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See detail180 degrees Pinhole SPET with a tilted detector and OS-EM reconstruction: phantom studies and potential clinical applications
Seret, Alain ULg; Defrise, Michel ULg; Blocklet, Didier

in European Journal of Nuclear Medicine (2001), 28(12), 1836-1841

This study investigated the feasibility of ordered subsets expectation maximisation (OS-EM) reconstruction of pinhole single-photon emission tomography (SPET) acquired with a tilted detector head and a ... [more ▼]

This study investigated the feasibility of ordered subsets expectation maximisation (OS-EM) reconstruction of pinhole single-photon emission tomography (SPET) acquired with a tilted detector head and a 180 degrees orbit. Phantom and patient data were recorded using a standard single-head camera. Reconstructions were performed using a dedicated OS-EM algorithm. Reconstructed images of line, uniformity and Picker's thyroid phantoms showed that the geometry, physical size and uniformity of the radioactive objects were preserved. For the range of radius corresponding to the patient studies, the measured full-widths at half-maximum lay between 4.90+/-0.25 mm and 6.05+/-0.25 mm. Finally, the gain in resolution associated with the use of the pinhole collimator instead of a parallel-hole collimator was highlighted in a parathyroid exploration and in a shoulder bone study. [less ▲]

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See detailImaging in Vivo Herpes Simplex Virus Thymidine Kinase Gene Transfer to Tumour-Bearing Rodents Using Positron Emission Tomography And
Hustinx, Roland ULg; Shiue, C. Y.; Alavi, A. et al

in European Journal of Nuclear Medicine (2001), 28(1), 5-12

Radiolabelled ganciclovir analogues have shown promise as imaging agents to detect herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (HSVtk) expression. This study evaluated the use of positron emission tomography ... [more ▼]

Radiolabelled ganciclovir analogues have shown promise as imaging agents to detect herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (HSVtk) expression. This study evaluated the use of positron emission tomography (PET) imaging with 9-[(3-[18F]fluoro-1-hydroxy-2-propoxy)methyl]guanine ([18F]FHPG) to assess gene transfer into tumours. HSVtk-positive and HSVtk-negative cell lines were first treated in vitro with [18F]FHPG. To assess the efficacy of PET in detecting HSVtk expression following in vivo gene transfer, mice were injected intravenously with an adenovirus encoding HSVtk (Ad.HSVtk), a control vector (Ad.Bgl2) or saline. Subcutaneous human glioma xenografts were grown in mice and treated by direct injection of Ad.HSVtk or Ad.Bgl2. Imaging was performed 48 h after transduction. Similar experiments were performed using Fischer rats implanted with syngeneic tumours. The presence of the HSVtk protein was confirmed by immunohistochemistry. Biodistribution studies were also obtained in 14 naive mice. In vitro studies showed high and specific uptake of [18F]FHPG in HSVtk-positive cell lines, with an uptake ratio of up to 27:1. PET imaging and direct counting of major organs demonstrated HSVtk-specific tracer retention. In mice, HSVtk-positive tumours retained 3.4% dose/gram as compared to 0.6% for control tumours (P=0.03). They were clearly seen on the PET images as early as 100 min post injection. Similar results were obtained with syngeneic rat tumours. Biodistribution studies demonstrated the rapid distribution and clearance of the tracer in all major organs. Our results demonstrate that PET imaging of HSVtk gene transfer to tumours is feasible and is highly specific for HSVtk expression. [less ▲]

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See detailValue of technegas for ventilation imaging in calf
Votion, Dominique ULg; Coghe, J.; Lekeux, Pierre ULg

in European Journal of Nuclear Medicine (2000), 27

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See detailFeasability of monitoring neutrophils'migration into the lung with immunoscintigraphy: preliminary study
Votion, Dominique ULg; Harmegnies, N. F.; Lekeux, Pierre ULg

in European Journal of Nuclear Medicine (2000), 27

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See detailA simple method for neutrophils isolaton in horse
Votion, Dominique ULg; Harmegnies, N. F.; Lekeux, Pierre ULg

in European Journal of Nuclear Medicine (2000), 27

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See detailImpact of attenuation correction on the accuracy of FDG-PET in patients with abdominal tumors: a free-response ROC analysis.
Hustinx, Roland ULg; Dolin, R. J.; Benard, F. et al

in European Journal of Nuclear Medicine (2000), 27(9), 1365-71

The aim of this study was to evaluate image quality and lesion detectability with and without attenuation correction in patients with abdominal tumors, using a free-response receiver operating ... [more ▼]

