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See detailDipeptidylpeptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors are favourable to glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists: yes.
SCHEEN, André ULg

in European Journal of Internal Medicine (2012), 23(2), 126-31

The pharmacological treatment of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) is becoming increasingly complex, especially since the availability of incretin-based therapies. Compared with other glucose-lowering strategies ... [more ▼]

The pharmacological treatment of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) is becoming increasingly complex, especially since the availability of incretin-based therapies. Compared with other glucose-lowering strategies, these novel drugs offer some advantages such as an absence of weight gain and a negligible risk of hypoglycaemia and, possibly, better cardiovascular and beta-cell protection. The physician has now multiple choices to manage his/her patient after secondary failure of metformin, and the question whether it is preferable to add an oral dipeptidylpeptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitor (gliptin) or an injectable glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist will emerge. Obviously, DPP-4 inhibitors offer several advantages compared with GLP-1 receptor agonists, especially regarding easiness of use, tolerance profile and cost. However, because they can only increase endogenous GLP-1 concentrations to physiological (rather than pharmacological) levels, they are less potent to improve glucose control, promote weight reduction ("weight neutrality") and reduce blood pressure compared to GLP-1 receptor agonists. Of note, none of the two classes have proven long-term safety and positive impact on diabetic complications yet. The role of DPP-4 inhibitors and GLP-1 receptor agonists in the therapeutic armamentarium of T2DM is rapidly evolving, but their respective potential strengths and weaknesses should be better defined in long-term head-to-head comparative controlled trials. Instead of trying to answer the question whether DPP-4 inhibitors are favourable to GLP-1 receptor agonists (or vice versa), it is probably more clinically relevant to look at which T2DM patient will benefit more from one or the other therapy considering all his/her individual clinical characteristics ("personalized medicine"). [less ▲]

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See detailSelective defect of anti-pneumococcal IgG in a patient with persistent polyclonal B cell lymphocytosis.
Hafraoui, Kaoutar ULg; Moutschen, Michel ULg; Smet, Julie et al

in European Journal of Internal Medicine (2009), 20(3), 62-5

BACKGROUND: Persistent polyclonal B cell lymphocytosis (PPBL) is a rare condition characterized by increased IgM and large excess of B cells with an IgD(+) CD27(+) phenotype. In normal individuals, these ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Persistent polyclonal B cell lymphocytosis (PPBL) is a rare condition characterized by increased IgM and large excess of B cells with an IgD(+) CD27(+) phenotype. In normal individuals, these cells play a central role in the defense against pneumococcal infection. So far, few studies have characterized humoral immune responses in PPBL patients. We therefore measured IgG directed against S. pneumoniae antigens in a 51 yr-old woman with PPBL before and after vaccination with a pneumococcal 23-valent polysaccharide vaccine. METHODS: Antibodies against pneumococcal antigens were measured first with an overall immunoassay using microplates coated with the 23-valent pneumococcal vaccine. A serotype-specific test was also performed according to the WHO consensus protocol. RESULTS: Despite a large number of IgD(+) CD27(+) cells, our patient had low baseline titers of IgG directed against pneumococcal antigens and did not significantly respond to a 23-valent polysaccharide vaccine against S. pneumoniae. On the contrary, she had good titers of IgG directed against tetanus toxoid. CONCLUSION: IgM(+) IgD(+) CD27(+) cells which accumulate in this patient with typical PPBL patient failed to perform IgG isotype switch after a polysaccharide vaccine. The potential mechanisms and relationships with the main features of PPBL are discussed. Further studies on a larger number of similar patients are needed. [less ▲]

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See detailCotrimoxazole induced mixed type II cryoglobulinemia.
Leclercq, Philippe ULg; Frippiat, Frédéric ULg; Lambermont, Bernard ULg

in European Journal of Internal Medicine (2008), 19(4),

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See detailAcute interstitial nephritis associated with salmonellosis
Caers, Jo ULg; Peeters, Patrick; Vanden Houte, Kaat et al

in European Journal of Internal Medicine (2006), 17(3), 217-9

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