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See detailData-driven probabilistic post-earthquake fire ignition model for a community
Elhami Khorasani, Negar; Gernay, Thomas ULiege; Garlock, Maria

in Fire Safety Journal (2017), 94

Fire following earthquake (FFE), a cascading multi-hazard event, can cause major social and economical losses in a community. In this paper, two existing post-earthquake fire ignition models that are ... [more ▼]

Fire following earthquake (FFE), a cascading multi-hazard event, can cause major social and economical losses in a community. In this paper, two existing post-earthquake fire ignition models that are implemented in Geographic Information System (GIS) based platforms, Hazus and MAEViz/Ergo, are reviewed. The two platforms and their FFE modules have been studied for suitability in community resiliency evaluations. Based on the shortcomings in the existing literature, a new post-earthquake fire ignition model is proposed using historical FFE data and a probabilistic formulation. The procedure to create the database for the model using GIS-based tools is explained. The proposed model provides the probability of ignition at both census tract scale and individual buildings, and can be used to identify areas of a community with high risk of fire ignitions after an earthquake. The model also provides a breakdown of ignitions in different building types. Finally, the model is implemented in MAEViz/Ergo to demonstrate its application in a GIS-based software. [less ▲]

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See detailReliability based determination of material partial safety factors for cast iron beams in jack arched construction exposed to standard and natural fires
Maraveas, Chrysanthos ULiege; Wang, Yong Chang; Swailes, Thomas

in Fire Safety Journal (2017)

Cast iron beams were extensively used in many 19th century structures, especially in fireproof flooring systems (such as jack arch). Many such structures are still in use today and it is important that ... [more ▼]

Cast iron beams were extensively used in many 19th century structures, especially in fireproof flooring systems (such as jack arch). Many such structures are still in use today and it is important that they fulfil the current requirements of fire resistance when there is a change of use. These structures are out of scope of modern design codes and old design codes do not provide guidance for fire resistance design. Furthermore, cast iron is a brittle material weak in tension, and there are many uncertainties in its mechanical properties at ambient and elevated temperatures due to material flaws. It is necessary to quantify the probability of structural failure and to introduce safety factors to reduce the probability of structural failure in fire to an acceptable level. This paper presents the results of a detailed study whose purpose is to derive appropriate safety factors to achieve different levels of reliability, for fire safety design of cast iron beams. In this study, a fibre analysis method has been used to calculate the moment capacity of four different types of cast iron cross section. Using randomized stress strain-temperature relationships, based on variability of the different governing parameters (under tension: maximum stress, 0.2% proof stress, corresponding strains at maximum stress (strength) and failure; under compression: Young's modulus, proportional limit, 0.2% proof stress and the maximum stress), the probability distribution of moment capacity has been calculated. Based on the criterion of cast iron beam failure not exceeding probabilities of 10−1, 10−2 and 10−3, material safety factors of 1.5, 3.0 and 5.0 respectively have been obtained. [less ▲]

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See detailAnalysis of experimental hydrocarbon localised fires with and without engulfed steel members
Tondini, Nicola; Franssen, Jean-Marc ULiege

in Fire Safety Journal (2017), 92

Localised fires can represent an important hazard to structural safety of buildings where a fully generalised fire cannot develop or when it is at its early stage. Plume correlations given in the codes ... [more ▼]

Localised fires can represent an important hazard to structural safety of buildings where a fully generalised fire cannot develop or when it is at its early stage. Plume correlations given in the codes are valid for undisturbed plume and it is not known whether the presence of a structural element engulfed into the localised fire can affect the validity of such correlations. In structural design, this may lead to highly conservative assumptions or, even, to possible misuses of the correlations. In order to provide insight into this issue, a comprehensive experimental programme aimed at providing data on hydrocarbon localised fires with and without engulfed vertical steel members was performed. In detail, a series of 22 tests of circular hydrocarbon pool fires in well-ventilated conditions of diameters ranging from 0.6 m to 2.2 m were performed with diesel and heptane. The particular aspect of these tests is that they were performed by means of a system that controlled the fuel flow and thus the rate of heat release (RHR) of the fire. The flame length and the temperatures of the fire plume measured experimentally were compared with existing plume correlations, data in the literature and the Eurocode correlations. The results show that: the presence of the column contributed to “straighten” the flame; although pool fires with same diameters were characterised by the same RHR, the flame length was different depending on the fuel type; experimental gas temperatures were lower than the temperature correlation given in the Eurocodes. In sum, the correlations included in the Eurocodes provided reasonable predictions in terms of flame length and of fire plume temperature rise around a steel vertical element located along the centreline of the localised fire. [less ▲]

