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See detailThe vegetative state/unresponsive wakefulness syndrome: a systematic review of prevalence studies
Van Erp, WS; Lavrijsen, JC; Van De Laar, FA et al

in European Journal of Neurology (2014)

One of the worst outcomes of acquired brain injury is the vegetative state, recently renamed ‘unresponsive wakefulness syndrome’ (VS/UWS). A patient in VS/UWS shows reflexive behaviour such as spontaneous ... [more ▼]

One of the worst outcomes of acquired brain injury is the vegetative state, recently renamed ‘unresponsive wakefulness syndrome’ (VS/UWS). A patient in VS/UWS shows reflexive behaviour such as spontaneous eye opening and breathing, but no signs of awareness of the self or the environment. We performed a systematic review of VS/UWS prevalence studies and assessed their reliability. Medline, Embase, the Cochrane Library, CINAHL and PsycINFO were searched in April 2013 for cross-sectional point or period prevalence studies explicitly stating the prevalence of VS/UWS due to acute causes within the general population. We additionally checked bibliographies and consulted experts in the field to obtain ‘grey data’ like government reports. Relevant publications underwent quality assessment and data-extraction. We retrieved 1032 papers out of which 14 met the inclusion criteria. Prevalence figures varied from 0.2 to 6.1 VS/UWS patients per 100 000 members of the population. However, the publications’ methodological quality differed substantially, in particular with regards to inclusion criteria and diagnosis verification. The reliability of VS/UWS prevalence figures is poor. Methodological flaws in available prevalence studies, the fact that 5/14 of the studies predate the identification of the minimally conscious state (MCS) as a distinct entity in 2002, and insufficient verification of included cases may lead to both overestimation and underestimation of the actual number of patients in VS/UWS. [less ▲]

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See detailSelf-medication of regular headache: a community pharmacy-based survey.
Mehuys, E.; Paemeleire, K.; Van Hees, Thierry ULg et al

in European Journal of Neurology (2012), 19(8), 1093-1099

Background: This observational community pharmacy-based study aimed to investigate headache characteristics and medication use of persons with regular headache presenting for self-medication. Methods ... [more ▼]

Background: This observational community pharmacy-based study aimed to investigate headache characteristics and medication use of persons with regular headache presenting for self-medication. Methods: Participants (n = 1205) completed (i) a questionnaire to assess current headache medication and previous physician diagnosis, (ii) the ID Migraine Screener (ID-M), and (iii) the Migraine Disability Assessment questionnaire. Results: Forty-four percentage of the study population (n = 528) did not have a physician diagnosis of their headache, and 225 of them (225/528, 42.6%) were found to be ID-M positive. The most commonly used acute headache drugs were paracetamol (used by 62% of the study population), NSAIDs (39%), and combination analgesics (36%). Only 12% of patients physician-diagnosed with migraine used prophylactic migraine medication, and 25% used triptans. About 24% of our sample (n = 292) chronically overused acute medication, which was combination analgesic overuse (n = 166), simple analgesic overuse (n = 130), triptan overuse (n = 19), ergot overuse (n = 6), and opioid overuse (n = 5). Only 14.5% was ever advised to limit intake frequency of acute headache treatments. Conclusions: This study identified underdiagnosis of migraine, low use of migraine prophylaxis and triptans, and high prevalence of medication overuse amongst subjects seeking self-medication for regular headache. Community pharmacists have a strategic position in education and referral of these self-medicating headache patients. [less ▲]

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See detailHabituation of evoked responses is greater in patients with familial hemiplegic migraine than in controls: a contrast with the common forms of migraine.
Hansen, Jacob Moller; Bolla, Monica; Magis, Delphine ULg et al

in European Journal of Neurology (2011)

Background: Familial hemiplegic migraine (FHM) is a rare, dominantly inherited subtype of migraine with transient hemiplegia during the aura phase. Mutations in at least three different genes can produce ... [more ▼]

