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See detailChemical characterisation and in vitro assessment of the nutritive value of co-products yield from the corn wet-milling process
Malumba Kamba, Paul ULg; Boudry, Christelle ULg; Roiseux, Olivier et al

in Food Chemistry (2015), 166

The chemical characteristics of co-products recovered during a laboratory-scale wet milling procedure as well as that of whole corn flour were characterised and their digestibility and fermentability ... [more ▼]

The chemical characteristics of co-products recovered during a laboratory-scale wet milling procedure as well as that of whole corn flour were characterised and their digestibility and fermentability value determined using a 2 steps in vitro digestibility and fermentation model of the pig digestive tract. Five co-products differing in their chemical composition were collected and analysed. These co-products differed in their in vitro dry matter Digestibility and in their kinetic of fermentation. High coefficients of digestibility were observed for starchy samples, while low coefficients of digestibility were observed for samples rich in lignocellulosic components. Fermentation patterns of samples analysed were different as well as the profile of volatile fatty acids produced during the fermentation. The production of straight-chain fatty acids produced was significantly correlated with the proportion of starch in the sample, while branched-chain fatty acids were correlated to proteins concentration of samples. [less ▲]

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See detailEnzymatic process for the fractionation of baker’s yeast cell wall (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
Borchani, Chema; Fonteyn, Fabienne; Jamin, Guilhem et al

in Food Chemistry (2014), 163

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See detailImproving halva quality with dietary fibres of sesame seed coats and date pulp, enriched with emulsifier
Elleuch, Mohamed; Bedigian, Dorothea; Maazoun, Bouthaina et al

in Food Chemistry (2014), 145

Supplementation of halva with waste products of manufacturing, for example defatted sesame seed coats (testae) and date fibre concentrate, can improve its nutritional and organoleptic qualities. These ... [more ▼]

Supplementation of halva with waste products of manufacturing, for example defatted sesame seed coats (testae) and date fibre concentrate, can improve its nutritional and organoleptic qualities. These constituents provide high fibre content and technological potential for retaining water and fat. Standard halva supplemented with date fibre concentrate, defatted sesame testae and emulsifier was evaluated for oil separation, texture and colour changes, sensory qualities and acceptability to a aste panel. Addition of both fibres with an emulsifier, improved emulsion stability and increased the hardness of halva significantly. The functional properties of sesame testae and date fibres promote nutrition and health, supplying polyphenol antioxidants and laxative benefits. [less ▲]

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See detailAntioxidant potential of different plum cultivars during storage
MIHALACHE ARION, Cristina; TABART, Jessica; Kevers, Claire ULg et al

in Food Chemistry (2013), 146

Plums, the most commonly consumed fruits from Romania, are fruit rich in bioactive compounds like antioxidants. This research work was carried out to investigate the antioxidant potential of twelve plum ... [more ▼]

Plums, the most commonly consumed fruits from Romania, are fruit rich in bioactive compounds like antioxidants. This research work was carried out to investigate the antioxidant potential of twelve plum cultivars, fresh and stored during 10 days at 4°C by using different methods (DPPH, ORAC and erythrocyte resistance to haemolysis). The contents of total phenolic compounds and total anthocyanins were also determined by specific spectrometric methods. Significant differences between fresh and stored plum cultivars (p < 0.05) were found. Storage at 4°C resulted in an increase in antioxidant potential and anthocyanins content of the autumn plum varieties. Autumn plum varieties showed also a higher antioxidant capacity than summer varieties, as assessed by the ORAC and the haemolysis resistance assays. Our results suggest that even after storage plums could be a good source of antioxidants, which may provides health-promoting effects for humans. [less ▲]

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See detailFuran formation in starch-based model systems containing carbohydrates in combination with proteins, ascorbic acid and lipids
Owczarek-Fendor, Agnieszka; De Meulenaer, Bruno; Scholl, Georges ULg et al

in Food Chemistry (2012), 133(3), 816-821

Formation of the ‘‘possibly carcinogenic’’ furan during thermal treatment of a starch-based model food system containing selected sugars alone and in the presence of proteins, ascorbic acid and lipids ... [more ▼]

