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See detailInfluence of different hydrocolloids on dough thermo-mechanical properties and in vitro starch digestibility of gluten-free steamed bread based on potato flour
Liu, Xingli ULiege; Mu, Taihua; Sun, Hongnan et al

in Food Chemistry (2018), 239

The effects of hydrocolloids (Hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC), Carboxymethylcellulose (CMC), Xanthan gum (XG), and Apple pectin (AP)) at different concentrations on dough thermo-mechanical properties ... [more ▼]

The effects of hydrocolloids (Hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC), Carboxymethylcellulose (CMC), Xanthan gum (XG), and Apple pectin (AP)) at different concentrations on dough thermo-mechanical properties and in vitro starch digestibility of gluten-free potato steamed bread were investigated. Results showed that hydrocolloids addition significantly increased the gelatinization temperature (from 52.0 to 64.2 °C) and water absorption (from 56.22 to 66.50 %) of potato dough. Moreover, hydrocolloids may be interacted with protein and starch, the density of potato protein bands was decreased by hydrocolloids addition, the reason might be that higher molecular weight complexes might be formed between proteins-hydrocolloids or proteins-proteins, thus change the protein solubility. Furthermore, steamed breads with hydrocolloids presented higher specific volume and lower hardness, and the rapidly digestible starch and estimated glycemic index were significantly decreased from 45.51 to 20.64, from 69.54 to 55.17, respectively. In conclusion, HPMC and XG could be used as improvers in the gluten-free potato steamed bread. [less ▲]

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See detailA mass spectrometry method for sensitive, specific and simultaneous detection of bovine blood meal, blood products and milk products in compound feed
Lecrenier, Marie-Caroline ULiege; Planque, Mélanie; Dieu, Marc et al

in Food Chemistry (2017)

Feed sustainability is one of the biggest challenges for the next few years. Solutions have to be found that take feed quality and safety into account. Animal by-products are one valuable source of ... [more ▼]

Feed sustainability is one of the biggest challenges for the next few years. Solutions have to be found that take feed quality and safety into account. Animal by-products are one valuable source of proteins. However, since the bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) crisis, their use has been strictly regulated. The objective of this study was to propose a routine, sensitive and specific method using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry for the detection of blood-derived products and milk powder in feed. Contaminated aquafeeds were analysed in order to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of the method. This new method meets both selectivity and sensitivity (0.1% (w/w)) requirements imposed by the European Commission for animal proteins detection methods. It offers an innovative and complementary solution for the simultaneously identification of authorised and unauthorised animal by-products such as processed animal proteins (PAPs). [less ▲]

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See detailTechnological properties of milk gels produced by chymosin and wild cardoon rennet optimized by response surface methodology
Ben Amira, Amal; Mokni, Abir; Yaich, Hela et al

in Food Chemistry (2017), 237

The aim of this paper was to optimize extraction conditions of C. cardunculus rennet by response surface methodology, in order to maximize its milk-clotting activity (MCA). The second objective was to ... [more ▼]

The aim of this paper was to optimize extraction conditions of C. cardunculus rennet by response surface methodology, in order to maximize its milk-clotting activity (MCA). The second objective was to examine the effect of different amounts of the optimized extract and the type of milk, on technological characteristics of the obtained gels. Results of the central composite design showed that the optimum extraction conditions, corresponding to maximum MCA (9.550 CAU/mL), were selected as follows: Grinding time 30 s, pH 3, extraction time 50 min and solid to liquid ratio 15 g/100 mL. According to technological properties, it can be concluded that C. cardunculus extract exhibited an excellent efficiency on raw milk, in term of dynamic moduli and gel firmness, as compared to chymosin. A good gelation time and WHC were also obtained. Consequently, the optimized C. cardunculus rennet has the potential to be employed as an efficient milk-clotting agent. [less ▲]

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See detailEffect of extraction pH on techno-functional properties of crude extracts from wild cardoon (Cynara cardunculus L.) flowers
Ben Amira, Amal ULiege; Makhlouf, Ines; Petrut, Raul Flaviu et al

in Food Chemistry (2017), 225

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See detailChemical profiling of the major components in natural waxes to elucidate their role in liquid oil structuring
Doan, Chi Diem; To, Chak Ming; De Vrieze, Mike et al

in Food Chemistry (2017), 214

Elucidating the composition of waxes is of utmost importance to explain their behavior in liquid oil structuring. The chemical components (hydrocarbons – HCs, free fatty acids – FFAs, free fatty alcohols ... [more ▼]