Background: Familial hemiplegic migraine (FHM) is a rare, dominantly inherited subtype of migraine with transient hemiplegia during the aura phase. Mutations in at least three different genes can produce the FHM phenotype. The mutated FHM genes code for ion transport proteins that animal and cellular studies have associated with disturbed ion homeostasis, altered cellular excitability, neurotransmitter release, and decreased threshold for cortical spreading depression. The common forms of migraine are characterized interictally by a habituation deficit of cortical and subcortical evoked responses that has been attributed to neuronal dysexcitability. FHM and the common forms of migraine are thought to belong to a spectrum of migraine phenotypes with similar pathophysiology, and we therefore examined whether an abnormal habituation pattern would also be found in FHM patients. Methods: In a group of genotyped FHM patients (five FHM-1, four FHM-2), we measured habituation of visual evoked potentials (VEP), auditory evoked potentials including intensity dependence (IDAP), the nociception-specific blink reflex (nsBR) and compared the results to a group of healthy volunteers (HV). Results: FHM patients had a more pronounced habituation during VEP (P = 0.025) and nsBR recordings (P = 0.023) than HV. There was no difference for IDAP, but the slope tended to be steeper in FHM. Conclusion: Contrary to the common forms of migraine, FHM patients are not characterized by a deficient, but rather by an increased habituation in cortical/brain stem evoked activities. These results suggest differences between FHM and the common forms of migraine, as far as central neuronal processing is concerned. [less ▲]

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See detailNeurophysiological tests and neuroimaging procedures in non-acute headache (2nd edition).
Sandrini, G.; Friberg, L.; Coppola, G. et al

in European Journal of Neurology (2011), 18

Background and purpose: A large number of instrumental investigations are used in patients with non-acute headache in both research and clinical fields. Although the literature has shown that most of ... [more ▼]

Background and purpose: A large number of instrumental investigations are used in patients with non-acute headache in both research and clinical fields. Although the literature has shown that most of these tools contributed greatly to increasing understanding of the pathogenesis of primary headache, they are of little or no value in the clinical setting. Methods: This paper provides an update of the 2004 EFNS guidelines and recommendations for the use of neurophysiological tools and neuroimaging procedures in non-acute headache (first edition). Even though the period since the publication of the first edition has seen an increase in the number of published papers dealing with this topic, the updated guidelines contain only minimal changes in the levels of evidence and grades of recommendation. Results: (i) Interictal EEG is not routinely indicated in the diagnostic evaluation of patients with headache. Interictal EEG is, however, indicated if the clinical history suggests a possible diagnosis of epilepsy (differential diagnosis). Ictal EEG could be useful in certain patients suffering from hemiplegic or basilar migraine. (ii) Recording evoked potentials is not recommended for the diagnosis of headache disorders. (iii) There is no evidence warranting recommendation of reflex responses or autonomic tests for the routine clinical examination of patients with headache. (iv) Manual palpation of pericranial muscles, with standardized palpation pressure, can be recommended for subdividing patient groups but not for diagnosis. Pain threshold measurements and EMG are not recommended as clinical diagnostic tests. (v) In adult and pediatric patients with migraine, with no recent change in attack pattern, no history of seizures, and no other focal neurological symptoms or signs, the routine use of neuroimaging is not warranted. In patients with trigeminal autonomic cephalalgia, neuroimaging should be carefully considered and may necessitate additional scanning of intracranial/cervical vasculature and/or the sellar/orbital/(para)nasal region. In patients with atypical headache patterns, a history of seizures and/or focal neurological symptoms or signs, MRI may be indicated. (vi) If attacks can be fully accounted for by the standard headache classification (IHS), a PET or SPECT scan will normally be of no further diagnostic value. Nuclear medical examinations of the cerebral circulation and metabolism can be carried out in subgroups of patients with headache for the diagnosis and evaluation of complications, when patients experience unusually severe attacks or when the quality or severity of attacks has changed. (vii) Transcranial Doppler examination is not helpful in headache diagnosis. Conclusion: Although many of the examinations described in the present guidelines are of little or no value in the clinical setting, most of the tools, including thermal pain thresholds and transcranial magnetic stimulation, have considerable potential for differential diagnostic evaluation as well as for the further exploration of headache pathophysiology and the effects of pharmacological treatment. [less ▲]

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See detailNatalizumab induces a rapid improvement of disability status and ambulation after failure of previous therapy in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis.
Belachew, Shibeshih ULg; Phan-Ba, Rémy ULg; Bartholome, Emmanuel et al

in European Journal of Neurology (2010), 18(2), 240-245

Background: Natalizumab (Tysabri) is a monoclonal antibody that was recently approved for the treatment of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). Our primary objective was to analyse the efficacy ... [more ▼]

