References of "Ecotoxicology & Environmental Safety"
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See detailAcetylcholinesterase activity as a biomarker of exposure to antibiotics and pesticides in the black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon).
Tu, Huynh Thi; Silvestre, Frederic; Scippo, Marie-Louise ULg et al

in Ecotoxicology & Environmental Safety (2009), 72(5), 1463-70

This study aimed to assess the potentiality to use cholinesterase activity (ChE) in black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) as a biomarker of exposure to 2 antibiotics (enrofloxacin, furazolidone) and 2 ... [more ▼]

This study aimed to assess the potentiality to use cholinesterase activity (ChE) in black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) as a biomarker of exposure to 2 antibiotics (enrofloxacin, furazolidone) and 2 pesticides (endosulfan, deltamethrin), commonly used in Vietnamese farms. ChE from muscle and gills was first characterised using three different substrates and specific inhibitors. Results showed that both tissues possess only one ChE which displays the typical properties of an acetylcholinesterase (AChE). In a second part, shrimp (average weight of 8.8-10 g) were fed with medicated-feed containing 4g enrofloxacin (quinolone) or furazolidone (nitrofuran)/kg for 7 days, or exposed to 3 actual concentrations of endosulfan (0, 0.009, 0.09, 0.9 microg/L) or deltamethrin (0, 0.0007, 0.007, 0.07 microg/L) for 4 days. After treatment, animals were decontaminated during 7 days. We observed that AChE activity in muscle was not significantly affected in shrimp fed with enrofloxacin or furazolidone, while it significantly decreased (up to 28%) in gills of shrimp fed with furazolidone. Following endosulfan and deltamethrin exposure, no significant changes in AChE activity were observed in gills. However, a significant decrease occurred in muscle after 4 days exposure (inhibition of 30% and 49% at 0.9 microg/L endosulfan and 0.07 microg/L deltamethrin, respectively). While muscle AChE activity should be assessed to point out endosulfan or deltamethrin exposure, gill AChE activity impairment could indicate an exposure to furazolidone. The present study underlines the benefits to use AChE as a biomarker of chemotherapeutics as part of an integrated aquaculture management to reach industry sustainability. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of Aroclor 1254 on oxidative stress in developing Xenopus laevis tadpoles.
Gillardin, Virginie; Silvestre, Frederic; Divoy, Celine et al

in Ecotoxicology & Environmental Safety (2009), 72(2), 546-51

Over the last decades, amphibians decline has been reported worldwide. Exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) is one of the possible causes in addition to climate changes, UV-radiation or habitat ... [more ▼]

Over the last decades, amphibians decline has been reported worldwide. Exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) is one of the possible causes in addition to climate changes, UV-radiation or habitat destruction. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that PCBs could induce oxidative stress in young tadpoles. Developing Xenopus laevis were exposed from 2- to 5-d postfertilization (pf) to 0.1 or 1 mg/l of Aroclor 1254. Lipid peroxidation and antioxidant systems (SOD, CAT, GST, GPx, GR activities and t-GSH level) were investigated in whole organisms. Exposure to both concentrations did not impact on the survival and development whereas the average body weight decreased. Exposure to 1 mg/l of Aroclor 1254 induced a significant (p<0.05) increase of GST activity when compared to controls 0 and DMSO. The other antioxidant enzymes and LPO evaluation remained unchanged. Our results demonstrate that exposure of X. laevis tadpoles to environmental concentrations of Aroclor 1254 interfere with normal growth. They also highlight that very young X. laevis tadpoles express antioxidant systems. [less ▲]

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See detailLevels and effects of PCDD/Fs and co-PCBs in sediments, mussels, and sea stars of the intertidal zone in the southern North Sea and the English Channel.
Danis, Bruno; Debacker, Virginie ULg; Trujilo Miranda, Carmen et al

in Ecotoxicology & Environmental Safety (2006), 65(2), 188-200

There is considerable concern regarding dioxin-like compounds (DLCs) in the marine environment. These ubiquitous contaminants are highly resistant to degradation, highly accumulated by marine organisms ... [more ▼]

There is considerable concern regarding dioxin-like compounds (DLCs) in the marine environment. These ubiquitous contaminants are highly resistant to degradation, highly accumulated by marine organisms, and extremely toxic. Concentrations of DLCs, including 7 polychlorodibenzo-p-dioxins, 10 polychlorodibenzofurans, and 4 coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls, were determined in sediments, mussels (Mytilus edulis), and sea stars (Asterias rubens) from five intertidal stations distributed along the Belgian coast and the English Channel. The induction of a biomarker, cytochrome P450 immunopositive protein (CYP1A IPP), was also measured in sea star pyloric caeca. Although no significant differences were found between the considered stations, DLC levels were found to be relatively high in biota, especially when the toxicity of these compounds is considered. Particular concern arises from TEQ values determined in mussels from all locations. Sea stars were found to be more discriminant between the stations. CYP1A IPP induction was found to be significantly related to DLC levels measured in sea stars and allowed significant discrimination between the considered stations. (c) 2005 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of Polychlorinated Biphenyls on Liver Ultrastructure, Hepatic Monooxygenases, and Reproductive Success in the Barbel
Hugla, J. L.; Thomé, Jean-Pierre ULg

in Ecotoxicology & Environmental Safety (1999), 42(3), 265-73

Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are organochlorinated micropollutants ubiquitously distributed in the environment. They are known to be strong inducers of hepatic monooxygenases in fish. This can ... [more ▼]

Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are organochlorinated micropollutants ubiquitously distributed in the environment. They are known to be strong inducers of hepatic monooxygenases in fish. This can adversely affect reproduction by increasing steroid metabolism. In this work, adult barbels were contaminated with food containing Aroclor 1260, a commercial PCB mixture from Monsanto, at environmentally relevant concentrations. A significant increase in cytochrome P450 was observed, and two particularly sensitive enzymes, ethoxyresorufin o-deethylase (EROD) and ethoxycoumarin o-deethylase (ECOD), were strongly induced. Electron microscopy revealed alterations in liver ultrastructure in contaminated fish, principally an increase in the number of cisternae of the rough endoplasmic reticulum, drastic glycogen depletion, dissolution of mitochondrial contents, and appearance of myelin figures. Contamination was also studied in relation to reproductive success in a hatchery. Contaminated males displayed no alteration in milt quality, but PCBs did alter female reproductive parameters. Total mortality of eggs and larvae increased significantly with the level of PCBs in the eggs. The most highly contaminated fish did not even spawn. All the adverse effects recorded here tended to be reversible when the intoxication ended, sometimes after only a 1-year detoxication period. [less ▲]

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See detailHierarchical Cluster Analysis of Environmental Pollutants through P450 Induction in Cultured Hepatic Cells
Dubois, Marilyn; Plaisance, H.; Thomé, Jean-Pierre ULg et al

in Ecotoxicology & Environmental Safety (1996), 34(3), 205-15

Environmental pollutants are classically associated with increased drug metabolism. Cultures of rat hepatocytes, quail hepatocytes, and human hepatoma (Hep G2) cells were used to study the effects of ... [more ▼]

Environmental pollutants are classically associated with increased drug metabolism. Cultures of rat hepatocytes, quail hepatocytes, and human hepatoma (Hep G2) cells were used to study the effects of pesticides on drug-metabolizing enzymes. Membrane integrity and mitochondrial activity were evaluated and induction of ethoxycoumarin-O-deethylase and ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activities were measured. Induced P450s were identified by immunoblotting. Pentachlorophenol and lindane appeared as the strongest inducers. On the immunoblots, specific antibodies revealed induced CYP1A1 in fetal rat hepatocytes, CYP2B in quail hepatocytes, and CYP3A7 in Hep G2 cells. Pesticide effects on these different activities in each type of cultured cells were compared by cluster analysis. Results obtained under similar conditions with reference inducers phenobarbital (PB) and benzo[a]anthracene and other environmental pollutants (polychlorobiphenyls) were added to previous data prior to multivariate analysis. The tested products fell into four major groups: a first group with pentachlorophenol, identified as a CYP3A inducer; a second group containing the methylcholanthrene-type inducers that increase CYP1A-related activities; a third class represented by dieldrin, a PB-type inducer; a fourth group including inert compounds or weak inducers. Lindane shares the criteria of the second and third groups and seems to induce both CYP1A and CYP2B activities. The current study results highlight the advantage of using several types of cultured hepatocytes to evaluate the short-term toxicity of environmental pollutants in vitro and constitute a useful model for predicting the potential toxicity of pesticides in humans (Hep G2 cells) and wildlife (fetal quail hepatocytes). [less ▲]

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See detailUltrastructural Modifications in Cultured Fetal Quail Hepatocytes Exposed to Pesticides and Pcbs
Hugla, J. L.; Goffinet, Gerhard ULg; Kremers, Pierre ULg et al

in Ecotoxicology & Environmental Safety (1996), 34(2), 145-55

There is increasing interest in cultured hepatocytes as a tool for solving toxicological and pharmacological problems while reducing laboratory animal experimentation. In the present study, fetal ... [more ▼]

There is increasing interest in cultured hepatocytes as a tool for solving toxicological and pharmacological problems while reducing laboratory animal experimentation. In the present study, fetal hepatocytes from the Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) were used as an in vitro alternative model for evaluating the effects of PCBs and various pesticide-type chemicals on cell ultrastructure. Major alterations were demonstrated. The most striking effects of toxicants were an increase in the number of cisternae of the rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER), various alterations of mitochondrial morphology, a decreased glycogen content, vacuolization of the cytoplasm, and the appearance of concentric membrane arrays (CMA's), also called myelin-like figures. Other changes were sometimes observed, such as altered cell junctions, an increased lipid content, deformations of the nuclei, or the appearance of crystalline structures. These ultrastructural modifications seem to be dose-dependent. The present in vitro findings are validated by similar observations previously made in vivo on Japanese quail. They confirm the effectiveness of this technique as a biomonitoring tool for the evaluation of environmental quality. Yet the multiplicity of possible toxic effects, even for xenobiotics of a same category, makes it necessary to screen additional indicators of toxicity, such as the detoxifying activity of monooxygenases. [less ▲]

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See detailEffect of Inducers and Pcbs on the Cytochrome P450 Enzymes in Cultured Quail Hepatocytes
Roelandt, L.; Dubois, Maryline; Todaro, Anna ULg et al

in Ecotoxicology & Environmental Safety (1995), 31(2), 158-63

Hepatocytes isolated from fetal quail livers (Coturnix coturnix japonica) were cultured in vitro. Their capacity to metabolize drugs and xenobiotics was explored with typical cytochrome P450 substrates ... [more ▼]

Hepatocytes isolated from fetal quail livers (Coturnix coturnix japonica) were cultured in vitro. Their capacity to metabolize drugs and xenobiotics was explored with typical cytochrome P450 substrates: ethoxycoumarin (known to be metabolized by several P450s), ethoxyresorufin (essentially dealkylated by P450IA1), and testosterone (specifically hydroxylated at several positions by several P450s). The cells could be kept metabolically active in culture for at least 4 days. Their drug-metabolizing activities were inducible by the usual P450 inducers, like phenobarbital and benzanthracene, but also by Aroclor 1254, a PCB mixture. The results obtained indicate that this experimental model could certainly be very helpful in ecotoxicological studies. [less ▲]

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