Elucidating the composition of waxes is of utmost importance to explain their behavior in liquid oil structuring. The chemical components (hydrocarbons – HCs, free fatty acids – FFAs, free fatty alcohols – FALs and wax esters – WEs) of natural waxes were analyzed using HPLC–ELSD and GC–MS followed by evaluation of their oil structuring properties. The gel strength, including the average storage modulus and oscillation yield stress, displayed a negative correlation with FALs and a positive correlation with HCs, FFAs and WEs. The components dictating the gel strength are HCs, FFAs and WEs in a descending order of importance. The consistency of the oleogels increased with the increasing amount of FFAs and HCs and the decreasing amount of WEs and FALs. The presence of more WEs results in a strong but brittle gel with a high initial flow yield stress. We believe these results might be useful in selecting the right waxes to combine in certain fat-based food products. [less ▲]

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See detailStructural and physicochemical characterization of Sphenostylis stenocarpa (Hochst. ex A. Rich.) Harms tuber starch
Malumba Kamba, Paul ULiege; Bungu Mulombo, Denis; Katanga Kabalevi, Joseph et al

in Food Chemistry (2016), (212), 305-312

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See detailIdentification of specific bovine blood biomarkers with a non-targeted approach using HPLC ESI tandem mass spectrometry
Lecrenier, Marie-Caroline ULiege; Marbaix, Hélène; Dieu, Marc et al

in Food Chemistry (2016), 213

Animal by-products are valuable protein sources in animal nutrition. Among them are blood products and blood meal, which are used as high-quality material for their beneficial effects on growth and health ... [more ▼]

Animal by-products are valuable protein sources in animal nutrition. Among them are blood products and blood meal, which are used as high-quality material for their beneficial effects on growth and health. Within the framework of the feed ban relaxation, the development of complementary methods in order to refine the identification of processed animal proteins remains challenging. The aim of this study was to identify specific biomarkers that would allow the detection of bovine blood products and processed animal proteins using tandem mass spectrometry. Seventeen biomarkers were identified: nine peptides for bovine plasma powder; seven peptides for bovine haemoglobin powder, including six peptides for bovine blood meal; and one peptide for porcine blood. They were not detected in several commercial compound feed or feed materials, such as blood by-products of other animal origins, milk-derived products and fish meal. These biomarkers could be used for developing a species-specific and blood-specific detection method. [less ▲]

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See detailEffect of ultrafiltration process on physico-chemical, rheological, microstructure and thermal properties of syrups from male and female date palm saps
Makhlouf-Gafsi, Ines; Baklouti, Samia; Mokni, Abir et al

in Food Chemistry (2016), 203

This study investigates the effect of the ultrafiltration process on physicochemical, rheological, microstructure and thermal properties of syrups from male and female date palm sap. All the studied ... [more ▼]

This study investigates the effect of the ultrafiltration process on physicochemical, rheological, microstructure and thermal properties of syrups from male and female date palm sap. All the studied syrups switched from pseudoplastic rheological behaviour (n = 0.783) to Newtonian behaviour (n〰1) from 10 to 50 s‾1 respectively and present similar thermal profiles. Results revealed that the ultrafiltration process significantly affects the rheological behaviour of the male and female syrups. These differences on rheological properties are attributed to the variation of chemical composition between sap and sap permeate syrups. Furthermore, the effect of temperature on viscosity of the syrups was investigated during heating and cooling processes at the same shear rate (50 s 1). This study provides idea of the stability of the syrup by evaluating the area between heating and cooling curves. Actually, the syrup prepared from male sap permeate is the most stable between the four studied syrups. [less ▲]

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See detailBehavior of field-applied triadimefon, malathion, dichlorvos, and their main metabolites during barley storage and beer processing
Kong, Zhiqiang ULiege; Li, Minmin; Chen, Jieying et al

in Food Chemistry (2016)

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See detailLinseed oil presents different patterns of oxidation in real-time and accelerated aging assays
Douny, Caroline ULiege; Razanakolona, Rina; Ribonnet, Laurence et al

in Food Chemistry (2016), 208

This study aimed at verifying if the hypothesis that one day at 60 °C is equivalent to one month at 20 °C could be confirmed during linseed oil aging for 6 months at 20 °C and 6 days at 60 °C using the ... [more ▼]