Background: Natalizumab (Tysabri) is a monoclonal antibody that was recently approved for the treatment of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). Our primary objective was to analyse the efficacy of natalizumab on disability status and ambulation after switching patients with RRMS from other disease-modifying treatments (DMTs). Methods: A retrospective, observational study was carried out. All patients (n = 45) initiated natalizumab after experiencing at least 1 relapse in the previous year under interferon-beta (IFNB) or glatiramer acetate (GA) treatments. The patients also had at least 1 gadolinium-enhancing (Gd+) lesion on their baseline brain MRI. Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) scores, and performance on the Timed 25-Foot Walk Test and on the Timed 100-Metre Walk Test were prospectively collected every 4 weeks during 44 weeks of natalizumab treatment. Brain MRI scans were performed after 20 and 44 weeks of treatment. Results: Sixty-two per cent of patients showed no clinical and no radiological signs of disease activity, and 29% showed a rapid and confirmed EDSS improvement over 44 weeks of natalizumab therapy. Patients with improvement on the EDSS showed similar levels of baseline EDSS and active T1 lesions, but had a significantly higher number of relapses, and 92% of them had experienced relapse-mediated sustained EDSS worsening in the previous year. A clinically meaningful improvement in ambulation speed was observed in approximately 30% of patients. Conclusions: These results indicate that natalizumab silences disease activity and rapidly improves disability status and walking performance, possibly through delayed relapse recovery in patients with RRMS who had shown a high level of disease activity under other DMTs. [less ▲]

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See detailEFNS guideline on the treatment of tension-type headache - Report of an EFNS task force.
Bendtsen, L.; Evers, S.; Linde, M. et al

in European Journal of Neurology (2010)

Background: Tension-type headache (TTH) is the most prevalent headache type and is causing a high degree of disability. Treatment of frequent TTH is often difficult. Objectives: To give evidence-based or ... [more ▼]

Background: Tension-type headache (TTH) is the most prevalent headache type and is causing a high degree of disability. Treatment of frequent TTH is often difficult. Objectives: To give evidence-based or expert recommendations for the different treatment procedures in TTH based on a literature search and the consensus of an expert panel. Methods: All available medical reference systems were screened for the range of clinical studies on TTH. The findings in these studies were evaluated according to the recommendations of the EFNS resulting in level A, B or C recommendations and good practice points. Recommendations: Non-drug management should always be considered although the scientific basis is limited. Information, reassurance and identification of trigger factors may be rewarding. Electromyography (EMG) biofeedback has a documented effect in TTH, whilst cognitive-behavioural therapy and relaxation training most likely are effective. Physical therapy and acupuncture may be valuable options for patients with frequent TTH, but there is no robust scientific evidence for efficacy. Simple analgesics and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are recommended for the treatment of episodic TTH. Combination analgesics containing caffeine are drugs of second choice. Triptans, muscle relaxants and opioids should not be used. It is crucial to avoid frequent and excessive use of analgesics to prevent the development of medication-overuse headache. The tricyclic antidepressant amitriptyline is drug of first choice for the prophylactic treatment of chronic TTH. Mirtazapine and venlafaxine are drugs of second choice. The efficacy of the prophylactic drugs is often limited, and treatment may be hampered by side effects. [less ▲]

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See detailImplementation and evaluation of existing guidelines on the use of neurophysiological tests in non-acute migraine patients: a questionnaire survey of neurologists and primary care physicians.
Rossi, P.; Schoenen, Jean ULg; Bolla, M. et al

in European Journal of Neurology (2009), 16(8), 937-42

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The main aims of this study were to evaluate: the diffusion, use and perception of the usefulness of the 2004 EFNS guidelines on neurophysiological testing in non-acute headache ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The main aims of this study were to evaluate: the diffusion, use and perception of the usefulness of the 2004 EFNS guidelines on neurophysiological testing in non-acute headache patients; the frequency with which the different neurophysiological tests were recommended in non-acute migraine patients by physicians aware or unaware of the guidelines; and the appropriateness of the reasons given for recommending neurophysiological tests. METHODS: One hundred and fifty physicians selected amongst the members of the Italian societies of general practitioner (GPs), neurologists and headache specialists were contacted via e-mail and invited to fill in a questionnaire specially created for the study. RESULTS: Ninety-two percent of the headache specialists, 8.6% of the neurologists and 0% of the GPs were already aware of the EFNS guidelines. A significantly higher proportion of headache specialists had not recommended any neurophysiological tests to the migraine patients they had seen in the previous 3 months, whereas these tests had frequently been prescribed by the GPs and neurologists. Overall, 80%, 42% and 42.6% of the reasons given by headache specialists, neurologists and GPs, respectively, for recommending neurophysiological testing in their migraine patients were appropriate (P < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: The diffusion of the EFNS guidelines on neurophysiological tests and neuroimaging procedures was found to be very limited amongst neurologists and GPs. The physicians aware of the EFNS guidelines recommended neurophysiological tests to migraine patients less frequently and more appropriately than physicians who were not aware of them. The most frequent misconceptions regarding neurophysiological tests concerned their perceived capacity to discriminate between migraine and secondary headaches or between migraine and other primary headaches. [less ▲]

