adeline ULg et al

in Forest Ecology & Management (2013), (304), 322-332

Timber production is an important economic sector in most forested countries of Central Africa, where about 14 million hectares of lowland moist forests are now planned for management. This production is ... [more ▼]

Timber production is an important economic sector in most forested countries of Central Africa, where about 14 million hectares of lowland moist forests are now planned for management. This production is expected to be sustainable, but the actual impact of logging on biodiversity is still questioned. To answer this question, we used a unique long-term controlled experiment implemented more than 20 years ago in an old-growth semi-deciduous moist forest of the Central African Republic (CAR). We tested whether (i) anthropogenic disturbances associated with silvicultural operations had an effect on the composition and diversity of tree communities, and (ii) there is a relationship between diversity and disturbance intensity in those forests. For this, we botanically identified all treesP10 cm DBH in 28 1-ha plots where no treatment (controls), logging and logging + thinning operations were implemented 24 years ago and created a strong gradient of disturbance. We investigated the relationships between five diversity indices and a disturbance index calculated for each 1-ha plot, for all species and separately for three regeneration guilds. We found a strong positive monotonic relationship between the intensity of disturbance and the percentage of pioneer species in the tree communities, which proved to be equally detrimental, in terms of relative abundance, to the non-pioneer light-demanding and the shade-bearing species. Overall, disturbance appeared to have a weak monotonous negative effect on diversity, irrespective to the index considered. The diversity of shade-bearers slightly decreased along the disturbance gradient without significant decrease in species density; disturbance had no effect on non-pioneer light demanders, but a clear significant negative effect on the diversity of pioneers, with a significant decrease in species density. This negative effect was associated with the massive recruitment of the early-successional, fast-growing Musanga cecropioides R. Br. (Urticaceae), which rapidly preempted space and resources in the most disturbed plots. Despite this effect, disturbance did not significantly affect the local heterogeneity in species distribution. These results suggest that the semi-deciduous moist forests of CAR are locally resilient to small-scale disturbances associated with silvicultural operations. This may be a consequence of the past anthropogenic and/or climatic disturbances, which have been stronger and more long-lasting than elsewhere within the tropical forest biome, and would have removed the most vulnerable species. Because logging intensity in these forests is usually low, we do not expect any direct major impact on tree species diversity, at least after the first felling cycle. [less ▲]

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See detailNutrient return to the forest floor through litter and throughfall under 7 forest species after conversion from Norway spruce
Carnol, Monique ULg; Bazgir, Masoud

in Forest Ecology & Management (2013), 309(0), 66-75

Tree species can influence nutrient return to the forest floor and nutrient cycling through the amount and chemical composition of throughfall and litter. We compared foliar nutrient concentrations ... [more ▼]

Tree species can influence nutrient return to the forest floor and nutrient cycling through the amount and chemical composition of throughfall and litter. We compared foliar nutrient concentrations, litter production, nutrient return and soil chemistry under 7 tree species planted on the same site after two generations of a Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) monoculture. Common alder (Alnus glutinosa (L.) Gaertn.), european beech (Fagus sylvatica L.), pedunculate oak (Quercus robur L.), silver birch (Betula pendula Roth.), goat willow (Salix caprea L.) and rowan (Sorbus aucuparia L.) were planted within an experimental catchment on poor acid soil in south-eastern Belgium. Measurements were performed during one year, 11 years after planting. This study demonstrated that Ca, Mg, K and N concentrations in foliage and leaf litter are tree-species specific. Fresh foliage and foliar litter N concentrations were highest in alder and willow, while Ca, Mg and K concentrations were highest in rowan. Litter Ca concentrations were approximately twice in rowan than those of all other species. Differences in nutrient concentrations between foliage and leaf litter depended both on the element concerned and on tree species. The total average litterfall biomass ranged from 615 kg ha−1 year−1 under oak to 3122 kg ha−1 year−1 under rowan. Foliar litterfall represented above 85% for beech, spruce and oak, 70% for alder and willow and ca. 55% for birch and rowan. Reproductive parts formed 44% of total litterfall biomass under rowan. Ca, Mg, K and N return via throughfall, foliar litter and reproductive parts were higher under accompanying tree species (alder, birch, willow, rowan) than under the main commercial tree species (oak, beech, spruce). Total N return was in the order of 50 kg ha−1 year−1 under accompanying species, 33 kg ha−1 year−1 under spruce and near 20 kg ha−1 year−1 under beech and oak. Under rowan, total Ca, Mg, and K return to the forest floor through throughfall deposition, litterfall of leaves and reproductive parts amounted to 47, 9 and 66 kg ha−1 year−1, respectively. Compared to spruce, forest floor pHH20 has increased by 0.4 unit under birch and rowan, and exchangeable Ca2+, Mg2+, K+ have increased about threefold under rowan. Planting rowan as accompanying species may therefore represent an interesting management option for improving forest floor chemistry on nutrient poor sites through Ca, Mg, and K nutrient return. [less ▲]

