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See detailHow to define responders in osteoarthritis
Cooper, Cyrus; Adachi, Jonathan D; Bardin, Thomas et al

in Current Medical Research & Opinion (2013), 29(6), 719-29

Background: Osteoarthritis is a clinical syndrome of failure of the joint accompanied by varying degrees of joint pain, functional limitation, and reduced quality of life due to deterioration of articular ... [more ▼]

Background: Osteoarthritis is a clinical syndrome of failure of the joint accompanied by varying degrees of joint pain, functional limitation, and reduced quality of life due to deterioration of articular cartilage and involvement of other joint structures. Scope: Regulatory agencies require relevant clinical benefit on symptoms and structure modification for registration of a new therapy as a disease-modifying osteoarthritis drug (DMOAD). An international Working Group of the European Society on Clinical and Economic Aspects of Osteoporosis and Osteoarthritis (ESCEO) and International Osteoporosis Foundation was convened to explore the current burden of osteoarthritis, review current regulatory guidelines for the conduct of clinical trials, and examine the concept of responder analyses for improving drug evaluation in osteoarthritis. Findings: The ESCEO considers that the major challenges in DMOAD development are the absence of a precise definition of the disease, particularly in the early stages, and the lack of consensus on how to detect structural changes and link them to clinically meaningful endpoints. Responder criteria should help identify progression of disease and be clinically meaningful. The ideal criterion should be sensitive to change over time and should predict disease progression and outcomes such as joint replacement. Conclusion: The ESCEO considers that, for knee osteoarthritis, clinical trial data indicate that radiographic joint space narrowing40.5mm over 2 or 3 years might be a reliable surrogate measure for total joint replacement. On-going research using techniques such as magnetic resonance imaging and biochemical markers may allow the identification of these patients earlier in the disease process [less ▲]

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See detailVitamin D supplementation in elderly or postmenopausal women: a 2013 update of the 2008 recommendations from the European Society for Clinical and Economic Aspects of Osteoporosis and Osteoarthritis (ESCEO).
Rizzoli, R.; Boonen, S.; Brandi, M.-L. et al

in Current Medical Research & Opinion (2013), 29(4), 305-13

Abstract Background: Vitamin D insufficiency has deleterious consequences on health outcomes. In elderly or postmenopausal women, it may exacerbate osteoporosis. Scope: There is currently no clear ... [more ▼]

Abstract Background: Vitamin D insufficiency has deleterious consequences on health outcomes. In elderly or postmenopausal women, it may exacerbate osteoporosis. Scope: There is currently no clear consensus on definitions of vitamin D insufficiency or minimal targets for vitamin D concentrations and proposed targets vary with the population. In view of the potential confusion for practitioners on when to treat and what to achieve, the European Society for Clinical and Economic Aspects of Osteoporosis and Osteoarthritis (ESCEO) convened a meeting to provide recommendations for clinical practice, to ensure the optimal management of elderly and postmenopausal women with regard to vitamin D supplementation. Findings: Vitamin D has both skeletal and extra-skeletal benefits. Patients with serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-(OH)D) levels <50 nmol/L have increased bone turnover, bone loss, and possibly mineralization defects compared with patients with levels >50 nmol/L. Similar relationships have been reported for frailty, nonvertebral and hip fracture, and all-cause mortality, with poorer outcomes at <50 nmol/L. Conclusion: The ESCEO recommends that 50 nmol/L (i.e. 20 ng/mL) should be the minimal serum 25-(OH)D concentration at the population level and in patients with osteoporosis to ensure optimal bone health. Below this threshold, supplementation is recommended at 800 to 1000 IU/day. Vitamin D supplementation is safe up to 10,000 IU/day (upper limit of safety) resulting in an upper limit of adequacy of 125 nmol/L 25-(OH)D. Daily consumption of calcium- and vitamin-D-fortified food products (e.g. yoghurt or milk) can help improve vitamin D intake. Above the threshold of 50 nmol/L, there is no clear evidence for additional benefits of supplementation. On the other hand, in fragile elderly subjects who are at elevated risk for falls and fracture, the ESCEO recommends a minimal serum 25-(OH)D level of 75 nmol/L (i.e. 30 ng/mL), for the greatest impact on fracture. [less ▲]

