References of "Environmental Pollution"
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See detailEffects of two PBDE congeners on the moulting enzymes of the freshwater amphipod Gammarus pulex
Gismondi, Eric ULg; Thomé, Jean-Pierre ULg

in Environmental Pollution (2014), 191

Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are abundant in aquatic environment. However, only few studies have investigated their impacts on freshwater invertebrates. This work aimed to study the effects of ... [more ▼]

Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are abundant in aquatic environment. However, only few studies have investigated their impacts on freshwater invertebrates. This work aimed to study the effects of BDE-47 and BDE-99 congeners on the chitobiase and chitinolytic enzymes activities of the freshwater amphipod Gammarus pulex, according to gender, PBDE concentration and time of exposure. In addition, the bioaccumulation of BDE-47 and BDE-99 were measured. Results revealed that females have bioaccumulated more PBDE than males, and BDE-99 was more accumulated than BDE-47. PBDE exposures for 96hrs have caused chitobiase and chitinolytic enzymes inhibition. This study not only indicate the importance of taking into account various confounding factors (gender, congeners, concentration) to understand PBDE effects, but underline also disruptions of molting enzymes activities. These disturbances suggest effects on the gammarid development and reproduction, and consequently effects on the gammarid population, and on a larger scale, a dysfunction of the ecosystem. [less ▲]

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See detailHigh-resolution reconstruction of atmospheric deposition of trace metals and metalloids since AD 1400 recorded by ombrotrophic peat cores in Hautes-Fagnes, Belgium
Allan, Mohammed ULg; le roux, gael; De Vleeschouwer, François et al

in Environmental Pollution (2013), 1

The objective of our study was to determine the trace metal accumulation rates in the Misten bog, Hautes-Fagnes, Belgium, and assess these in relation to established histories of atmospheric emissions ... [more ▼]

The objective of our study was to determine the trace metal accumulation rates in the Misten bog, Hautes-Fagnes, Belgium, and assess these in relation to established histories of atmospheric emissions from anthropogenic sources. To address these aims we analyzed trace metals and metalloids (Pb, Cu, Ni, As, Sb, Cr, Co, V, Cd and Zn), as well as Pb isotopes, using XRF, Q-ICP-MS and MC-ICP-MS, respectively in two 40-cm peat sections, spanning the last 600 yr. The temporal increase of metal fluxes from the inception of the Industrial Revolution to the present varies by a factor of 5 to 50, with peak values found between AD 1930 and 1990. A cluster analysis combined with Pb isotopic composition allows the identification of the main sources of Pb and by inference of the other metals, which indicates that coal consumption and metallurgical activities were the predominant sources of pollution during the last 600 years. [less ▲]

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See detailMicrosporidia parasites disrupt the responses to cadmium exposure in a gammarid
Gismondi, Eric ULg; Rigaud, Thierry; Beisel, Jean-Nicolas et al

in Environmental Pollution (2012), 160

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See detailComputational toxicology: Physiologically based pharmacokinetic models (PBPK) for lifetime exposure and bioaccumulation of polybrominated dephenyl ethers (PBDEs) in marine mammals
Weijs, Liesbeth; Covaci, Adrian; Yang, Raymond S H et al

in Environmental Pollution (2012)

Due to migration of harbour porpoises towards more polluted areas like the North Sea and their sensitivity towards pollution, there is a need for proper conservation measures for this species. As a ... [more ▼]

Due to migration of harbour porpoises towards more polluted areas like the North Sea and their sensitivity towards pollution, there is a need for proper conservation measures for this species. As a consequence, knowledge about the pollutant’s kinetics is required. The present study is the first to investigate the kinetics of PBDEs in marine mammals using PBPK modeling as a non-destructive tool for describing the chemical’s kinetics in a protected animal species. The models were developed and parameterized using data from the literature and Black Sea harbour porpoises through computer opti- mization. The predictability of these models in time was assessed by reverse dosimetry modeling using data from North Sea porpoises (1990e2008). From these predictions, PBDE 99 levels were found to decrease the fastest, followed by PBDE 153, 47 and 100. Results show that the PBPK models can be applied for harbour porpoises from different regions and also simulate time trends. [less ▲]