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See detailDetecting large-scale diversity patterns in tropical trees: can we trust commercial forest inventories?
Réjou-Méchain, Maxime; Fayolle, Adeline ULg; Nasi, Robert et al

in Forest Ecology & Management (2011), 261(2), 187-194

In this paper we seek to identify the floristic determination biases contained in large-scale commercial inventories conducted by logging companies and to determine whether this impacts on the observed ... [more ▼]

In this paper we seek to identify the floristic determination biases contained in large-scale commercial inventories conducted by logging companies and to determine whether this impacts on the observed patterns of alpha and beta diversity. The study focused on floristic data recently collected by industrial timber companies in the tropical forests of the Central African Republic (28,229 0.5-ha plots spread over 14,000km2). A subset of these plots (n = 1107) was later re-sampled for controlling purposes by experienced botanists. The proportion of agreement between the two samplings was assessed for each species and independently for small and large trees, and at genus and family resolutions. Unsurprisingly, large trees and common species were more accurately identified than small trees and rare species. We found that the quality of the floristic determination increased slightly from species to families. We also detected a significant variation between concessions in the quality of the floristic determination that was more dependent on working conditions during forest inventories than on field workers. Contrary to a widespread belief, we did not find a strong bias toward commercial species, showing that commercial inventory data could also be valid for non-commercial species in ecological studies. Finally, we found that both alpha and beta diversity patterns in commercial inventories were highly consistent with those of the re-sampled inventory. This latter result shows that commercial inventories are well suited to detect large-scale patterns of floristic variation. Large-scale commercial inventories could thus play an important role in the identification of large-scale patterns in tropical tree diversity. This could enhance our ability to manage tropical forests by designing representative reserve networks and developing management plans that integrate diversity patterns at the landscape scale. [less ▲]

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See detailEnrichment of logging gaps with moabi (Baillonella toxisperma Pierre) in a Central African rain forest
Doucet, Jean-Louis ULg; Kouadio, Y. L.; Monticelli, D. et al

in Forest Ecology & Management (2009), 258(11), 2407-2415

Studies of regeneration in African rain forests suggest that without silvicultural treatments, natural succession in logging gaps may not result in the establishment of timber species. In this paper we ... [more ▼]

Studies of regeneration in African rain forests suggest that without silvicultural treatments, natural succession in logging gaps may not result in the establishment of timber species. In this paper we present the results of an experimental enrichment planting with moabi (Baillonella toxisperma Pierre), a valuable and important timber species harvested in Central Africa. Although forest gaps are generally considered as favourable for the regeneration of this species, a survey conducted in a forest concession in southeastern Cameroon provided an estimate of only 12.7 seedlings ha 1, suggesting that the species was, in fact, poorly represented in logging gaps within the study area. To further investigate the dynamics of the moabi in logging gaps, 795 seeds were sown in 15 logging gaps and 410 nursery-raised seedlings were planted in 15 other gaps. A biannual monitoring program over a 30-month period showed a lower survival rate for seedlings from sowing (75.9%) compared to that of nursery-raised seedlings (95.3%). Planted seedlings reached on average 229.3 cm whereas seedlings from sowing were 167.5 cmtall, with the observed difference roughly corresponding to the average height of the nursery-raised seedlings at the time they were introduced to the logging gaps. After 30 months, the diameters of planted seedlings (16.8 mm) were also greater than those of the directly sown individuals (12.5 mm). Forest gap characteristics significantly influenced the growth of the plants. Factors accounting for the differences were total solar radiation, the soil content of coarse sand, the topographic position of the gap, the vegetation cover and the density of Macaranga spp. Whilst total solar radiation had a positive influence on growth, the remaining factors had impacted growth negatively. A streamlined technique was tested by planting 7 seedlings in 250 gaps. Without additional site maintenance, 29.3% of the moabi seedlings emerged naturally from the competing vegetation after 24 months. With biannual maintenance some 89.4% of seedlings became successfully established. Clearance operations had no significant influence on the height of plants whilst plant diameter was greater in cleared gaps. The total cost of the enrichment technique was 5.5 EUR per gap without maintenance and 7.5 EUR per gap with a single maintenance measure. Whilst long-term monitoring is needed, this study suggests a high survival rate of moabi introduced in logging gaps, and a growth rate 10 times higher than previously reported under canopy cover. These findings, combined with the low costs of the enrichment technique, support the use of silvicultural measures in logging gaps to restore the forest. [less ▲]