This study aimed at verifying if the hypothesis that one day at 60 °C is equivalent to one month at 20 °C could be confirmed during linseed oil aging for 6 months at 20 °C and 6 days at 60 °C using the “Schaal oven stability test”. Tests were conducted with linseed oil supplemented or not with myricetin or butyl-hydroxytoluene as antioxidants. Oxidation was evaluated with the peroxide and p-anisidine values, as well as the content in conjugated dienes and aldehydes. All four indicators of oxidation showed very different kinetic behaviors at 20 and 60 °C. The hypothesis is thus not verified for linseed oil, supplemented or not with antioxidant. In the control oil, the conjugated dienes and the peroxide value observed were respectively of 41.8 ± 0.8 Absorbance Unit (AU)/g oil and 254.3 ± 5.8 meq. O2/kg oil after 6 months at 20 °C. These values were of 18.2 ± 1.3 AU/g oil and 65.2 ± 20.3 meq. O2/kg after 6 days at 60 °C. [less ▲]

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See detailPhysical, functional and structural characterization of the cell wall fractions from baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae
Borchani, C.; Fonteyn, F.; Jamin, G. et al

in Food Chemistry (2016), 194

The yeast cell wall of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is an important source of β-D-glucan, a glucose homopolymer with many functional, nutritional and human health benefits. In the present study, the yeast ... [more ▼]

The yeast cell wall of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is an important source of β-D-glucan, a glucose homopolymer with many functional, nutritional and human health benefits. In the present study, the yeast cell wall fractionation process involving enzymatic treatments (savinase and lipolase enzymes) affected most of the physical and functional characteristics of extracted fractions. Thus, the fractionation process showed that β-D-glucan fraction F4 had significantly higher swelling power and fat binding capacity compared to other fractions (F1, F2 and F3). It also exhibited a viscosity of 652.12 mPa s and a high degree of brightness of extracted β-D-glucan fraction. Moreover, the fractionation process seemed to have an effect on structural and thermal properties of extracted fractions. Overall, results showed that yeast β-D-glucan had good potential for use as a prebiotic ingredient in food, as well as medicinal and pharmaceutical products. © 2015, Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailPhenolic profile, antibacterial and cytotoxic properties of second grade date extract from Tunisian cultivars (Phoenix dactylifera L.)
Kchaou, Wissal; Abbès, Fatma; Ben Mansour, Riadh et al

in Food Chemistry (2016), (194), 1048-1055

The present study aimed to investigate the phenolic profile of second grade date extracts and evaluate their antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities with regard to some pathogenic microorganisms. Phenolic ... [more ▼]

The present study aimed to investigate the phenolic profile of second grade date extracts and evaluate their antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities with regard to some pathogenic microorganisms. Phenolic content was analyzed by HPLC. Antimicrobial activity was evaluated by the agar disk diffusion method, and in vitro cytotoxic activity was examined by cell proliferation assay. The results revealed that second grade dates presented three benzoic acids, five cinnamic acids and two flavonoids, with the predominance of q-coumaric acid (1998.80 lg/100 g). The antimicrobial activities showed that the date extracts were active against Gram (+) and Gram (-) bacteria, showing marked activity against Escherichia coli with an inhibition zone of 25 mm. Cytotoxicity assays showed that the date extracts were able to inhibit the proliferation of HeLa cell lines. The results confirmed that the date extracts were rich in biologically active compounds that are highly valued in the functional food and nutraceutical industries. [less ▲]

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See detailAntioxidant phenolic extracts obtained from secondary Tunisian date varieties (Phoenix dactylifera L.) by hydrothermal treatments
Mrabet, Abdessalem ULiege; Jiménez-Araujo, Ana; Fernández-Bolaños, Juan et al

in Food Chemistry (2015), 196(2016), 917-924

Three common non-commercial Tunisian date varieties were treated by two thermal systems, obtaining a liquid fraction which was characterized and its antioxidant capacity determined. The concentration of ... [more ▼]