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See detailBlood dynamics of mercury and selenium in northern elephant seals during the lactation period
Habran, Sarah ULg; Debier, Cathy; Crocker, Dan et al

in Environmental Pollution (2011), 159(10), 2523-2529

The effects of reproduction and maternal investment (i.e., milk transfer) on trace element levels remain poorly understood in marine mammals. We examined the blood dynamics of mercury (Hg) and selenium ... [more ▼]

The effects of reproduction and maternal investment (i.e., milk transfer) on trace element levels remain poorly understood in marine mammals. We examined the blood dynamics of mercury (Hg) and selenium (Se) during lactation in the northern elephant seal (Mirounga angustirostris), a top predator from the North Pacific Ocean. Total Hg and Se levels were measured in whole blood and milk of 10 mother-pup pairs on days 5 and 22 of lactation. Both Hg and Se were transferred to offspring through the milk. Results suggested that the maternal transfer of Se was prominent during lactation, whereas the Hg transfer was larger during gestation. The lactation period affected Hg and Se levels in the blood of elephant seal mothers and pups. Physiological processes and their relationship to body condition should be considered carefully when interpreting trace element levels in the framework of biomonitoring. [less ▲]

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See detailGroundwater quality assessment of one former industrial site in Belgium using a TRIAD-like approach.
Crévecoeur, Sophie; Debacker, Virginie ULg; Joaquim-Justo, Célia ULg et al

in Environmental Pollution (2011), 159(10), 2461-2466

Contaminated industrial sites are important sources of pollution and may result in ecotoxicological effects on terrestrial, aquatic and groundwater ecosystems. An effect-based approach to evaluate and ... [more ▼]

Contaminated industrial sites are important sources of pollution and may result in ecotoxicological effects on terrestrial, aquatic and groundwater ecosystems. An effect-based approach to evaluate and assess pollution-induced degradation due to contaminated groundwater was carried out in this study. The new concept, referred to as “Groundwater Quality TRIAD-like” (GwQT) approach, is adapted from classical TRIAD approaches. GwQT is based on measurements of chemical concentrations, laboratory toxicity tests and physico-chemical analyses. These components are combined in the GwQT using qualitative and quantitative (using zero to one subindices)integration approaches. The TRIAD approach is applied for the first time on groundwater from one former industrial site located in Belgium. This approach will allow the classification of sites into categories according to the degree of contaminant-induced degradation. This new concept is a starting point for groundwater characterization and is open for improvement and adjustment. [less ▲]

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See detailOrganochlorine pollution in tropical rivers (Guadeloupe): Role of ecological factors in food web bioaccumulation
Coat, Sophie; Monti, Dominique; Legendre, Pierre et al

in Environmental Pollution (2011), 159

Concentrations of organochlorine pesticides and stable isotope ratios of nitrogen and carbon were measured in a tropical freshwater ecosystem to evaluate the contamination level of biota and examine the ... [more ▼]

Concentrations of organochlorine pesticides and stable isotope ratios of nitrogen and carbon were measured in a tropical freshwater ecosystem to evaluate the contamination level of biota and examine the bioaccumulation patterns of pollutants through the food web. Chemical analyses showed a general and heavy contamination of the entire food web. They revealed the strong accumulation of pollutants by juveniles of diadromous fishes and shrimps, as they re-enter the river. The role of ecological factors in the bioaccumulation of pesticides was evaluated. Whereas the most persistent pollutants (chlordecone and monohydro-chlordecone) were related to the organisms diet and habitat, bioaccumulation of b-HCH was only influenced by animal lipid content. The biomagnification potential of chlordecone through the food chain has been demonstrated. It highlighted the importance of trophic transfer in this compound bioaccumulation process. In contrast, bioconcentration by passive diffusion from water seemed to be the main exposure route of biota to b-HCH. [less ▲]

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See detailRelationships between vitamin A and PCBs in grey seal mothers and pups during lactation
Vanden Berghe, Marie; Mat, Audrey; Arriola, Aline et al

in Environmental Pollution (2010), 158(5), 1570-1575

A previous study has shown a simultaneous increase of vitamin A and PCBs in grey seal (Halichoerus grypus) milk at late lactation (Debier et al., 2004). Here we sought to understand this unexpected ... [more ▼]