Formation of the ‘‘possibly carcinogenic’’ furan during thermal treatment of a starch-based model food system containing selected sugars alone and in the presence of proteins, ascorbic acid and lipids, respectively, was investigated. The results showed that in starch gels containing various sugars significantly more furan was formed at pH 6 than at pH 4. Moreover, addition of whey proteins enhanced the generation of furan considerably at both pH values tested. In acidic conditions, no significant difference was observed between the amounts of furan found in a starch–carbohydrate–ascorbic acid model system and those formed in a starch-based samples containing only ascorbic acid. Addition of fresh lipids did not affect furan formation. However, when oxidised soybean oil was applied, the generated amounts of furan were higher than expected from the sum of furan found in the separate starch–carbohydrate and starch–lipid samples. Interestingly, the most efficient carbohydrate in furan generation, among the sugars tested, at pH 6, was lactose, especially when heated in the presence of proteins. This is the first report on the generation of furan from lactose. [less ▲]

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See detailEffect of heat treatment of rennet skim milk induced coagulation on the rheological properties and molecular structure determined by synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy and turbiscan
Blecker, Christophe ULg; Habib-Jiwan, Jean-Michel; Karoui, Ramdhane

in Food Chemistry (2012), 135(3), 1809-1817

Heat treatment applied to milk induces denaturation of whey proteins, leading to a complex mixture of whey protein and whey protein coated casein micelles. The present paper investigates the effects of ... [more ▼]

Heat treatment applied to milk induces denaturation of whey proteins, leading to a complex mixture of whey protein and whey protein coated casein micelles. The present paper investigates the effects of heat treatment (60 and 80 °C during 20 min) and rennet-induced coagulation temperature (30 and 40 °C) determined by rheology, synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy (SFS) and turbiscan measurements. The gelation times determined by rheology and SFS increased with the increase of heat treatment applied to milk. The rise in temperature induced a decrease in the maximum curd firming rate and an increase in the viscosity of the investigated milk samples. The principal component analysis (PCA) applied, sepa- rately, to the SF and turbiscan spectra showed a clear discrimination between: (i) raw milks and heated milks; and (ii) milks renneted at 30 °C from those renneted at 40 °C. The results showed the ability of SFS as a rapid and non-destructive technique for the: (i) monitoring network structure and molecular inter- action during the coagulation process; and (ii) determination of gelation time of rennet-induced coagu- lation of studied milk samples. [less ▲]

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See detailAntioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of Ribes nigrum extracts.
Tabart, Jessica ULg; Franck, Thierry ULg; Kevers, Claire ULg et al

in Food Chemistry (2012), 131(4), 1116-1122

Blackcurrant berries contain high amounts of flavonoids with various health benefits as anti-inflammatory properties attributed to their antioxidant potential. Leaves and buds actually used to produce ... [more ▼]

Blackcurrant berries contain high amounts of flavonoids with various health benefits as anti-inflammatory properties attributed to their antioxidant potential. Leaves and buds actually used to produce food supplement could also exhibit such interesting properties. <br />In the literature, various methods are often used and valid indicators of the antioxidant potential of dietary substances. However these assays do not provide evidence that antioxidants have in vivo or ex vivo activity when consumed. To obtain biologically relevant information, the antioxidant activities of the extracts were evaluated on cellular models implicating the measurement of blood haemolysis, the Cellular Antioxidant Activity on endothelial cells and the anti-inflammatory activities on isolated equine stimulated neutrophils and purified myeloperoxidase. <br />These tests generally showed that the blackcurrant leaf extract have the highest antioxidant and <br />anti-inflammatory (inhibition of MPO activity and ROS production on activated neutrophils) capacities correlated to the highest total phenolics content. [less ▲]

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See detailQuantification of rotenone in seeds of different species of yam bean (Pachyrhizus sp.) by a SPE HPLC-UV method
Lautié, E.; Rozet, Eric ULg; Hubert, Philippe ULg et al

in Food Chemistry (2012), 131(4), 1531-1538

This study describes the development of a validated method for the quantification of rotenone in yam bean. The milled seeds were submitted to a Soxhlet dichloromethane extraction which allowed extracting ... [more ▼]

This study describes the development of a validated method for the quantification of rotenone in yam bean. The milled seeds were submitted to a Soxhlet dichloromethane extraction which allowed extracting 90% of the seeds rotenone. Elimination of the lipids was obtained via solid phase extraction. Rotenone was eluted with dichloromethane/methanol and the solution dried under vacuum and solubilised directly in methanol before injection in HPLC. The whole process was realised as much as possible protected from light and at temperatures lower than 40°C which allowed high recovery rates of spiked rotenone. Total error was used as criterion for the validation process and accuracy profiles drawn. The method allows the quantification of rotenone in yam bean seeds from 0.07% up to 1.25% (w/w). This method was applied to the quantification of rotenone in the seeds of several accessions of Pachyrhizus erosus and P. ahipa. The results range from 1.13 to 2.76 mg/g dry material. [less ▲]