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See detailBird Assemblages In A Mixed Woodland-Farmland Landscape: The Conservation Value Of Silviculture-Dependant Open Areas In Plantation Forest
Paquet, Jy.; Vandevyvre, X.; Delahaye, L. et al

in Forest Ecology & Management (2006), 227(1-2),

Although considered by some as a less "ecologically suitable" forestry model than "near-natural" stand management, even-aged plantation forest management, with regeneration procedure invo lving ... [more ▼]

Although considered by some as a less "ecologically suitable" forestry model than "near-natural" stand management, even-aged plantation forest management, with regeneration procedure invo lving clearcutting, creates temporary habitat for many early-successional birds. The present study addresses the question of the conservation value for birds of clearcutting-related open areas in European temperate forest, in the context of a mixed woodland-farmland landscape. The point count technique was used to census the breeding birds on 300 sampling p lots, distributed in the 8 main habitat types of the Ardenne region (Southern Belgium), including agricultural land, edge habitats, closed forest habitats and open areas in forest. Most of these open areas in forest derive from clearcutting practices, rapidly planted with young Norway Spruce (Picea abies). We quantified the conservation value of a given habitat type by using a "conservation value index", integrating the frequency of occurrence of each species in the considered habitat and their conservation status in Europe or in Southern Belgium. Both conservation value index and species richness were higher for edge habitats and open areas in forest, compared to forest interior and agricultural land. Detrended Correspondence Analysis of the plot species lists showed that bird assemblages from open area in forest are not intermediate between forest and agricultural open land, as opposed to external edge habitats. Hence, open areas in forest do not contain bird assemblages composed of forest species mixed with colonizing agricultural species but rather shelter specific bird assemblages. An Indicator Species analysis further emphasized this specificity and identified 7 species, which, in the Ardenne context, form a group of species specific to open areas in forest. Due to major changes of land use in the Ardenne during the 20th century, which leads to a tremendous decrease of moor, heath and fallow land areas, clearcut openings in the plantation forest progressively gained high conservation value at the regional scale. Further studies about habitat requirement of the conservation-interest species inhabiting these open areas is needed, including a better understanding of how early-successional species react to forest planning. If plantation forestry evolves to an uneven-aged and more permanently closed forest, then other options, including semi-natural habitat restoration, are urgently required to save early-successional bird communities. [less ▲]

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See detailBiomass production of 17 poplar clones in a short-rotation coppice culture and its relation to soil characteristics.
Laureysens, I; Bogaert, Jan ULg; Blust, R et al

in Forest Ecology & Management (2004), 187(2), 295-309

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See detailChanges in the moss layer after liming in a Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) stand of Eastern Belgium
Dulière, J.-F.; De Bruyn, R.; Malaisse, François ULg

in Forest Ecology & Management (2000), 136(1-3), 97-105

The impact of dolomite lime (5 t ha -1) on the moss layer was investigated in a Belgian Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) forest. Bryophytes reacted rapidly, showing a decrease in frequency, cover ... [more ▼]

The impact of dolomite lime (5 t ha -1) on the moss layer was investigated in a Belgian Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) forest. Bryophytes reacted rapidly, showing a decrease in frequency, cover and biomass of acidophilous dominant Dicranaceae species. Some neutrophilous competitive or stress tolerant species were spreading out and some ruderals appeared. The reaction of the dominant species coverage to different liming rates was also considered. Results showed that the negative effect was more pronounced than higher dolomite doses were. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V. [less ▲]

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