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See detailDynamics of a thin radial liquid flow
De Cock, Nicolas ULiege; Massinon, Mathieu ULiege; Ouled Taleb Salah, Sofiene ULiege et al

in Fire Safety Journal (2016), 83

The present work proposes an extension of the existing analytical development on the radial spread of a liquid jet over a horizontal surface to the case of a thin radial flow. When the gap, H, between the ... [more ▼]

The present work proposes an extension of the existing analytical development on the radial spread of a liquid jet over a horizontal surface to the case of a thin radial flow. When the gap, H, between the jet nozzle and the plate is reduced the discharging area may be smaller than the inlet area leading to an increase of the main flow velocity downstream of the thin cylindrical opening. This increase of velocity, de fined here as 1/alpha , can be related to the relative gap of the nozzle H/R with R the nozzle pipe radius. Numerical computations with a volume of fluid method were realised with for H/R ranging from 0.2 to 3 and with flow rates Q of 3 and 6 l/min1. The results of these computations allowed to express alpha in respect of H/R. Taking in account the flow acceleration allowed to extend the set of equation from the jet impacting flow to the thin cylindrical opening flow. The liquid layer thickness and the surface velocity diff er with a maximum error of 4% between the flow predicted by the model and computations. Main discrepancies appear in the region close to the nozzle where the analytical model assumption of a constant velocity outside the boundary layer is not valid. However, further downstream the model and the computations are in good agreement. [less ▲]

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See detailA plastic-damage model for concrete in fire: Applications in structural fire engineering
Gernay, Thomas ULiege; Franssen, Jean-Marc ULiege

in Fire Safety Journal (2015), 71

The research aims at developing a new multiaxial constitutive model for concrete in the fire situation. In addition to validity at the material level, a crucial feature of a constitutive model is the ... [more ▼]

The research aims at developing a new multiaxial constitutive model for concrete in the fire situation. In addition to validity at the material level, a crucial feature of a constitutive model is the applicability at the structural level; yet for concrete in fire there remains a serious lack of models combining reliability and robustness. The theoretical aspects and validation of the new model, which rely on a plastic-damage formulation, have been the subject of a former publication; they are briefly summarized here. This paper explores the capabilities of the concrete model for being used in a performance-based structural fire engineering framework. Several examples of numerical simulations by non-linear finite element method are discussed, with emphasis on practical applications that are demanding for the material model. In particular, it is shown that the simulations using the new concrete model succeed in capturing, at ambient temperature, the crack pattern in a plain concrete specimen and the influence of the loading path on reinforced concrete (RC) slabs. At high temperature, the presented applications include a RC slab subjected to furnace fire and a large-scale composite steel–concrete structure subjected to natural fire. In the numerical analyses, no parameter calibration was required on the particular concrete type, except for the uniaxial strengths and tensile crack energy which are to be defined case-by-case. The results illustrate the reliability and numerical robustness of the model. Also, they suggest that satisfactory prediction of structural behavior in fire can be obtained when no additional data is available on the specific properties of the particular concrete mix that is used in the project, as is often the case in practice, by using standard values of parameters. [less ▲]

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See detailExperimental investigation on ferritic stainless steel columns in fire
Tondini, Nicola; Rossi, Barbara; Franssen, Jean-Marc ULiege

in Fire Safety Journal (2013), 62

This paper presents the performance of EN 1.4003 ferritic stainless steel hollow section columns when exposed to fire loading. Experimental analysis of the behaviour of ferritic stainless steel structural ... [more ▼]

This paper presents the performance of EN 1.4003 ferritic stainless steel hollow section columns when exposed to fire loading. Experimental analysis of the behaviour of ferritic stainless steel structural members in fire represents a novelty. In detail, three column tests were carried out in the framework of the RFCS project named Structural Applications of Ferritic Stainless Steels (SAFSS, RFSR-CT-2010-00026). Tubular thin-walled members were considered in this study because structural applications of ferritic stainless steels generally incorporate such profiles. Three columns were tested: two square hollow sections (SHS) and a rectangular hollow section (RHS) of different length. Fire loading was applied under a constant concentrically compressive load. Identical column tests at room temperature are also reported. [less ▲]

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See detailA formulation of the Eurocode 2 concrete model at elevated temperature that includes an explicit term for transient creep
Gernay, Thomas ULiege; Franssen, Jean-Marc ULiege

in Fire Safety Journal (2012), 51

The first objective of this paper is to highlight the capabilities and limitations of concrete uniaxial constitutive models at elevated temperatures for thermo-mechanical behavior modeling, depending on ... [more ▼]