The aim of this study was to evaluate image quality and lesion detectability with and without attenuation correction in patients with abdominal tumors, using a free-response receiver operating characteristic (FROC) methodology. Thirty-four patients with various abdominal tumors were evaluated (11 men, 23 women, median age 48 years). Whole-body emission scans were performed 68 min (35-102 min) after intravenous injection of 4.3 MBq/kg fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG). Images were reconstructed using the OS-EM algorithm and corrected for attenuation either using postinjection singles transmission (n=27) or by calculation and body outline (n=7). Total scan duration did not exceed 70 min. Studies were read independently by four observers unaware of any clinical data. The uncorrected (UC) images were systematically read before the attenuation-corrected (AC) images. All studies were given an image quality score ranging from 1 (unreadable) to 5 (excellent). Each focus of increased activity was then localized and given a probability of malignancy using a five-point scale. The average image quality score was similar for both UC and AC images. At the time of the positron emission tomography (PET) scans, 127 lesions (63 liver metastases, 9 retroperitoneal lesions, 50 peritoneal or bowel lesions, and 5 pancreatic carcinomas) were revealed by pathological or correlative studies. The areas under the FROC curves were consistently greater for AC images (range 0.8663-0.8867) than for UC images (range 0.7774 -0.8613). Overall, the difference between the AC images and the UC images was significant (P=0.019). In particular, correction for attenuation increased the sensitivity regardless of the location of the lesions. In conclusion, correction for attenuation significantly improves the diagnostic accuracy of FDG-PET for abdominal staging of neoplasms, without impairing the image quality. [less ▲]

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See detailImpact of a camera change in ventriculography
Seret, Alain ULg; Blocklet, Didier; Lisart, Jean et al

in European Journal of Nuclear Medicine (2000), 27

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See detailPulmonary perfusion redistribution in exercises horses
Votion, Dominique ULg; Harmegnies, N. F.; Duvivier, D. H. et al

in European Journal of Nuclear Medicine (2000), 41

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See detailCan the standardized uptake value characterize primary brain tumors on FDG-PET?
Hustinx, Roland ULg; Smith, R. J.; Benard, F. et al

in European Journal of Nuclear Medicine (1999), 26(11), 1501-9

The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of measuring the standardized uptake value (SUV) in primary brain tumors on fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET ... [more ▼]

The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of measuring the standardized uptake value (SUV) in primary brain tumors on fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) scans. Two groups of patients were studied. Whole-brain glucose cerebral metabolic rates (wCMRs) and SUVs were obtained in 20 normal subjects. Twenty-seven patients with histology-proven malignant primary CNS tumors (high-grade gliomas n=22, primitive neuroectodermal tumors n=3, ependymomas n=2) were also studied. The degree of FDG uptake was assessed by visual inspection and thereafter regions of interest were placed over the lesion, the contralateral cortex and white matter and the whole brain. Average (avg) and maximum (max) pixel values were determined in each site. Based on these measurements, SUV, tumor to cortex (T/C) and tumor to white matter (T/WM) activity ratios were calculated. There was no correlation between wCMRs (4.55+/-0.36 mg min(-1) 100 g(-1)) and wSUVs (5.41+/-0.43) in the normal subjects (r=0.18, P=0.45). In the second group, 17 lesions were described as definitely and seven as probably malignant. However, SUVs in these tumors and in the contralateral cortex were not significantly different. Although the SUVs were generally higher in the tumor than in the contralateral white matter, there was a significant overlap between the values. The range of the SUVs was wide: 2.54-11.8 for the tumors, 2.98-9.96 for the cortex and 1.87-6.76 for the white matter. SUVs in the normal cortex were negatively correlated with blood glucose level at the time of the injection. SUVs in the whole brain and in the cortex were lower in patients previously treated by irradiation, even months after completion of the treatment. No correlation was detectable between any of the SUVs and the age of the patients, tumor type, time post injection, use of dexamethasone, patient weight, dose injected and visual score. With cutoff levels of 1.5 for T max/WM and 0.6 for T max/C, the sensitivity of the activity ratios was 74% and 96% respectively. In conclusion, SUVs do not correlate with CMRs across subjects and appear to be of limited value in characterizing brain tumors. Visual assessment and measurement of the activity ratios currently remain the most reliable methods of analysis. [less ▲]