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See detailInfantile presentation of the mitochondrial A8344G mutation.
Battisti, Oreste ULg; Scalais, E.; Nuttin, C. et al

in European Journal of Neurology (2007), 14

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See detailDopa-responsive parkinsonism after acute subdural hematoma.
MAERTENS DE NOORDHOUT, Alain ULg; DAENEN, Frédéric ULg; Bex, Vincent

in European Journal of Neurology (2006), 13(7), 10-1

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See detailPatient preference for eletriptan 80 mg versus subcutaneous sumatriptan 6 mg: results of a crossover study in patients who have recently used subcutaneous sumatriptan
Schoenen, Jean ULg; Pascual, J.; Rasmussen, S. et al

in European Journal of Neurology (2005), 12(2), 108-117

This current randomized, open-label, crossover study evaluated preference for oral eletriptan 80 mg compared with subcutaneous sumatriptan 6 mg (suma-sc) amongst patients (n = 311) meeting IHS criteria ... [more ▼]

This current randomized, open-label, crossover study evaluated preference for oral eletriptan 80 mg compared with subcutaneous sumatriptan 6 mg (suma-sc) amongst patients (n = 311) meeting IHS criteria for migraine who had recently used suma-sc, and found it well tolerated. Three attacks were treated on each study medication. Assessment of subjective preference was evaluated, after which patients freely chose which study medication they wished to use to treat each of three additional migraine attacks. A slight majority (50.6%) preferred or greatly preferred eletriptan, whilst 43% preferred suma-sc. When permitted to choose between eletriptan and suma-sc for subsequent treatment, 78% of patients who had preferred eletriptan took eletriptan during the extension phase for all three of their attacks, whilst only 37% of patients who preferred suma-sc took suma-sc for all of their extension-phase attacks (P < 0.05). Secondary efficacy measures showed comparable efficacy for each study medication, except for faster headache response and pain-free rates favor of suma-sc, and a significantly lower recurrence rate on eletriptan (25% vs. 40%; P < 0.05). The results of this study suggest that eletriptan is a strong alternative option for patients who have been prescribed suma-sc. [less ▲]

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See detailNo effect of eletriptan administration during the aura phase of migraine
Olesen, J.; Diener, H. C.; Schoenen, Jean ULg et al

in European Journal of Neurology (2004), 11(10), 671-677

Migraine aura is a warning sign readily recognized by patients. From the onset of aura it takes 30-60 min before the headache phase starts. Administration of acute medication during aura should provide ... [more ▼]

Migraine aura is a warning sign readily recognized by patients. From the onset of aura it takes 30-60 min before the headache phase starts. Administration of acute medication during aura should provide sufficient time to achieve therapeutic plasma levels, counteracting the headache. To test this hypothesis we evaluated the efficacy of eletriptan 80 mg taken during aura. Patients met International Headache Society diagnostic criteria for migraine with aura, with an attack frequency of at least one per month and with aura occurring in >50% of recent attacks. Of 123 patients randomized, 87 (71%) were treated with a double-blind, one attack, during the aura phase before headache, dose of either eletriptan 80 mg (n = 43; 74% female; mean age, 40 years), or placebo (n = 44; 82% female; mean age, 40 years). The primary outcome measure was the proportion of patients not developing moderate-to-severe headache within 6 h post-dose. There was no significant difference in the proportion of patients developing moderate-to-severe headache on eletriptan (61%) versus placebo (46%). Eletriptan was well tolerated and did not prolong the aura phase. Typical transient triptan adverse events were observed; most were mild-to-moderate in intensity. This study confirms the findings of two studies showing that triptans are ineffective but safe when given during the migraine aura phrase. [less ▲]