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See detailExtraction conditions can greatly influence antioxidant capacity assays in plant food matrices
Michiels, Jean-Albert ULg; Kevers, Claire ULg; Pincemail, Joël ULg et al

in Food Chemistry (2012), 130

The estimated antioxidant capacity of different matrices can vary considerably between research reports. Besides intrinsic factors (not studied here), our work showed that may have various causes. Firstly ... [more ▼]

The estimated antioxidant capacity of different matrices can vary considerably between research reports. Besides intrinsic factors (not studied here), our work showed that may have various causes. Firstly, different methods are used to measure antioxidant capacity. Secondly, the results obtained for a single matrix by one method (such as ORAC) can vary with the extraction conditions. Parameters having a great impact on the amount and composition of antioxidants in extracts, and thus on the measured antioxidant capacity, notably include the extraction solvent composition, temperature, extraction time (duration), solvent-to-solid ratio, and storage conditions. Standardization of the extraction procedure is thus necessary for accurate and reproducible determination of the antioxidant capacity and phenolics in different food matrices by different laboratories. In this study we optimised such a procedure for four fresh plant matrices (orange, apple, leek, and broccoli). The optimised procedure requires extraction in a mixture of acetone/water/acetic acid (70/28/2, v/v/v) for 1 h at 4°C, with a solvent-to-solid ratio of 20 mL per 1 g. Fresh material should be used, but if this is not possible, one may lyophilise the plant matrices or store the extracts for a few days at -20°C before analysis. [less ▲]

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See detailChemical composition and functional properties of Ulva lactuca seaweed collected in Tunisia
Yaich, H.; Garna, H.; Besbes, S. et al

in Food Chemistry (2011), 128(4), 895-901

The chemical composition and some functional properties of the dried "Ulva lactuca" algae, collected from the littoral between the Taboulba and Sayada area, were determined. The dried "U. lactuca" algae ... [more ▼]

The chemical composition and some functional properties of the dried "Ulva lactuca" algae, collected from the littoral between the Taboulba and Sayada area, were determined. The dried "U. lactuca" algae were investigated for their soluble, insoluble and total dietary fibre content, mineral amount, amino acid and fatty acid profiles, swelling capacity (SWC), water holding capacity (WHC) and oil holding capacity (OHC). Results showed that "U. lactuca" alga powder was characterised by a high content of fibres (54.0%), minerals (19.6%), proteins (8.5%) and lipids (7.9%). The neutral fibres contain hemicellulose (20.6%), cellulose (9.0%) and lignin (1.7%). The proteinic fraction analysis indicated the presence of essential amino acids, which represent 42.0% of the total amino acids. The fatty acids profile was dominated by the palmitic acid, which represents about 60.0% of the total fatty acids, followed by oleic acid (16.0%). The study of the functional properties proved that SWC, WHC and OHC of this alga varied with temperatures and that were comparable to those of some commercial fibre rich products. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailMid infrared and fluorescence spectroscopies coupled with factorial discriminant analysis technique to identify sheep milk from different feeding systems
Karoui, Romdhane; Hammami, Moncef; Rouissi, Hamadi et al

in Food Chemistry (2011), 127(2), 743-748

Mid infrared spectroscopy (MIR) combined with multivariate data analysis was used to discriminate between ewes milk samples according to their feeding systems (controls, ewes fed scotch bean and ewes fed ... [more ▼]

Mid infrared spectroscopy (MIR) combined with multivariate data analysis was used to discriminate between ewes milk samples according to their feeding systems (controls, ewes fed scotch bean and ewes fed soybean). The MIR spectra were scanned throughout the first 11 weeks of the lactation stage. When factorial discriminant analysis (FDA) with leave one-out cross-validation was applied, separately, to the three spectral regions in the MIR (i.e. 3000-2800, 1700-1500 and 1500-900 cm(-1)), the classification rate was not satisfactory. Therefore, the first principal component (PCs) scores (corresponding to 3, 10 and 10 for, respectively, the 3000-2800, 1700-1500 and 1500-900 cm(-1)) of the principal component analysis (PCA) extracted from each of the data sets were pooled (concatenated) into a single matrix and analysed by FDA. Correct classification amounting to 71.7% was obtained. Finally, the same procedure was applied to the MIR and fluorescence data sets and 98% of milk samples were found to be correctly classified. Milk samples belonging to control and soybean groups were 100% correctly classified. Regarding milk samples originating from the scotch bean group, only 2 out of 33 samples were misclassified. It was concluded that concatenation of the data sets collected from the two spectroscopic techniques is an efficient tool for authenticating milk samples according to their feeding systems, regardless of the lactation stage. (C) 2011 Published by Elsevier Ltd. [less ▲]