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See detailDual time point fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography: a potential method to differentiate malignancy from inflammation and normal tissue in the head and neck.
Hustinx, Roland ULg; Smith, R. J.; Benard, F. et al

in European Journal of Nuclear Medicine (1999), 26(10), 1345-8

Fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) studies imaging FDG PET imaging is used to detect and stage head and neck cancers. However, the variable physiologic uptake of FDG ... [more ▼]

Fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) studies imaging FDG PET imaging is used to detect and stage head and neck cancers. However, the variable physiologic uptake of FDG in different normal structures as well as at inflammatory sites may either obscure a tumor focus or be falsely interpreted to represent tumor activity. Twenty-one patients (9 men, 12 women, median age 59) were scanned serially at two time points, one at 70 min (range 47-112) and the second at 98 min (77-142) after the intravenous injection of 4.3 MBq/kg of FDG. The mean interval between emission scans was 28 min (13-49). Transmission scans were performed and regions of interest (ROIs) were overlayed on the fully corrected images. Standardiued uptake values (SUVs) were generated for the cerebellum, tongue, larynx, every lesion, and a matched contralateral site. Follow-up and pathologic studies revealed 18 squamous cell carcinomas and nine inflammatory or infectious lesions. Tumor SUVs were 4.0+/-1.6 (mean +/- SD) for the first scan and 4. 5+/-2.2 for the second scan. Contralateral SUVs were 1.2+/-0.5 and 1. 1+/-0.5 for the two scans. Tumor SUVs increased by 12%+/-12% as compared with a 5%+/-17% decrease for contralateral sites (P<0.05). SUVs for inflammatory sites (2.0+/-0.7 and 2.0+/-0.9), cerebellum (4. 2+/-1.3 and 4.3+/-1.4), tongue (1.8+/-0.4 and 1.9+/-0.5) and larynx (1.5+/-0.6 and 1.5+/-0.6) remained constant over time (+0.6%, +2.8%, +1.4%, and -2.4%; P<0.05 when compared with tumor SUV changes). The ratio tumor/contralateral SUV increased by 23%+/-29% over time while this ratio for inflamed sites increased by only 5%+/-15% (P=0.07). The time interval between scans correlated with increase in SUV for tumors (r=0.55, P<0.05) but not for any of the other ROIs. Separation was superior when studies were performed more than 30 min apart (P<0.05). These preliminary data suggest that dual time point imaging compatible with a clinical study protocol is helpful in differentiating malignant lesions from inflammation and normal tissues, especially when separated by a sufficient time interval. [less ▲]

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See detailMedian root prior for DMSA cortical renal SPET
Seret, Alain ULg; Blocklet, Didier; Schoutens, André

in European Journal of Nuclear Medicine (1999), 26

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See detailFluorine-18 deoxyglucose positron emission tomography for the detection of bone metastases in patients with non-small cell lung cancer
Bury, Thierry ULg; BARRETO, A.; Daenen, Frédéric ULg et al

in European Journal of Nuclear Medicine (1998), 9

Despite advances in morphological imaging, some patients with lung cancer are found to have non resectable disease at surgery or die of recurrence within a year of surgery. At present, metastatic bone ... [more ▼]

Despite advances in morphological imaging, some patients with lung cancer are found to have non resectable disease at surgery or die of recurrence within a year of surgery. At present, metastatic bone involvement is usually assessed using bone scintigraphy, which has a high sensitivity but a poor specificity. We have attempted to evaluate the utility of the fluorine-18 deoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG PET) for the detection of bone metastasis. One hundred and ten consecutive patients with histological diagnosis of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) who underwent both FDG PET and bone scintigraphy were selected for this review. In this group, there were 43 patients with metastatic disease (stage IV). Among these. 21 (19% of total group) had one or several bone metastases confirmed by biopsy (n = 8) or radiographic techniques (n = 13). Radionuclide bone scanning correctly identified 54 out of 89 cases without osseous involvement and 19 out of 21 osseous involvements. On the other hand, FDG PET correctly identified the absence of osseous involvement in 87 out of 89 patients and the presence of bone metastasis in 19 out of 21 patients. Thus using PET there were two false-negative and two false-positive cases. PET and bone scanning had, respectively, an accuracy of 96% and 66% in the evaluation of osseous involvement in patients with NSCLC. In conclusion, our data suggest that whole-body FDG PET may be useful in detecting bone metastases in patients with known NSCLC. [less ▲]

