References of "Food Additives & Contaminants"
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See detailRisk assessment for furan contamination through the food chain in Belgian children
Scholl, Georges ULg; Huybrechts, Inge; Humblet, Marie-France ULg et al

in Food Additives & Contaminants (2012), 29(8), 1219-1229

Young, old, pregnant and immuno-compromised persons are of great concern for risk assessors as they represent the sub-populations most at risk. The present paper focuses on risk assessment linked to furan ... [more ▼]

Young, old, pregnant and immuno-compromised persons are of great concern for risk assessors as they represent the sub-populations most at risk. The present paper focuses on risk assessment linked to furan exposure in children. Only the Belgian population was considered because individual contamination and consumption data that are required for accurate risk assessment were available for Belgian children only. Two risk assessment approaches, so called deterministic and probabilistic, were applied and their results were compared for the estimation of the daily intake. A significant difference between the average Estimated Daily Intake (EDI) was underlined between the deterministic (419 ng * (kgb.w. * day)-1) and the probabilistic (583 ng * (kgb.w. * day)-1) approaches, which results from the mathematical treatment of the null consumption and contamination data. The risk was characterized by two ways: (1) the classical approach by comparison of the EDI to a reference dose (RfDchronic-oral) and (2) the most recent approach, namely the Margin of Exposure (MoE) approach. Both reached similar conclusions: the risk level is not of a major concern, but is neither negligible. In the first approach, only 2.7% or 6.6% (respectively in the deterministic and in the probabilistic way) of the studied population presented an EDI above the RfDchronic-oral. In the second approach, the percentage of children displaying a MoE above 10,000 and below 100 is 3% - 0% and 20% - 0.01% in the deterministic and probabilistic modes respectively. In addition, children were compared to adults and significant differences between the contamination patterns were highlighted. Whilst major contamination was linked to coffee consumption in adults (55%), no item predominantly contributed to the contamination in children. The most important were soups (19%), dairy products (17%), pasta and rice (11%), fruit and potatoes (9% each). [less ▲]

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See detailRisk assessment of Belgian adults for furan contamination through the food chain
Scholl, Georges ULg; Humblet, Marie-France ULg; Scippo, Marie-Louise ULg et al

in Food Additives & Contaminants (2012), 29(3), 345-353

Risk assessment is an interdisciplinary process used to quantify the risk linked to a hazard. In the present paper it is applied to quantify the risk linked to furan ingestion through the food chain for ... [more ▼]

Risk assessment is an interdisciplinary process used to quantify the risk linked to a hazard. In the present paper it is applied to quantify the risk linked to furan ingestion through the food chain for the Belgian adult population. Two approaches, deterministic and probabilistic, were carried out in parallel. The deterministic method relied on a case study, whereas the probabilistic approach involved statistical distributions of contamination and consumption data to calculate a statistical distribution of the daily intake. First, the deterministic method revealed a low estimated daily intake (EDI) for the average population (380 ng*(kgbw*day)–1) and a huge contribution of coffee consumption to the EDI (55%). Increasing or decreasing the daily coffee consumption by one cup can affect the EDI by about 22%. Afterwards, the probabilistic approach showed that the average population has a low EDI (494 ng*(kgbw*day) 1), and that high contamination levels were only registered in a small proportion of the population. Finally, a comparison of the RfDchronic oral showed that less than 10% of the Belgian population had an EDI above the reference dose proposed by the USEPA; the majority of the population had an EDI 20% below the reference dose. The margin of exposure (MoE) approach indicated that the level of risk related to furan intake through ingestion is low, with a MoE>10,000 for more than 10% of the population and no result < 100. [less ▲]

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See detailPotential of an in vitro toolbox combined with exposure data as a first step for the risk assessment of dietary chemical contaminants
Ribonnet, Laurence; Van Der Heiden, Edwige ULg; Nobels, Ingrid et al

in Food Additives & Contaminants (2011), 28(9), 1136-1158

In vitro risk assessment of dietary contaminants has become a priority in human food safety. This paper proposes an in vitro approach associating different complementary tools in an original toolbox and ... [more ▼]

In vitro risk assessment of dietary contaminants has become a priority in human food safety. This paper proposes an in vitro approach associating different complementary tools in an original toolbox and aims to improve the assessment of the toxicological impact of dietary contaminants at realistic human exposure levels, with a special focus on the intestinal compartment. The system is based on the use of four complementary cellular tools, namely stress gene induction in transgenic strains of Escherichia coli, modulation of the activity of key biotransformation enzymes (cytochrome P-450 (CYP) 1A1 and 3A4) in a human intestinal cell line, and activation of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and oestrogenic receptor (ER)-dependent genes in agonistic and antagonistic assays with luciferase reporter cells. It was applied to four chosen model molecules: ochratoxin A (OTA) and deoxynivalenol (DON), two common food-borne mycotoxins, and imazalil (IMA) and benomyl (BEN), two fungicides widely occurring in foodstuffs. All these assays were performed at or around a realistic intestinal concentration, determined through a deterministic approach based on the calculation of a theoretical maximum daily intake (TMDI). Using the four model molecules, it is clearly highlighted that induction of CYP1A1 activity and inhibition of CYP3A4 activity occurred in Caco-2 cells at a realistic intestinal concentration of IMA. Furthermore, some bacterial stress genes were induced in a range of realistic concentrations, following exposure to DON and IMA. In addition, BEN clearly provoked an ER agonistic activity in a human oestrogen sensitive reporter cell line. All these results are in accordance with the literature, suggesting that the in vitro toolbox constitutes an interesting approach in order to obtain a first 'fingerprint' of dietary contaminants at realistic human exposure for further risk assessment. [less ▲]