A previous study has shown a simultaneous increase of vitamin A and PCBs in grey seal (Halichoerus grypus) milk at late lactation (Debier et al., 2004). Here we sought to understand this unexpected relationship by comparing the dynamics of vitamin A and PCBs in the different tissue compartments of transfer. Lactating grey seals and their pups were sampled longitudinally in Scotland during the 2006 breeding season. As blubber reserves decreased, concentrations of vitamin A and PCBs increased during lactation in the inner layer of maternal blubber. A concomitant rise was observed in milk and consequently in the serum of suckling pups. The similar dynamics of vitamin A and PCBs in milk and inner blubber suggest a common mechanism of mobilisation from maternal body stores and transfer into the milk. A panel data analysis highlighted a negative impact of PCBs in milk and pup serum on vitamin A status in pup serum. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailAdverse effects of erythromycin on the structure and chemistry of activated sludge
Louvet, Jean-Noël ULg; Giammarino, Cinzia; Potier, Olivier et al

in Environmental Pollution (2010), 158

This study examines the effects of erythromycin on activated sludge from two French urban wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). Wastewater spiked with 10 mg/L erythromycin inhibited the specific evolution ... [more ▼]

This study examines the effects of erythromycin on activated sludge from two French urban wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). Wastewater spiked with 10 mg/L erythromycin inhibited the specific evolution rate of chemical oxygen demand (COD) by 79% (standard deviation 34%) and the specific N–NH 4 þ evolution rate by 41% (standard deviation 25%). A temporary increase in COD and tryptophan-like fluorescence, as well as a decrease in suspended solids, were observed in reactors with wastewater containing erythromycin. The destruction of activated sludge flocs was monitored by automated image analysis. The effect of erythromycin on nitrification was variable depending on the sludge origin. Erythromycin inhibited the specific nitrification rate in sludge from one WWTP, but increased the nitrification rate at the other facility. [less ▲]

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See detailInter-species differences for polychlorinated biphenyls and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in marine top predators from the Southern North Sea: Part 2. Biomagnification in harbour seals and harbour porpoises
Weijs, Liesbeth; Dirtu, Alin C; Das, Krishna ULg et al

in Environmental Pollution (2009), 157

Harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) and harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) were found to differ in the ability to metabolize polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs ... [more ▼]

Harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) and harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) were found to differ in the ability to metabolize polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). Biomagnification factors (BMFs), calculated between both predators and their prey (sole – Solea solea and whiting – Merlangius merlangus), had a large range of variation (between 0.5 and 91 for PCBs and between 0.6 and 53 for PBDEs). For the higher chlorinated PCBs and the highest brominated PBDEs, the BMF values in adult males were significantly higher than in the juvenile individuals of both species. BMF values of hexa- to octa-PCBs were the highest, suggesting reduced ability to degrade these congeners. Harbour porpoises had higher BMFs for lower chlorinated PCBs and for all PBDEs compared to harbour seals. Other factors, which may influence biomagnification, such as the octanol–water partition coefficients and the trophic level position measured through stable isotope (d15N) analysis, were found to be of lesser importance to predict biomagnification in the studied food chain. [less ▲]

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See detailInter-species differences for polychlorinated biphenyls and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in marine top predators from the Southern North Sea: Part 1. Accumulation patterns in harbour seals and harbour porpoises
Weijs, Liesbeth; Dirtu, Alin C; Das, Krishna ULg et al

in Environmental Pollution (2009), 157

Harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) and harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) are two representative top predator species of the North Sea ecosystem. The median values of sum of 21 polychlorinated biphenyl ... [more ▼]

Harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) and harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) are two representative top predator species of the North Sea ecosystem. The median values of sum of 21 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners and sum of 10 polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners were 23.1 mg/g lipid weight (lw) and 0.33 mg/g lw in blubber of harbour seals (n ¼ 28) and 12.4 mg/g lw and 0.76 mg/g lw in blubber of harbour porpoises (n¼ 35), respectively. For both species, the highest PCB concentrations were observed in adult males indicating bioaccumulation. On the contrary, the highest PBDE concentrations were measured in juveniles, likely due to better-developed metabolic capacities with age in adults. A higher contribution of lower chlorinated and non-persistent congeners, such as CB 52, CB 95, CB 101, and CB 149, together with higher contributions of other PBDE congeners than BDE 47, indicated that harbour porpoises are unable to metabolize these compounds. Harbour seals showed a higher ability to metabolize PCBs and PBDEs. [less ▲]