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See detailNeurophysiological tests and neuroimaging procedures in non-acute headache: guidelines and recommendations
Sandrini, G.; Friberg, L.; Janig, W. et al

in European Journal of Neurology (2004), 11(4), 217-224

The use of instrumental examinations in headache patients varies widely. In order to evaluate their usefulness, the most common instrumental procedures were evaluated, on the basis of evidence from the ... [more ▼]

The use of instrumental examinations in headache patients varies widely. In order to evaluate their usefulness, the most common instrumental procedures were evaluated, on the basis of evidence from the literature, by an EFNS Task Force (TF) on neurophysiological tests and imaging procedures in non-acute headache patients. The conclusions of the TF regarding each technique are expressed in the following guidelines for clinical use. 1 Interictal electroencephalography (EEG) is not routinely indicated in the diagnostic evaluation of headache patients. Interictal EEG is. however, indicated if the clinical history suggests a possible diagnosis of epilepsy (differential diagnosis). Ictal EEG could be useful in certain patients suffering from hemiplegic and basilar migraine. 2 Recording of evoked potentials is not recommended for the diagnosis of headache disorders. 3 There is no evidence to justify the recommendation of autonomic tests for the routine clinical examination of headache patients. 4 Manual palpation of pericranial muscles, with standardized palpation pressure, can be recommended for subdividing patient groups but not for diagnosis. Pressure algometry and electromyography (EMG) cannot be recommended as clinical diagnostic tests. 5 In adult and paediatric patients with migraine, with no recent change in attack pattern, no history of seizures, and no other Focal neurological signs or symptoms, the routine use of neuroimaging is not warranted. In patients with atypical headache patterns, a history Of seizures and/or focal neurological signs or symptoms, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may be indicated. 6 If attacks can be fully accounted for by the standard headache classification [International Headache Society (IHS)], a positron emission tomography (PET) or single-photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT) and scan will generally be of no further diagnostic value. 7 Nuclear medicine examinations of the cerebral circulation and metabolism can be carried out in Subgroups of headache patients for diagnosis and evaluation of complications, when patients experience unusually severe attacks, or when the quality or severity of attacks has changed. 8 Transcranial Doppler examination is not helpful in headache diagnosis. Although many of the examinations described are of little or no value in the clinical setting, most of the tools have a vast potential for further exploring the pathophysiology of headaches and the effects of pharmacological treatment. [less ▲]

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See detailRadiosurgery with Linac and Micro Multi-Leaf Collimator (mMLC)
Villemure, J-G; Pica, A; COUCKE, Philippe ULg et al

in European Journal of Neurology (2000), 142(10), 1188

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See detailMultimedia education in headache: the European Neurological Network.
Russell, M. B.; Dremstrup Nielsen, K.; Rasmussen, C. et al

in European Journal of Neurology (2000), 7(3), 355-62

The European Neurological Network is a European Economic Community supported project. The purpose of the project was to develop a multimedia educational tool for general practitioners in order to improve ... [more ▼]

The European Neurological Network is a European Economic Community supported project. The purpose of the project was to develop a multimedia educational tool for general practitioners in order to improve their management of sleep disorders, epilepsy and headache. The project involves approximately one hundred engineers and physicians from Belgium, Denmark, England, Finland, France, Germany, Italy, Portugal and Spain. This paper concerns the multimedia educational tool on headache. The system consists of five different modules, i.e. classification, clinical data, headache tutorial, diagnostic headache diary and nomenclature. It is possible to move between the modules both vertically and horizontally. The headache classification of the International Headache Society is provided in full text as a work of reference. This classification is used world wide and has been adopted by International Classification of Diseases 10 Neurological Adaptation (ICD-10 NA) and the World Health Organisation. The clinical data concentrate on migraine and tension-type headache, the two most common headache disorders, but data on familial hemiplegic migraine, cluster headache, drug-induced headache and secondary headaches are also available. The headache tutorial consists of case records that the user can test their diagnostic abilities on. The diagnostic headache diary is an expert system on headache diagnostics. It can be filled in during a consultation in order to provide the headache diagnosis or it can be printed and used by the headache patient to record headache attacks and medicine consumption. The nomenclature module provides an explanation of words and expressions used in the system. [less ▲]