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See detailWhat do we know about the safety of corticosteroids in rheumatoid arthritis?
Ethgen, Olivier ULg; De Lemos Esteves, Frédéric ULg; Bruyère, Olivier ULg et al

in Current Medical Research & Opinion (2013), 29(9), 1147-60

Abstract Background: Clear information is still lacking on the safety of corticosteroids (GCs) therapy in RA despite six decades of clinical experience. Scope: We performed a literature search in Ovid ... [more ▼]

Abstract Background: Clear information is still lacking on the safety of corticosteroids (GCs) therapy in RA despite six decades of clinical experience. Scope: We performed a literature search in Ovid MEDLINE from January 2000 to December 2012. Our Population Intervention Comparator Outcomes (PICO) strategy search was: rheumatoid arthritis [Population], corticosteroids or glucocorticoids [Intervention], any comparison [Comparator], adverse effects [Outcome]. Studies were selected if they reported any measure of association between GCs intake and potential adverse effects in RA patients. Findings: We identified 1030 papers and selected for analysis 26 observational studies and six systematic reviews. The major side effects of GCs in RA are bone loss, risk of cardiovascular events and risk of infections as evidenced by large observational studies and not necessarily RCTs. Others associations were reported with herpes zoster, tuberculosis, hyperglycemia, cutaneous abnormalities, gastrointestinal perforation, respiratory infection and self-reported health problems such as cushingoid phenotype, ecchymosis, parchment-like skin, epistaxis, weight gain and sleep disturbance. Other potential adverse effects of GCs were studied but no association was found. These included psychological disorders, dermatophytosis, brain diseases, interstitial lung disease, memory deficit, metabolic syndrome, lymphoma, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, renal function and cerebrovascular accidents. Most of the evidence emanates from observational researches and the inherent limitations of such data should be kept in mind. Conclusion: Recent observational data and systematic reviews suggest that GCs can lead to relatively alarming and burdensome side effects in RA. This is particularly true for patients who have longer term and higher dose therapies. GCs are largely used in RA and knowing their safety profile is essential to improve patients care. The design of new therapeutic strategies intended to minimize the daily dosing of GCs while conserving their beneficial effect should be encouraged. [less ▲]

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See detailHealth claims assessment in the field of joint and cartilage: a consensus viewpoint of the Group for the Respect of Ethics and Excellence in Science
Bruyère, Olivier ULg; Avouac, Bernard; Richette, Pascal et al

in Current Medical Research & Opinion (2012), 28(4), 611-6

Abstract Introduction: In 2006, the European Parliament and Council issued a regulation (No. 1924/2006) for the nutrition and health claims made on foods, including food supplements. According to the ... [more ▼]

Abstract Introduction: In 2006, the European Parliament and Council issued a regulation (No. 1924/2006) for the nutrition and health claims made on foods, including food supplements. According to the regulation, the use of nutrition and health claims shall only be permitted if the substance in respect of which the claim is made has been shown to have a beneficial nutritional or physiological effect. In the field of joint and cartilage health, there is no clear scientific-based definition of the nature of such a beneficial nutritional or physiological effect. The objective of this paper is to scientifically define the possible content of health claims related to joint and cartilage health and to provide scientific guidelines for the design of clinical studies which need to be adopted to substantiate such health claims. Methods: Literature review up to September 2011 followed by a consensus expert discussion organized by the Group for the Respect of Ethics and Excellence in Science (GREES). Results: In line with the general principles of the PASSCLAIM and the Codex recommendations, the GREES identified four acceptable health claims related to joint and cartilage health based on the effects on discomfort, joint and cartilage structural integrity or risk factors for joint and cartilage diseases. The GREES considers that randomized controlled trials on a relevant outcome is the best design to assess health claims. Moreover, animal studies could also be of interest to substantiate some health claims, to assess the clinical relevance of endpoints used in human studies or to extrapolate data obtained in patients to the target (apparently) healthy population. Conclusion: According to the methodology and biomarkers used in the study and whether or not additional animal studies are provided to support the claim, various health claims can be acceptable in the field of joint and cartilage health. [less ▲]

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See detailEfficacy and safety of oral strontium ranelate for the treatment of knee osteoarthritis: rationale and design of randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.
Cooper, Cyrus; REGINSTER, Jean-Yves ULg; Chapurlat, Roland et al

in Current Medical Research & Opinion (2012), 28(2), 231-9

Abstract Objective: The osteoporosis drug strontium ranelate dissociates bone remodelling processes. It also inhibits subchondral bone resorption and stimulates cartilage matrix formation in vitro ... [more ▼]