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See detailMedian root prior and ordered subsets in Bayesian image reconstruction of single-photon emission tomography
Seret, Alain ULg

in European Journal of Nuclear Medicine (1998), 25(3), 215-219

Median root prior allows Bayesian image reconstruction without any a priori knowledge of the final solution. It limits the noise generated by maximum likelihood-expectation maximization, including when ... [more ▼]

Median root prior allows Bayesian image reconstruction without any a priori knowledge of the final solution. It limits the noise generated by maximum likelihood-expectation maximization, including when the ordered subsets accelerating procedure is used. Therefore the number of iterations can be optimized to obtain the best resolution for cold lesions. Moreover, the higher the number of subsets, the better the contrast, with optimal results for subsets containing between four and eight projections. [less ▲]

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See detailScintimammography with technetium-99m methoxyisobutylisonitrile: results of a prospective European multicentre trial.
Palmedo, H.; Biersack, H. J.; Lastoria, S. et al

in European Journal of Nuclear Medicine (1998), 25(4), 375-85

The aim of the trial was to determine the diagnostic accuracy of scintimmammography with technetium-99m methoxyisobutylisonitrile (99mTc-MIBI) in the detection of primary breast cancer and to verify its ... [more ▼]

The aim of the trial was to determine the diagnostic accuracy of scintimmammography with technetium-99m methoxyisobutylisonitrile (99mTc-MIBI) in the detection of primary breast cancer and to verify its clinical usefulness. A total of 246 patients with a suspicious breast mass or positive mammogram were included in this prospective European multicentre trial. At 5 min and 60 min (optional) p.i. two lateral prone images were acquired for 10 min each; 30 min p.i. one anterior image was acquired for 10 min. There were 253 lesions (195 palpable and 58 non-palpable), in respect of which histology revealed 165 cancers and 88 benign lesions. Institutional and blinded read results were correlated to core laboratory histopathology results obtained during excisional biopsy. Diagnostic accuracy for the detection of breast cancer was calculated per lesion. The overall sensitivity and specificity of blinded read scintimammography were 71% and 69%, respectively. For palpable lesions, the sensitivity of blinded read and institutional read scintimammography was 83% and 91%, respectively. Sensitivity was not dependent on the density of the breast tissue. Invasive ductal and invasive lobular cancers showed similar sensitivity. The sensitivity and specificity of mammography were 91% and 42%, respectively, and did not depend on the tumour size. In 60% of false-negative mammograms, 99mTc-MIBI was able to diagnose malignancy (true-positive). High-quality imaging with 99mTc-MIBI has a high diagnostic accuracy for the detection of primary breast cancer. Used as a complementary method, scintimammography with 99mTc-MIBI can help to diagnose breast cancer at an earlier stage in patients with dense breasts. [less ▲]

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See detailOncological Applications of Positron Emission Tomography with Fluorine-18 Fluorodeoxyglucose
Rigo, Pierre ULg; Paulus, Patrick; Kaschten, Bruno et al

in European Journal of Nuclear Medicine (1996), 23(12), 1641-74

Positron emission tomography (PET) is now primarily used in oncological indication owing to the successful application of fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) in an increasing number of clinical ... [more ▼]

Positron emission tomography (PET) is now primarily used in oncological indication owing to the successful application of fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) in an increasing number of clinical indications at different stages of diagnosis, and for staging and follow-up. This review first considers the biological characteristics of FDG and then discusses methodological considerations regarding its use. Clinical indications are considered, and the results achieved in respect of various organs and tumour types are reviewed in depth. The review concludes with a brief consideration of the ways in which clinical PET might be improved. [less ▲]

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See detailStaging of Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer by Whole-Body Fluorine-18 Deoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography
Bury, Thierry ULg; Dowlati, A.; Paulus, Patrick et al

in European Journal of Nuclear Medicine (1996), 23(2), 204-6

Positron emission tomography (PET) using fluorine-18 deoxyglucose (FDG), showing increased FDG uptake and retention in malignant cells, has been proven useful to differentiate malignant from benign tissue ... [more ▼]

