References of "Ecography"
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See detailFrom climatic niche conservatism to spatial predictions: what can invasive mosses tell us?
Mateo, R.G.; Broennimann, O.; Petitpierre, B. et al

in Ecography (2014), 37

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See detailEnvironmental modulation of self-organized periodic vegetation patterns in Sudan
Deblauwe, V; Couteron, P; Lejeune, O et al

in Ecography (2011), 34

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See detailEcological thresholds: an assessment of methods to identify abrupt changes in species-habitat relationships
Ficetola, Gentile Francesco; Denoël, Mathieu ULg

in Ecography (2009), 32(6), 1075-1084

Habitat thresholds are usually defined as "points of abrupt change" in the species–habitat relationships. Habitat thresholds can be a key tool for understanding species requirements, and provide an ... [more ▼]

Habitat thresholds are usually defined as "points of abrupt change" in the species–habitat relationships. Habitat thresholds can be a key tool for understanding species requirements, and provide an objective definition of conservation targets, by identifying when habitat loss leads to a rapid loss of species, and the minimum amount of habitat necessary for species persistence. However, a large variety of statistical methods have been used to analyse them. In this context, we reviewed these methods and, using simulated data sets, we tested the main models to compare their performance on the identification of thresholds. We show that researchers use very different analytical tools, corresponding to different operational definitions of habitat thresholds, which can considerably affect their detection. Piecewise regression and generalized additive models allow both the distinction between linear and nonlinear dynamics, and the correct identification of break point position. In contrast, other methods such as logistic regression fail because they may incorrectly detect thresholds in gradual patterns, or they may over or underestimate the threshold position. In conservation or habitat modelling, it is important to focus efforts efficiently and the inappropriate choice of statistical methods may have detrimental consequences. [less ▲]

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See detailGenetic pattern of the recent recovery of European otters in southern France
Janssens, Xavier; Fontaine, Michael C; Michaux, Johan ULg et al

in Ecography (2008), 31(2), 176-186

We investigated how landscape affects the population genetic structure and the dispersal of the elusive European otter Lutra lutra in a contemporary colonization context, over several generations and at ... [more ▼]

We investigated how landscape affects the population genetic structure and the dispersal of the elusive European otter Lutra lutra in a contemporary colonization context, over several generations and at the level of hydrographic basins. Our study area included 10 basins located in the Cevennes National Park (CNP), at the southern front of the natural otter recovery in France. Each basin comprised 50 to 300 km of permanent rivers that were surveyed for otter presence from 1991 to 2005. Faecal samples collected in 2004 and 2005 in this area were genotyped at 9 microsatellite loci, resulting in the identification of 70 genetically distinct individuals. Bayesian clustering methods were used to infer genetic structure of the populations and to compare recent gene flow to the observed colonization. At the regional level, we identified 2 distinct genetic clusters (NE and SW; FST=0.102) partially separated by ridges, suggesting that the CNP was recolonized by 2 genetically distinct otter populations. At the basin level, the genetic distance between groups of individuals in different basins was positively correlated to the mean slope separating these basins. The probable origins and directions of individual movements (i.e. migration between clusters and basin colonization inside clusters) were inferred from assignment tests. This approach shows that steep and dry lands can stop, impede or divert the dispersal of a mobile carnivore such as the otter. [less ▲]

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See detailTrends in diversity and abundance of obligate epiphytic bryophytes in a highly managed landscape
Vanderpoorten, Alain ULg; Engels, Patrick ULg; Sotiaux, André ULg

in Ecography (2004), 27(5), 567-576

Although forest stands represent 47% of the total land area in Europe, alterations to the forest habitat through logging and plantation of exotic trees has led to significant changes in forest biocenoses ... [more ▼]