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See detailEarly clinical experience with subcutaneous naratriptan in the acute treatment of migraine: a dose-ranging study.
Dahlof, C.; Hogenhuis, L.; Olesen, J. et al

in European Journal of Neurology (1998), 5(5), 469-477

Naratriptan is a novel, potent agonist at the 5HT1B/1D receptor. A total of 335 migraine patients were treated in this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-ranging, in-clinic study, to ... [more ▼]

Naratriptan is a novel, potent agonist at the 5HT1B/1D receptor. A total of 335 migraine patients were treated in this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-ranging, in-clinic study, to evaluate the efficacy, safety and tolerability of five doses of subcutaneous (sc) naratriptan (0.5, 1, 2.5, 5 or 10 mg) in comparison with sc sumatriptan (6 mg) and placebo in the acute treatment of a moderate/severe migraine attack. Headache relief [reduction of headache severity from moderate or severe (grade 2/3) to mild or none (grade 1/0)] at 1 and 2 h after each dose, was reported by a statistically significantly higher proportion of patients for all doses of sc naratriptan and sc sumatriptan (6 mg) than for placebo. The percentages of patients with headache relief at 2 h post-dose were: naratriptan (0.5 mg) 65%, (1 mg) 75%, (2.5 mg) 83%, (5 mg) 94% and (10 mg) 91%; sumatriptan (6 mg) 89%; placebo 41%, (P < 0.005). The earliest report of a statistically significant difference compared with placebo for the times assessed was with sc naratriptan (10 mg) at 10 min post-dose (P = 0.023). The percentages of patients reporting adverse events were dose-related; sc naratriptan (0.5 mg) 33%, (1 mg) 29%, (2.5 mg) 43%, (5 mg) 59% and (10 mg) 71%; sc sumatriptan 53%; placebo 22%. There were no clinically significant changes in electrocardiogram (ECG), vital signs or laboratory parameters. Systemic exposure increased proportionally to the dose, the absorption of sc naratriptan was rapid (tmax = 10 min) and the half-life was 5 h. In conclusion, sc naratriptan was an effective and well-tolerated acute treatment for migraine. Copyright 1998 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins [less ▲]

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See detailZolmitriptan, a 5-HT1B/1D receptor agonist for the acute oral treatment of migraine: a multicentre, dose-range finding study.
Dahlof, C.; Diener, H. C.; Goadsby, P. J. et al

in European Journal of Neurology (1998), 5(6), 535-543

Zolmitriptan is a selective 5-HT1B/1D receptor agonist for acute oral migraine therapy. This randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study investigated the efficacy and tolerability of oral ... [more ▼]

Zolmitriptan is a selective 5-HT1B/1D receptor agonist for acute oral migraine therapy. This randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study investigated the efficacy and tolerability of oral zolmitriptan (5, 10, 15 and 20 mg) in the treatment of single acute migraine attacks. Of 1181 patients randomized, 840 were evaluable for the primary efficacy analysis. Headache response rates (a reduction in headache intensity from severe or moderate at baseline to mild or no pain at 2 hours post-treatment) were similar across the zolmitriptan dose groups (66%, 71%, 69% and 77% for 5 mg, 10 mg, 15 mg and 20 mg, respectively) and were significantly higher than that for placebo (19%; all groups P < 0.001). A headache response was reported at 1 hour by 40-50% of zolmitriptan recipients (16% placebo). At 2 hours post dose, 39-47% of zolmitriptan-treated patients were pain-free, compared with 1% of placebo recipients. Headache recurrence occurred in 21-29% (upper 95% CI 37.1) of zolmitriptan-treated patients and in 65% (95% CI 38.3, 85.8) of placebo recipients. Zolmitriptan was well tolerated at each dose. The most commonly reported adverse events were asthenia, dizziness, paraesthesia and feelings of heaviness. Most adverse events were of mild or moderate intensity and were transient. The frequency of adverse events was dose-related. Although, zolmitriptan 5 mg exhibited the most favourable efficacy and tolerability profile, the dose response data suggest that lower doses would also offer significant efficacy. Copyright 1998 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins [less ▲]

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See detailBrain Tumours in Children: Experience of the Paediatric Department University of Liège
Senterre, Thibault ULg

in European Journal of Neurology (1997), 1(2/3), 174

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See detailPotentiation instead of habituation characterizes visual evoked potentials in migraine patients between attacks
Schoenen, Jean ULg; Wang, W.; Albert, A. et al

in European Journal of Neurology (1995), 2

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