Positron emission tomography (PET) using fluorine-18 deoxyglucose (FDG), showing increased FDG uptake and retention in malignant cells, has been proven useful to differentiate malignant from benign tissue. We undertook a prospective study in 61 patients to compare the accuracy of whole-body FDG PET and conventional imaging (CI) methods for the staging of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). CI included chest and abdomen computed tomographic scanning and bone scintigraphy. When CI or PET study suggested metastatic disease, confirmation was obtained by biopsy or clinical or radiological follow-up. As compared to CI, PET correctly changed the N stage in 13 patients (21%) and the M stage in six patients (10%). There were three false-positive and no false-negative distant PET findings. Our preliminary results show that whole-body FDG PET can improve the diagnostic accuracy in the staging of NSCLC. [less ▲]

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See detailPET radiopharmaceuticals in Europe : Current use and data relevant for the formulation of summaries of product characteristics (SPCs)
Meyer, G. J.; Waters, S. L.; Coenen, H. H. et al

in European Journal of Nuclear Medicine (1995), 22(12), 1420-1432

The increasing use of radiopharmaceuticals for positron emission tomography (PET) has come to the attention of regulatory bodies. In order to help authorities in all aspects, the EANM has formed a task ... [more ▼]

The increasing use of radiopharmaceuticals for positron emission tomography (PET) has come to the attention of regulatory bodies. In order to help authorities in all aspects, the EANM has formed a task group for licensing PET radiopharmaceuticals; this group has surveyed the use of these compounds in Europe by a questionnaire. The number of PET centres that responded to the questionnaire was 26, which included more than 90% of the larger European PET centres. The survey showed that 2-[18F]fluoro-2-deoxyglucose is by far the most important PET radiopharmaceutical with more than 200 applications per week, followed by [15O]water, [15O]carbonmonoxide, [13N]ammonia, [11C]-l-methionine, andl-6-[18F]fluoro-DOPA. More than 25 other PET radiopharmaceuticals are in regular use, however, at rather low application frequencies. The data were used by the European Pharmacopoeia Commission for its priority rating for requesting the formulation of monographs. Since it is likely that group registrations will be issued by authorities for the PET radiopharmaceuticals, relevant data on toxicity and dosimetry for the formulation of summaries of product characteristics have been collected by the task group as well. [less ▲]

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See detailFeasibility of multumillicurie preparation of L-6-[18F]fluorodopa by nucleophilic asymmetric synthesis.
Lemaire, Christian ULg; Plenevaux, Alain ULg; Comar, D.

in European Journal of Nuclear Medicine (1992), 19

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See detail2 and 4-[18F]fluorotropapride, two specific D2 receptor ligand for PET.
Damhaut, Ph.; Cantineau, R.; Lemaire, Christian ULg et al

in European Journal of Nuclear Medicine (1991), 18

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See detailReproducibility of Cerebral Glucose Utilization Measured by Pet and the [18f]-2-Fluoro-2-Deoxy-D-Glucose Method in Resting, Healthy Human Subjects
Maquet, Pierre ULg; Dive, Dominique ULg; Salmon, Eric ULg et al

in European Journal of Nuclear Medicine (1990), 16(4-6), 267-73

The stability of cerebral glucose utilization was examined in nine right-handed, healthy men (age, 24.88 +/- 2.93 years) using positron emission tomography (PET) and the [18F]-fluorodeoxglucose (FDG ... [more ▼]

The stability of cerebral glucose utilization was examined in nine right-handed, healthy men (age, 24.88 +/- 2.93 years) using positron emission tomography (PET) and the [18F]-fluorodeoxglucose (FDG) method. Each study was run twice at intervals of 1-12 weeks with the subject at rest. The average cerebral metabolic rate for glucose (CMRGlu) was 5.40 +/- 0.71 mg/100 g per min (coefficient of variance, 13.08). The average intraindividual variation of CMRGlu was 7.91% +/- 15.46% (P = 0.13). Metabolic indices (MI: regional/mean cortical CMRGlu) were used to determine the regional cerebral metabolic distribution. The interindividual (coefficient of variance, 7.13) and intraindividual variabilities (average variation, -0.12% +/- 8.76%) of MI were smaller than those of metabolic rates. No reproducible significant asymmetry was observed. The FDG method used with subjects at rest thus yields low intraindividual variability of both cerebral glucose consumption and regional metabolic distribution, even at an interval of several weeks. Cerebral glucose utilization measured under such conditions may act as a reliable reference for determination of the influences of physiological (activation), pharmacological or pathological processes on cerebral glucose metabolism. [less ▲]

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