The first objective of this paper is to highlight the capabilities and limitations of concrete uniaxial constitutive models at elevated temperatures for thermo-mechanical behavior modeling, depending on the implicit or explicit consideration of transient creep strain in the model. The characteristics inherent to the two types of models are described and compared. It appears that one of the major limitations of implicit models concerns the unloading stiffness. Based on numerical analysis performed on loaded concrete columns subjected to natural fire, it is shown that the stress–temperature paths experienced by structural concrete are varied and complicated and that concrete material models cannot handle properly these complex situations of unsteady temperatures and stresses without explicit consideration of transient creep. The second objective of the paper is to propose a new formulation of the Eurocode 2 concrete material model that contains an explicit term for transient creep. The new model is implemented in the software SAFIR and validated against experimental data of the mechanical strain developed by concrete cylinders under different unsteady temperatures and loads. It is shown that the actual material behavior is better matched with the new explicit model than with the current implicit Eurocode 2 model. Finally, a comparison is given between experimental and computed results on a centrally loaded concrete column submitted to heating–cooling sequence. [less ▲]

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See detailNumerical analysis of stainless steel beam-columns in case of fire
Lopes, Nuno; Vila Real, Paulo; Simoes da Silva, Luis et al

in Fire Safety Journal (2012), 50

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See detailSeismic-induced fire resistance of composite welded beam-to-column joints with concrete-filled tubes
Pucinotti, Raffaele; Bursi, Oreste; Franssen, Jean-Marc ULiege et al

in Fire Safety Journal (2011), 46

Major earthquakes in urban areas have often been followed by significant fires that cause extensive damage to property. Therefore, a seismic-induced fire is a scenario that should be addressed properly in ... [more ▼]

Major earthquakes in urban areas have often been followed by significant fires that cause extensive damage to property. Therefore, a seismic-induced fire is a scenario that should be addressed properly in performance-based engineering. In this paper, numerical and experimental results of welded steel–concrete composite full-strength beam-to-column joints under post-earthquake fires are described. This was part of a European project aimed at developing fundamental data and prequalification design guidelines of ductile and fire-resistant composite beam-to-column joints with concrete-filled tubes. In detail, seismic and fire analyses were used to design moment-resisting frames endowed with the proposed joint typology. A total of six specimens were designed and subjected to both monotonic and cyclic lateral loads. The specimens were subassemblages of beam-to-column joints, and performed well. Since the scope of the project was to promote joint typologies able to survive a seismic-induced fire, some specimens were pre-damaged before being subjected to fire loadings by imposing monotonic loads equivalent to damage levels induced by seismic loadings. Thus, after fire testing, valuable information about the performance of the proposed joint typology was obtained, and the adequacy of the concurrent seismic and fire design was demonstrated. [less ▲]

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See detailNumerical modelling of timber connections under fire loading using a component model
Cachim, Paulo B.; Franssen, Jean-Marc ULiege

in Fire Safety Journal (2009), 44

This paper describes a component model for dowelled timber connections under fire loading. The component model of the dowelled connection is first developed and calibrated for room temperature. The ... [more ▼]

This paper describes a component model for dowelled timber connections under fire loading. The component model of the dowelled connection is first developed and calibrated for room temperature. The constitutive relations for dowel–timber interaction are detailed and compared with experimental results. In the fire situation, a two-step approach is used: first, three-dimensional (3D) thermal analysis of the connection is performed using a conductive model with timber properties defined in Eurocode 5 in order to calculate the temperatures in the fasteners and timber; afterwards, the mechanical analysis using a component model is carried out using mechanical properties of the steel dowel and of timber adjusted to the temperatures obtained by the thermal analyses. These properties are reduced according to Eurocode 3 and Eurocode 5, respectively. Numerical simulations are presented that allow evaluation of the model behaviour and performance. Obtained results show good agreement with available experimental data, indicating that regardless of its simplicity, the component model has the capability to accurately model timber connections under fire loading [less ▲]

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See detailParametric analysis of the lateral-torsional buckling resistance of steel beams in case of fire
Vila Real, Paulo; Lopes, Nuno; Simoes da Silva, Luis et al

in Fire Safety Journal (2007), 42(6-7, SEP-OCT), 416-424

Numerical modelling of the lateral-torsional buckling of steel beams at elevated temperature has shown that the beam design curve from EN 1993-1-2 is over-conservative in the case of non-uniform bending ... [more ▼]