Three common non-commercial Tunisian date varieties were treated by two thermal systems, obtaining a liquid fraction which was characterized and its antioxidant capacity determined. The concentration of total phenols in the three varieties (Smeti, Garen Gazel, and Eguwa) was increased by steam explosion treatment up to 5311, 4680, and 3832 mg/kg of fresh dates, and their antioxidant activity up to 62.5, 46.5 and 43.1 mmol Trolox®/kg of fresh date, respectively. Both thermal treatments increased the content of phenolic acids. Additionally, a long scale study was carried out in a pilot plant, with steam treatment at 140 °C and 160 °C for 30 min. The liquid phase was extracted and fractionated chromatographically using adsorbent or ionic resins. The phenolic profiles were determined for each fraction, yielding fractions with interesting antioxidant activities with EC50 values of up to 0.08 mg/L or values of TEAC of 0.67 mmol Trolox®/g of extract. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of enzymatic hydrolysis on conformational and functional properties of chickpea protein isolate
Ghribi, Abir Mokni; Maklouf Gafsi, Ines; Sila, Assaâd et al

in Food Chemistry (2015), 187

The impact of enzymatic hydrolysis by Alcalase on the conformational and functional properties of chickpea protein isolate (CPI) was investigated. The physicochemical, interfacial tension and surface ... [more ▼]

The impact of enzymatic hydrolysis by Alcalase on the conformational and functional properties of chickpea protein isolate (CPI) was investigated. The physicochemical, interfacial tension and surface characteristics of CPI and their hydrolysates (CPH) according to the degree of hydrolysis (DH) were also determined. These parameters were then related to the changes in the emulsification activity (EAI) and stability (ESI). The enzymatic hydrolysis was found to improve protein recovery and solubility, leading to a reduction in the molecular weight bands with a concomitant increase in the intensity and appearance of protein bands having apparent molecular mass below 20 kDa. The interfacial tension decreased from _66.5 mN m_1 for CPI to _59.1 mN m_1 for CPH. A similar trend was observed for the surface charge which declined from _27.55 mV to _16.4 mV for the CPI and CPH, respectively. These changes were found to have a detrimental effect on the EAI and ESI values. [less ▲]

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See detailChemical characterisation and in vitro assessment of the nutritive value of co-products yield from the corn wet-milling process
Malumba Kamba, Paul ULiege; Boudry, Christelle ULiege; Roiseux, Olivier et al

in Food Chemistry (2015), 166

The chemical characteristics of co-products recovered during a laboratory-scale wet milling procedure as well as that of whole corn flour were characterised and their digestibility and fermentability ... [more ▼]

The chemical characteristics of co-products recovered during a laboratory-scale wet milling procedure as well as that of whole corn flour were characterised and their digestibility and fermentability value determined using a 2 steps in vitro digestibility and fermentation model of the pig digestive tract. Five co-products differing in their chemical composition were collected and analysed. These co-products differed in their in vitro dry matter Digestibility and in their kinetic of fermentation. High coefficients of digestibility were observed for starchy samples, while low coefficients of digestibility were observed for samples rich in lignocellulosic components. Fermentation patterns of samples analysed were different as well as the profile of volatile fatty acids produced during the fermentation. The production of straight-chain fatty acids produced was significantly correlated with the proportion of starch in the sample, while branched-chain fatty acids were correlated to proteins concentration of samples. [less ▲]

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See detailEnzymatic process for the fractionation of baker’s yeast cell wall (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
Borchani, Chema; Fonteyn, Fabienne; Jamin, Guilhem et al

in Food Chemistry (2014), 163

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See detailImproving halva quality with dietary fibres of sesame seed coats and date pulp, enriched with emulsifier
Elleuch, Mohamed; Bedigian, Dorothea; Maazoun, Bouthaina et al

in Food Chemistry (2014), 145

Supplementation of halva with waste products of manufacturing, for example defatted sesame seed coats (testae) and date fibre concentrate, can improve its nutritional and organoleptic qualities. These ... [more ▼]

Supplementation of halva with waste products of manufacturing, for example defatted sesame seed coats (testae) and date fibre concentrate, can improve its nutritional and organoleptic qualities. These constituents provide high fibre content and technological potential for retaining water and fat. Standard halva supplemented with date fibre concentrate, defatted sesame testae and emulsifier was evaluated for oil separation, texture and colour changes, sensory qualities and acceptability to a aste panel. Addition of both fibres with an emulsifier, improved emulsion stability and increased the hardness of halva significantly. The functional properties of sesame testae and date fibres promote nutrition and health, supplying polyphenol antioxidants and laxative benefits. [less ▲]