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See detailDietary fibre and fibre-rich by-products of food processing characterisation, technological functionality and commercial applications: a review
Elleuch, mohamed; Bedigian, Dorothy; Roiseux, Olivier et al

in Food Chemistry (2011), 124

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See detailEffect of drying methods on physico-chemical and antioxidant properties of date fibre concentrates
Borchani, I.; Besbes, S.; Masmoudi, M. et al

in Food Chemistry (2011), 125

Effects of different drying methods (freeze-, oven- and sun-drying) on physico-chemical properties of date fibre concentrates (DFC) from three potential Tunisian cultivars were investigated. DFC had high ... [more ▼]

Effects of different drying methods (freeze-, oven- and sun-drying) on physico-chemical properties of date fibre concentrates (DFC) from three potential Tunisian cultivars were investigated. DFC had high contents of dietary fibre (71.01–93.46% dry matter), with high proportions of insoluble dietary fibre. Freeze dried DFC had the highest values of swelling, water holding and oil holding capacities. This drying method gave also the lightest DFC colour. Kentichi fibre produced by freeze-drying had the highest viscosity and the lowest bulkier particles. The present work assessed polyphenol content and antioxidant activity of DFC using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method. The highest polyphenol content was found for freeze dried DFC, contrary to radical scavenging activity which was not affected by drying methods. Results suggest that freeze dried DFC had the highest potential to be used as a functional ingredient in food products. [less ▲]

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See detailGas chromatographic-mass spectrometric characterisation of tri- and tetrasaccharides in honey
Ruiz-Matute, A. I.; Brokl, Michal ULg; Soria, A. C. et al

in Food Chemistry (2010), 120(2), 637-642

A GC-MS method has been used to characterize tri- and tetrasaccharides in honey after their derivatization into trimethylsilyloxime derivatives. Based on retention data and mass spectra, a total of 25 ... [more ▼]

A GC-MS method has been used to characterize tri- and tetrasaccharides in honey after their derivatization into trimethylsilyloxime derivatives. Based on retention data and mass spectra, a total of 25 trisaccharides were characterized; 12 being unequivocally identified using standards and two of them detected for the first time in honey. Erlose and panose were the major trisaccharides in the 12 honeys under analysis, their concentrations ranging 30-1214 mg 100 g-1 of honey and 17-863 mg 100 g-1 of honey, respectively. The GC-MS method also allowed the analysis of tetrasaccharides. Besides nystose, another nine tetrasaccharides were characterized; six of them were sucrose derivatives. Tetrasaccharides were present in concentrations lower than 230 mg 100 g-1 of honey. [less ▲]

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See detailCharacterisation of proteins from date palm sap (Phoenix dactylifera L.) by a proteomic approach
Ben Thabet, Imène; Francis, Frédéric; De Pauw, Edwin et al

in Food Chemistry (2010)

The proteins contained in juice tapped from date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.), from Deglet Nour variety, were analysed by the application of two-dimensional electrophoresis (2DE). Identification was ... [more ▼]

The proteins contained in juice tapped from date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.), from Deglet Nour variety, were analysed by the application of two-dimensional electrophoresis (2DE). Identification was carried out by mass spectrometry analyses. The SDS–PAGE patterns showed more than 100 spots of which 52 spots were identified. A proportion of the identified proteins were related to Saccharomyces cerevisiae that may belong to the natural microflora of date palm sap. These proteins are principally involved in glycolysis. While other proteins were assigned to be vegetable proteins, probably a mixture of proteins from the vascular system, which have several biological functions within the palm tree. Thus, we found enzymes involved in stress and defence reactions, in glycolysis, and photosynthesis reactions. Other enzymes are associated with carbohydrates and proteins metabolisms. [less ▲]