Numerical modelling of the lateral-torsional buckling of steel beams at elevated temperature has shown that the beam design curve from EN 1993-1-2 is over-conservative in the case of non-uniform bending. Based on the newly proposed methodology for cold design from the EN 1993-1-1, an improved proposal for the lateral-torsional buckling of unrestrained steel beams subjected to fire is presented in this paper that addresses the issue of the influence of the loading type, the steel grade, the pattern of the residual stresses (hot-rolled or welded sections) and the ratio h/b, between the depth h and the width b of the cross-section on the resistance of the beam, achieving better agreement with the numerical behaviour while maintaining safety. The proposal is found to be safe and accurate through an extensive comparison with the results of FEM numerical simulations of more than 5000 beams. A statistical study of the results is performed, showing the accuracy of the improved proposal presented in this paper. (C) 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailConsidering the effects of localised fires in the numerical analysis of a building structure
Franssen, Jean-Marc ULiege; Pintea, Dan; Dotreppe, Jean-Claude ULiege

in Fire Safety Journal (2007), 42(6-7, SEP-OCT), 473-481

The methodologies that are used for analysing the fire behaviour of a structure that is subjected to a uniform thermal situation cannot be applied when the fire is localised. The concept of "zoning" can ... [more ▼]

The methodologies that are used for analysing the fire behaviour of a structure that is subjected to a uniform thermal situation cannot be applied when the fire is localised. The concept of "zoning" can be applied: the structure is divided into several zones in which the situation is approximated as uniform. It is shown here that this division can lead to spurious forces in the structure. The structural code of the first author has been adapted in order to accommodate a continuous spatial variation of the fire environment. A series of uncoupled 2D thermal analyses is performed along the length of the beam finite elements and a series of ID thermal analyses is performed across the thickness of the shell finite elements. After a discussion of the concept and the particularities dictated by the continuous thermal environment, the methodology utilised is explained and is shown in an example consisting of a composite steel concrete car park subjected to a localised fire of the type given in Eurocode 1. (C) 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailEditorial
Franssen, Jean-Marc ULiege; Vila Real, Paulo

in Fire Safety Journal (2007), 42(6-7, SEP-OCT), 407-407

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See detailCalculation of temperature in fire-exposed bare steel structures: Comparison between ENV 1993-1-2 and EN 1993-1-2
Franssen, Jean-Marc ULiege

in Fire Safety Journal (2006), 41(2), 139-143

A comparison is made between the formula presented in ENV 1993-1-2 and EN 1993-1-2 for calculating temperature in bare steel structures subjected to fire. The ratio between the radiative energy considered ... [more ▼]

A comparison is made between the formula presented in ENV 1993-1-2 and EN 1993-1-2 for calculating temperature in bare steel structures subjected to fire. The ratio between the radiative energy considered in each formula is first calculated for 377 commercially available sections. The evolution of the steel temperature is then calculated in 4 different representative sections. On the basis of these comparisons and taking into account the fact that the load-bearing capacity has to be ensured in steel members, it does not appear that significant modifications in the safety level have been introduced from the ENV to the EN version of Eurocode 3. (C) 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailNumerical modelling of steel beam-columns in case of fire - comparisons with Eurocode 3
Vila Real, Paulo; Lopes, Nuno; da Silva, Luis Simoes et al

in Fire Safety Journal (2004), 39(1), 23-39

This paper presents a numerical study of the behaviour of steel I-beams subjected to fire and a combination of axial force and bending moments. A geometrical and material non-linear finite element program ... [more ▼]

This paper presents a numerical study of the behaviour of steel I-beams subjected to fire and a combination of axial force and bending moments. A geometrical and material non-linear finite element program, specially established in Liege for the analysis of structures submitted to fire, has been used to determine the resistance of a beam-column at elevated temperature, using the material properties of Eurocode 3, part 1-2. The numerical results have been compared with those obtained with the Eurocode 3, part 1-2 (1995) and the new version of the same Eurocode (2002). The results have confirmed that the new proposal for Eurocode 3 (2002) is more conservative than the ENV-EC3 (1995) approach. (C) 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailA tool to design steel elements submitted to compartment fires - OZone V2. Part 1: pre- and post-flashover compartment fire model
Cadorin, Jean-François; Franssen, Jean-Marc ULiege

in Fire Safety Journal (2003), 38(5), 395-427

The computer code OZone V2 has been developed to help engineers in designing structural elements submitted to compartment fires. The code is based on several recent developments, in compartment fire ... [more ▼]