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See detailAntioxidant potential of different plum cultivars during storage
MIHALACHE ARION, Cristina; TABART, Jessica; Kevers, Claire ULiege et al

in Food Chemistry (2013), 146

Plums, the most commonly consumed fruits from Romania, are fruit rich in bioactive compounds like antioxidants. This research work was carried out to investigate the antioxidant potential of twelve plum ... [more ▼]

Plums, the most commonly consumed fruits from Romania, are fruit rich in bioactive compounds like antioxidants. This research work was carried out to investigate the antioxidant potential of twelve plum cultivars, fresh and stored during 10 days at 4°C by using different methods (DPPH, ORAC and erythrocyte resistance to haemolysis). The contents of total phenolic compounds and total anthocyanins were also determined by specific spectrometric methods. Significant differences between fresh and stored plum cultivars (p < 0.05) were found. Storage at 4°C resulted in an increase in antioxidant potential and anthocyanins content of the autumn plum varieties. Autumn plum varieties showed also a higher antioxidant capacity than summer varieties, as assessed by the ORAC and the haemolysis resistance assays. Our results suggest that even after storage plums could be a good source of antioxidants, which may provides health-promoting effects for humans. [less ▲]

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See detailFuran formation in starch-based model systems containing carbohydrates in combination with proteins, ascorbic acid and lipids
Owczarek-Fendor, Agnieszka; De Meulenaer, Bruno; Scholl, Georges ULiege et al

in Food Chemistry (2012), 133(3), 816-821

Formation of the ‘‘possibly carcinogenic’’ furan during thermal treatment of a starch-based model food system containing selected sugars alone and in the presence of proteins, ascorbic acid and lipids ... [more ▼]

Formation of the ‘‘possibly carcinogenic’’ furan during thermal treatment of a starch-based model food system containing selected sugars alone and in the presence of proteins, ascorbic acid and lipids, respectively, was investigated. The results showed that in starch gels containing various sugars significantly more furan was formed at pH 6 than at pH 4. Moreover, addition of whey proteins enhanced the generation of furan considerably at both pH values tested. In acidic conditions, no significant difference was observed between the amounts of furan found in a starch–carbohydrate–ascorbic acid model system and those formed in a starch-based samples containing only ascorbic acid. Addition of fresh lipids did not affect furan formation. However, when oxidised soybean oil was applied, the generated amounts of furan were higher than expected from the sum of furan found in the separate starch–carbohydrate and starch–lipid samples. Interestingly, the most efficient carbohydrate in furan generation, among the sugars tested, at pH 6, was lactose, especially when heated in the presence of proteins. This is the first report on the generation of furan from lactose. [less ▲]

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See detailEffect of heat treatment of rennet skim milk induced coagulation on the rheological properties and molecular structure determined by synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy and turbiscan
Blecker, Christophe ULiege; Habib-Jiwan, Jean-Michel; Karoui, Ramdhane

in Food Chemistry (2012), 135(3), 1809-1817

Heat treatment applied to milk induces denaturation of whey proteins, leading to a complex mixture of whey protein and whey protein coated casein micelles. The present paper investigates the effects of ... [more ▼]

Heat treatment applied to milk induces denaturation of whey proteins, leading to a complex mixture of whey protein and whey protein coated casein micelles. The present paper investigates the effects of heat treatment (60 and 80 °C during 20 min) and rennet-induced coagulation temperature (30 and 40 °C) determined by rheology, synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy (SFS) and turbiscan measurements. The gelation times determined by rheology and SFS increased with the increase of heat treatment applied to milk. The rise in temperature induced a decrease in the maximum curd firming rate and an increase in the viscosity of the investigated milk samples. The principal component analysis (PCA) applied, sepa- rately, to the SF and turbiscan spectra showed a clear discrimination between: (i) raw milks and heated milks; and (ii) milks renneted at 30 °C from those renneted at 40 °C. The results showed the ability of SFS as a rapid and non-destructive technique for the: (i) monitoring network structure and molecular inter- action during the coagulation process; and (ii) determination of gelation time of rennet-induced coagu- lation of studied milk samples. [less ▲]

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