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See detailCocaïne and metabolites in waste and surface water across Belgium.
Van Nuijs, Alexander; Pecceu, Bert; Theunis, Laetitia ULg et al

in Environmental Pollution (2009), 157

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See detailBioaccumulation of persistent organic pollutants in female common dolphins (Delphinus delphis) and harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) from western European seas: geographical trends, causal factors and effects on reproduction and mortality
Pierce, G. J.; Santos, M. B.; Murphy, S. et al

in Environmental Pollution (2008), 153(2), 401-415

female common dolphins and harbour porpoises from the Atlantic coast of Europe were frequently above the threshold at which effects on reproduction could be expected, in 40% and 47% of cases respectively ... [more ▼]

female common dolphins and harbour porpoises from the Atlantic coast of Europe were frequently above the threshold at which effects on reproduction could be expected, in 40% and 47% of cases respectively. This rose to 74% for porpoises from the southern North Sea. PCB concentrations were also high in southern North Sea fish. The average pregnancy rate recorded in porpoises (42%) in the study area was lower than in the western Atlantic but that in common dolphins (25%) was similar to that of the western Atlantic population. Porpoises that died from disease or parasitic infection had higher concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) than animals dying from other causes. Few of the common dolphins sampled had died from disease or parasitic infection. POP profiles in common dolphin blubber were related to individual feeding history while those in porpoises were more strongly related to condition. High PCB levels were recorded in porpoises and common dolphins from European coasts. [less ▲]

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See detailImpact of chronic cadmium exposure at environmental dose on escape behaviour in sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.; Teleostei, Moronidae).
Faucher, Karine ULg; Fichet, Denis; Miramand, Pierre et al

in Environmental Pollution (2008), 151(1), 148-57

The effect of chronic exposure to a low concentration (0.5 microg l(-1)) of cadmium ions was investigated on escape behaviour of sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax, using video analysis. Observations were ... [more ▼]

The effect of chronic exposure to a low concentration (0.5 microg l(-1)) of cadmium ions was investigated on escape behaviour of sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax, using video analysis. Observations were also performed on the microanatomy of lateral system neuromasts. When fish were exposed for 4h per day over 8 days to the cadmium ions, most of both types of neuromasts observed remained intact. However, some of them presented damaged sensory maculae. Whereas before cadmium exposure, fish responded positively to nearly all the lateral system stimulations, after exposure they decreased by about 10% their positive responses to stimulations. From the 15th day after the beginning of cadmium exposure, neuromasts presented progressively less damage, cadmium accumulation in gills and scales decreased significantly and fish escape behaviour had recovered. This study presents a new concept in ecotoxicology: using behavioural change to reveal the effects of pollution levels, scarcely detectable by currently used techniques (physiological responses). [less ▲]

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See detailLong-term fate of exogenous metals in a sandy Luvisol subjected to intensive irrigation with raw wastewater
Dere, Christelle ULg; Lamy, Isabelle; Jaulin, Anne et al

in Environmental Pollution (2007), 145

From 1899 to 2002, sandy Luvisol in the Paris region has been intensively irrigated with raw wastewater, resulting in major soil pollution by metallic trace elements (MTE). To identify the soil phases ... [more ▼]

From 1899 to 2002, sandy Luvisol in the Paris region has been intensively irrigated with raw wastewater, resulting in major soil pollution by metallic trace elements (MTE). To identify the soil phases implicated in retaining these metals, sequential extractions were performed on a solum irrigated with untreated wastewater and another reference solum. The endogenous and exogenous fractions of MTE in the contaminated soil were discriminated using correlations between MTE and major elements defined from unpolluted soils of the area. In the contaminated soil no exogenous lead and chromium are present below the surface horizon, whereas exogenous zinc and copper are found down to the base of the solum. The endogenous MTE are mainly found in the residual fraction. Exogenous MTE appear to be associated with organic matter in the surface horizon, and exogenous zinc seems to be readsorbed on iron and manganese oxyhydroxides in the underlying horizons. [less ▲]