Although forest stands represent 47% of the total land area in Europe, alterations to the forest habitat through logging and plantation of exotic trees has led to significant changes in forest biocenoses. Due to their peculiar biology and life history, epiphytic bryophytes, which include a number of species of high conservation value, are especially concerned. Ordinal logit regression was used to test whether trends in diversity and abundance of obligate epiphytic bryophytes are explained by forest cover and spruce plantation and determine specific optima and degree of reliance to these factors at the landscape scale. Spruce plantations had a negative impact on both species diversity and abundance. Although large forest patches were important for a set of species exclusively or more frequently occurring under the forest cover, the abundance of a number of species previously identified as woodland bryophytes decreased or was uncorrelated with increasing forest cover. Furthermore, the species pool adapted to edge-related abiotic conditions was important. The global epiphytic diversity did consequently not decrease with decreasing forest cover at the landscape scale. If large forest patches are important for the conservation of a set of species exclusively or more frequently occurring under the forest cover, the conservation of epiphytic bryophytes thus also involves the conservation of pioneer trees in open landscapes. A series of management measures, which may help maximize the species diversity and probability of occurrence of key-species of high conservation interest, are proposed. [less ▲]

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See detailTo what extent can management variables explain species assemblages? A study of carabid beetles in forests
De Warnaffe, G. D. B.; Dufrêne, Marc ULg

in Ecography (2004), 27(6), 701-714

Studies concerning the influence of forest management on invertebrate communities often focus on a limited set of chosen variables and rarely quantify the importance of management as opposed to other ... [more ▼]

Studies concerning the influence of forest management on invertebrate communities often focus on a limited set of chosen variables and rarely quantify the importance of management as opposed to other influences. We aimed at: 1) comparing the importance for species assemblages of habitat variables defined by management with those independent of it; 2) understanding the ecological significance of the variation remaining when both management and non-management variables are used. We caught carabid beetles according to a stratified pitfall sampling based on forest structure, tree composition and stand age. Forty-nine habitat variables were measured using three spatial scales. We decomposed the variation of species assemblages with successive constrained ordinations based on sets of variables, and studied the life traits of the species least and best explained by the model including all of the variables. Forest structure, composition and stand age showed important effects but explained a relatively small part of the overall variation in species assemblages. Management accounted for ca 30% of the variation, but non-management variables had a significant impact and the interaction between management and non-management sets resulted in significant influences. Most species for which the variation was highly explained by the model were generally large and with inefficient wings, while the least explained species were small. Our study suggests that: 1) even with highly controlled samples, the influence of management on species assemblages should not be studied by a limited set of categorical variables; 2) management variables may interact with factors outside of the manager's control; 3) a significant part of the variation cannot be explained by habitat variables and needs taking ecological processes into account; 4) rules to optimise constrained ordination techniques applied to species-habitat studies can be proposed. [less ▲]

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See detailHow do paedomorphic newts cope with lake drying?
Denoël, Mathieu ULg

in Ecography (2003), 26(4), 405-410

Paedomorphosis, in which adult individuals retain larval traits, is widespread in newts and salamanders. Most evolutionary models predict the maintenance of this life-history trait in favourable aquatic ... [more ▼]

Paedomorphosis, in which adult individuals retain larval traits, is widespread in newts and salamanders. Most evolutionary models predict the maintenance of this life-history trait in favourable aquatic habitats surrounded by hostile terrestrial environments. Nevertheless, numerous ponds inhabited by paedomorphic individuals are unpredictable and temporary. In an experimental framework, I showed that paedomorphic newts were able to metamorphose and thus survive in the absence of water. However, the mere decrease of water level or the life space do not seem to induce metamorphosis in paedomorphs. On the contrary, drying up induces almost all individuals to move on land and after that to colonize other aquatic sites located nearby. Such terrestrial migrations allow survival in drying conditions without metamorphosis as long as the distances of terrestrial migration are short. These results are consistent with the presence of paedomorphs in drying ponds and are in favor of classic optimality models predicting metamorphosis in unfavorable environments. [less ▲]

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