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See detailOptimisation of xanthan gum production by palm date (Phoenix dactylifera L.) juice by-products using response surface methodology
Ben Salah, Riadh; Chaari, Kacem; Besbes, Souhail et al

in Food Chemistry (2010), 121(2), 627-633

The present study was undertaken investigate and optimise the possibility of xanthan gum production by Xanthomonas campestris NRRL B-1459 in batch experiments on date palm juice by-products. Using an ... [more ▼]

The present study was undertaken investigate and optimise the possibility of xanthan gum production by Xanthomonas campestris NRRL B-1459 in batch experiments on date palm juice by-products. Using an experimental Response Surface Methodology complemented with a Central Composite Orthogonal Design, three major independent variables (date juice carbon source, nitrogen source and temperature) were evaluated for their individual and interactive effects on biomass and xanthan gum production. The optimal conditions selected were: 84.68 g/l for carbon source, 2.7 g/l for nitrogen source, and 30.1 degrees C for temperature. The experimental value obtained for xanthan production under these conditions was about 43.35 g/l, which was close to the 42.96 g/l value predicted by the model. Higher yields of biomass production could be obtained at 46.68 g/l for carbon source, 4.58 g/l for nitrogen source and 30 degrees C for temperature. The maximum value obtained for biomass production was 3.35 g/l, which was higher than the 2.98 g/l value predicted by the model. The xanthan formed was subjected to HPLC and TLC analyses and its molecular weight as well as pyruvate content were identified. The findings indicated that this polysaccharide contained glucose, glucoronic acid and mannose. Overall, the date palm juice by-products presented in the current study seem to exhibit promising properties that can open new pathways for the production of efficient and cost-effective xanthan gum. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailImpact of the crystallisation pathway of inulin on its mono-hydrate to hemi-hydrate thermal transition
Ronkart, S. N.; Deroanne, C.; Paquot, Michel ULg et al

in Food Chemistry (2010), 119(1), 317-322

In this paper, we present the thermal properties of two inulins obtained from different crystallisation pathways. One was obtained by fractional precipitation of a saturated inulin solution and the second ... [more ▼]

In this paper, we present the thermal properties of two inulins obtained from different crystallisation pathways. One was obtained by fractional precipitation of a saturated inulin solution and the second was from the crystallisation of a solid amorphous mulin. The thermal analyses were conducted by temperature resolved wide angle X-ray scattering (TRWAXS), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetry (TG). Although at room temperature both inulins presented similar X-ray diffractogram patterns characteristic of the mono-hydrate polymorph, they differed considerably by their thermal properties. During heating, a difference in the mono-hydrate to the hemi-hydrate polymorph transition occurred. Thermogravimetric analysis suggested a difference in the water mobility inside the material which had an impact on the thermal properties and hydrate transition of the crystalline inulin. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailFuran formation from vitamin C in a starch-based model system: Influence of the reaction conditions
Owczarek-Fendor, Agnieska; De Meulenaer, Bruno; Scholl, Georges ULg et al

in Food Chemistry (2010), 121(4), 1163-1170

The generation of furan from vitamin C during thermal treatment of a starch-based model system, which simulated baby food, was studied. Results indicated that the amount of sample heated in the vial ... [more ▼]

The generation of furan from vitamin C during thermal treatment of a starch-based model system, which simulated baby food, was studied. Results indicated that the amount of sample heated in the vial influenced the furan generation from ascorbic acid. Increasing the amount of heated sample from 5% to approximately 98% of the total vial volume, drastically reduced furan formation from 70 ppb to 16 ppb. Changes in ascorbic acid concentrations from 0.1 to 4.5 mg/g did not influence furan concentration nor did different ascorbic/dehydroascorbic acid molar ratios. Interestingly, waxy corn starch itself considerably enhanced furan generation from ascorbic acid. Under the same conditions, 13.2 ppb of furan was generated in starch-based samples, while in ascorbic acid buffered solutions only 0.4 ppb of furan was formed. Application of other matrices, in particular agar and hydrolysed starch, resulted in similar furan concentrations as for native starch, while in polyol solutions furan concentrations were comparable to those obtained for the buffered ascorbic acid solutions. [less ▲]

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See detailCorrigendum to "Quantitative and qualitative study of spelt and wheat fibres in varying milling fractions
Escarnot, Emmanuelle; Agneessens, Richard; Wathelet, Bernard ULg et al

in Food Chemistry (2010), 122

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