The computer code OZone V2 has been developed to help engineers in designing structural elements submitted to compartment fires. The code is based on several recent developments, in compartment fire modelling on one hand and on the effect of localised fires on structures on the other hand. It includes a single compartment fire model that combines a two-zone model and a one-zone model. In this paper, the description of this compartment fire model is given. The main model is first presented. It consists of the usual zone model equations fully coupled with the partition model equations. The partitions are modelled by the finite element method. The switch from the two-zone to the one-zone model is then explained. The vertical, horizontal and forced vent sub-models are presented, followed by the fire source and the combustion models. A comparison between this code and another compartment fire model NAT is made. The OZone calculations are then compared to full scale fire tests. Considerations as to how this model is used for the design of steel elements will be presented in a companion paper (Fire Saf. J., this issue). (C) 2003 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailA tool to design steel elements submitted to compartment fires - OZone V2. Part 2: Methodology and application
Cadorin, Jean-François; Pintea, Dan; Dotreppe, Jean-Claude ULiege et al

in Fire Safety Journal (2003), 38(5), 429-451

The methodology implemented in the tool OZone V2 to design steel elements submitted to compartment fires is presented. Input needed to define a fire compartment are first quoted. The procedure to define ... [more ▼]

The methodology implemented in the tool OZone V2 to design steel elements submitted to compartment fires is presented. Input needed to define a fire compartment are first quoted. The procedure to define the design fire is then explained. This procedure enables to take into account the benefits of active measures on the fire safety. The combined use of a two- and a one-zone model is then presented. A particular attention is given to the criteria of choice of the model and to the different scenarios that can occur. The calculation of steel element temperature is then explained. The proposed procedure takes into account the localised effect of a fire with the help of Hasemi's model. The fire resistance is then calculated with the EUROCODE 3 methods. An application is finally presented. (C) 2003 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailFailure temperature of a System Comprising a Restrained Column Submitted to Fire
Franssen, Jean-Marc ULiege

in Fire Safety Journal (2000), 34

The problem of columns submitted to fire is discussed in the intoduction with an emphasis on the differences between the case of a column acting as a single element or being part of a frame. In the latter ... [more ▼]

The problem of columns submitted to fire is discussed in the intoduction with an emphasis on the differences between the case of a column acting as a single element or being part of a frame. In the latter case, failure of the column does not necessarily lead to the failure of the structure. The basic principles of the arc-length technique are given, first for the way it is applied traditionally at room temperature, then for the way it can be applied to extend a numerical simulation beyond the moment of local failures in case of fire. The technique is then applied to the case of restrained columns and it is shown how it is possible to obtain a safe estimate of the critical temperature of the column leading to the failure of the structure, even if the degree of restraint apllied to the column is unknown. [less ▲]

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See detailA Basis for Using Fire Modeling with 1-D Thermal Analyses of Partitions to Simulate 2-D and 3-D Structural Performance in Real Fires
Cooper, Len; Franssen, Jean-Marc ULiege

in Fire Safety Journal (1999), 33

A basis is presented for identifying partition design for which: 1) the use of one-dimensional thermal analysis in the fire modeling part of the problem would lead to reliable simulations of the fire ... [more ▼]

A basis is presented for identifying partition design for which: 1) the use of one-dimensional thermal analysis in the fire modeling part of the problem would lead to reliable simulations of the fire environment, and 2) the resulting simulations can be used to provide the necessary boundary conditions input to solve the thermal/structural part of the problem, using two- or three-dimensional analyses, as required. [less ▲]

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See detailFire resistance of columns in steel frames
Franssen, Jean-Marc ULiege; Dotreppe, Jean-Claude ULiege

in Fire Safety Journal (1992), 19(2 - 3), 159-175

The standard fire resistance test is not appropriate for predicting the behaviour of steel frames under fire conditions. The simplified theories that have been published in approved national and ... [more ▼]

The standard fire resistance test is not appropriate for predicting the behaviour of steel frames under fire conditions. The simplified theories that have been published in approved national and international documents apply to some restricted particular cases of single elements (beams, columns). In most practical circumstances beams and columns are subjected to a combination of axial forces and bending moments and have variable restraint and displacement conditions at their ends. The problem is particularly complicated for columns. For this type of situation advanced computer programs can at the present time provide a satisfactory method for the determination of the fire resistance. This paper illustrates the preceding comments by evaluating the fire endurance of an unbraced steel frame with two loading conditions. [less ▲]

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