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See detailFusarium head blight and associated mycotoxin occurrence on winter wheat in Luxembourg in 2007/2008
Giraud, Frédéric; Pasquali, Matias; El Jarroudi, Moussa ULg et al

in Food Additives & Contaminants (2010), 27

Fusarium head blight (FHB) is among the major causes of reduced quality in winter wheat and its products. In addition, the causal fungi produce a variety of toxins. A relatively high FHB infection rate in ... [more ▼]

Fusarium head blight (FHB) is among the major causes of reduced quality in winter wheat and its products. In addition, the causal fungi produce a variety of toxins. A relatively high FHB infection rate in winter wheat was observed in 2007 and 2008 in Luxembourg. A fusariotoxin survey was carried out in 17 different geographical locations. Three groups of Fusarium mycotoxins (trichothecenes A and B and zearalenone) were analysed by a multi-detection HPLC–MS/MS method. Fusarium strains were also investigated by morphological and molecular methods. In addition, questionnaires relating to cultural practices were sent to the farmers managing the 17 fields investigated. FHB prevalence ranged from 0.3 to 65.8% (mean: 8.5%) in 2007 and from 0 to 24.5% (mean: 8.3%) in 2008. Results of morphological and molecular identification showed that the most common species isolated from diseased wheat spikes was F. graminearum (33.1%), followed by F. avenaceum (20.3%) and F. poae (17.8%). The chemical analysis revealed that 75% of the investigated fields were contaminated by deoxynivalenol (DON, range 0–8111 mg/kg). The preceding crop was highly and significantly correlated to the number of grains infected and had a significant impact on disease prevalence ( p¼0.025 and 0.017, respectively, Fisher’s F-test). A trend was found for maize as the preceding crop ( p¼0.084, Tukey’s test) to predict the amount of DON in the fields. This is the first report on the occurrence of DON and ZON in naturally infected wheat grains sampled from Luxembourg. [less ▲]

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See detailLC-MS/MS multi-analyte method for mycotoxin determination in food supplements
Di Mavungu, Jose Diana; Monbaliu, Sofie; Scippo, Marie-Louise ULg et al

in Food Additives & Contaminants (2009), 26(6), 885-895

A multi-analyte method for the liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric determination of mycotoxins in food supplements is presented. The analytes included A and B trichothecenes (nivalenol ... [more ▼]

A multi-analyte method for the liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric determination of mycotoxins in food supplements is presented. The analytes included A and B trichothecenes (nivalenol, deoxynivalenol, 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol, 15-acetyldeoxyvalenol, neosolaniol, fusarenon-X, diacetoxyscirpenol, HT-2 toxin and T-2 toxin), aflatoxins (aflatoxin-B-1, aflaxoin-G(1) and aflatoxin-G(2)). Alternaria toxins (alternariol, alternariol methyl ether and altenuene), fumonisins (fumonisin-B-1, fumonisin-B-2 and fumonisin-B-3), ochratoxin A, zearalenone, beauvericin and sterigmatocystin. Optimization of the stimulataneous extraction of these toxins and the sample pretreatment procedure, as well as method validation were performed on maca (Lepidium meyenii) food supplements. The results indicated that the solvent mixture ethyl acetate/formic acid (95:5, v/v) n-hexane was applied as partial clean-up step to remove excess of co-extracted non-polar components. Further clean-up was performed on Oasis HLB(TM) cartidges. Samples were analysed using an Acquity UPLC system coupled to a Micromass Quattro Micro triple quadrupole mass spectrometer equipped with an electrospray interface operated in the positive-ion mode. Limits of detection and quantification were in the range of 0.3-30 ng g(-1) and 1-100 ng g(-1), respectively. Recovery yields were above 60% for most of the analytes, except for different food supplements such as soy (Glycine max) isoflavones, St John's wort (Hypericum perforatum), garlic (Allium sativum), Ginkgo biloba, and black radish (Raphanus niger) demonstrated the general applicability of the method. Due to different matrix effects observed in different food supplement samples, the standard addition approach was applied to perform correct quantitative analysis. In 56 out of 62 samples analysed, none of the 23 mycotoxins investigated was detected. Positive samples contained at least one of the toxins fumonisin-B-1, fumonisin-B-2, fumonisin-B-3 and ochratoxin A. [less ▲]

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See detailFormaldehyde in cultivated mushrooms: a negligible risk for the consumer
Claeys, W.; Vleminckx, C.; Dubois, A. et al

in Food Additives & Contaminants (2009), 26(9), 1265-1272

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See detailModelling migration from high-density polyethylene containers into concentrated solutions used as food flavourings
Fauconnier, Marie-Laure ULg; Panhaleux, V.; Vanzeveren, E. et al

in Food Additives & Contaminants (2001), 18(11), 1040-1045

Migration from high-density polyethylene into different liquids (hexane, ethanol, lemon terpenes and their emulsions) was modelled using the response surfaces method. Polynomial equations (z = A + Bx + Cy ... [more ▼]

Migration from high-density polyethylene into different liquids (hexane, ethanol, lemon terpenes and their emulsions) was modelled using the response surfaces method. Polynomial equations (z = A + Bx + Cy + Dx(2) + Ey(2) + Fxy) were established and parameters determined for each compound. Correlation coefficients were generally > 90%. Analysis indicated that 2,4-bis(1,1-dimethylethyl) phenol, probably due to the degradation of the antioxidant additive tris(2,4- bis(1,1-dimethylethyl) phenyl) phosphite, migrated into each liquid tested, whatever the temperature. Oligomers (10-30 carbons) terminated by a vinyl group were also detected. [less ▲]

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