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See detailTrace metal and stable isotope measurements (delta C-13 and delta N-15) in the harbour porpoise Phocoena phocoena relicta from the Black Sea
Das, Krishna ULg; Holsbeek, Ludo; Browning, Julie et al

in Environmental Pollution (2004), 131(2),

Stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes (delta(13)C and delta(15)N) and trace metals (Cd, Zn, Cu, Fe, Se, and Hg) were analysed in the tissues of 46 harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena relicta) caught in ... [more ▼]

Stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes (delta(13)C and delta(15)N) and trace metals (Cd, Zn, Cu, Fe, Se, and Hg) were analysed in the tissues of 46 harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena relicta) caught in fishing nets along the Ukrainian coasts between 1997 and 1998. Mean delta(13)C values differed significantly between male and female harbour porpoises suggesting a trophic segregation between sexes with a more coastal distribution for females at least during their gestation and nursing periods. Hepatic Hg was correlated to delta(13)C measurements, reflecting a different exposure linked to coastal vs offshore feeding habitats. A geographical comparison with existing data from other regions showed general low levels of Hg, Cd, Cu and Zn in the tissues of harbour porpoises from the Black Sea compared to other Atlantic and North Sea areas. (C) 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailAquatic bryophytes for a spatio-temporal monitoring of the water pollution of the rivers Meuse and Sambre (Belgium)
Vanderpoorten, Alain ULg

in Environmental Pollution (1999), 104(3), 401-410

Jaccard's distances between the aquatic bryophyte assemblages recorded in 1972-1973 and in 1997 in nine study sites along the Belgian course of the rivers Meuse and Sambre were correlated with the ... [more ▼]

Jaccard's distances between the aquatic bryophyte assemblages recorded in 1972-1973 and in 1997 in nine study sites along the Belgian course of the rivers Meuse and Sambre were correlated with the differences of concentrations of 13 physico-chemical factors (O2, N-NO2-. N-NH4+, N-NO3-, P-PO43-, K+, pH, Ca++, Fe, Cu, Pb, Zn and Mn) between 1972-1973 and 1996. The strong decrease in heavy metals pollution and the decrease of the trophic level are correlated with the recolonization of the most polluted sites in the 1970s by the pollution-sensitive species present in the valleys at the beginning of the century. Conversely, N-NO2-, N-N03" and K+ have increased between the two surveys. They currently reach much higher concentrations in the Sambre than in the Meuse, as well as N and micro-pollutants such as pyrene and anionic detergents. The different loads of these factors in the studied rivers might explain their different recolonization patterns. Although some species might have developed a tolerance to certain factors, an effort to improve the quality of the effluents coming from industrial areas still remains to be made, especially in the frame of the projects of river flooding of the riverine areas. [less ▲]

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See detailSoil Solution Nitrogen and Cations Influenced by (NH4)2SO4 Deposition in a Coniferous Forest
Carnol, Monique ULg; Ineson, Phil; Dickinson, A. L.

in Environmental Pollution (1997), 97(1-2), 1-10

The effects of chronically enhanced (NH(4))(2)SO(4) deposition on ion concentrations in soil solution and ionic fluxes were investigated in a Picea abies plot at Grizedale forest, NW England. Soil cores ... [more ▼]

The effects of chronically enhanced (NH(4))(2)SO(4) deposition on ion concentrations in soil solution and ionic fluxes were investigated in a Picea abies plot at Grizedale forest, NW England. Soil cores closed at the base and containing a ceramic suction cup sampler were 'roofed' and watered every 2 weeks with bulk throughfall collected in the field. Treatments consisted of the inclusion of living roots from mature trees in the lysimeters and increasing (NH(4))(2)SO(4) deposition (NS treatment) to ambient + 75 kg N ha(-1) a(-1). Rainfall, throughfall and soil solutions were collected every 2 weeks during 18 months, and analysed for major cations and anions. NO(3)(-) fluxes significantly increased following NS treatment, and were balanced by increased Al(3+) losses. Increased SO(4)(2-) concentrations played a minor role in controlling soil solution cation concentrations. The soil exchange complex was dominated by Al and, during the experimental period, cores of all treatments 'switched' from Ca(2+) to Al(3+) leaching, leading to mean [Formula: see text] molar ratios in soil solution of NS treated cores of 0.24. The experiment confirmed that the most sensitive soils to acidification (through deposition or changing environmental conditions) are those with low base saturation, and with a pH in the lower Ca, or Al buffer ranges. [less ▲]

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