Abstract Objective: The osteoporosis drug strontium ranelate dissociates bone remodelling processes. It also inhibits subchondral bone resorption and stimulates cartilage matrix formation in vitro. Exploratory studies in the osteoporosis trials report that strontium ranelate reduces biomarkers of cartilage degradation, and attenuates the progression and clinical symptoms of spinal osteoarthritis, suggesting symptom- and structure-modifying activity in osteoarthritis. We describe the rationale and design of a randomised trial evaluating the efficacy and safety of strontium ranelate in knee osteoarthritis. Research design, methods, and results: This double-blind, placebo-controlled trial (98 centres, 18 countries) includes ambulatory Caucasian men and women aged >/=50 years with primary knee osteoarthritis of the medial tibiofemoral compartment (Kellgren and Lawrence grade 2 or 3), joint space width (JSW) 2.5 to 5 mm, and knee pain on most days in the previous month (intensity >/=40 mm on a visual analogue scale). Patients are randomly allocated to three groups (strontium ranelate 1 or 2 g/day, or placebo). Follow-up is expected to last 3 years. The primary endpoint is radiographic change in JSW from baseline in each group versus placebo. The main clinical secondary endpoint is WOMAC score at the knee. Safety is assessed at every visit. It is estimated that 1600 patients are required to establish statistical significance with power >90% (0.2 mm +/- 10% between-group difference in change in JSW over 3 years). Recruitment started in April 2006. The results are expected in spring 2012. Clinical trial registration: The trial is registered on www.controlled-trials.com (number ISRCTN41323372). Conclusions: This randomised, double blind, placebo-controlled study will establish the potential of strontium ranelate in improving structure and symptoms in patients with knee osteoarthritis. [less ▲]

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See detailRecommendations for an update of 2003 European regulatory requirements for registration of drugs to be used in the treatment of RA.
Smolen, Josef S.; Boers, Maarten; Abadie, Eric ULg et al

in Current Medical Research & Opinion (2011), 27(2), 315-25

Since 2003, the European Medicines Agency (EMA) document, 'Points to consider on clinical investigation of medicinal products other than NSAIDs (nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs) for the treatment of ... [more ▼]

Since 2003, the European Medicines Agency (EMA) document, 'Points to consider on clinical investigation of medicinal products other than NSAIDs (nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs) for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis' has provided guidance for the clinical development of both biologic and non-biologic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs). In the last few years, several new products have been developed or are in development for the treatment of RA, which offer significant efficacy with regard to disease control, including prevention of structural damage and disability. Concurrently, novel insights have been gained with respect to the assessment of disease activity, joint damage and disability. New treatment strategies have been established which relate to early therapy, tight control and rapid switching of medication. Accordingly, several new EULAR/ACR recommendations have been or are being developed. Several important additions and changes are needed in the 2003 guidance to incorporate the current scientific knowledge into clinical trial design for the development of future products. Under the auspices of the Group for the Respect of Ethics and Excellence in Science (GREES), a group of experts in the field of RA and clinical trial design met to provide a consensus recommendation for an update to the 2003 EMA guidance document. [less ▲]

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See detailManagement of osteoporosis in the elderly.
Rizzoli, René; Bruyère, Olivier ULg; Cannata-Andia, Jorge Benito et al

in Current Medical Research & Opinion (2009), 25(10), 2373-2387

ABSTRACT Background: Osteoporosis is predominantly a condition of the elderly, and the median age for hip fracture in women is approximately 83 years. Osteoporotic fracture risk is multifactorial, and ... [more ▼]

ABSTRACT Background: Osteoporosis is predominantly a condition of the elderly, and the median age for hip fracture in women is approximately 83 years. Osteoporotic fracture risk is multifactorial, and often involves the balance between bone strength and propensity for falling. Objective: To present an overview of the available evidence, located primarily by Medline searches up to April, 2009, for the different management strategies aimed at reducing the risk of falls and osteoporotic fractures in the elderly. Results: Frailty is an independent predictor of falls, hip fractures, hospitalisation, disability and death in the elderly that is receiving increasing attention. Non-pharmacological strategies to reduce fall risk can prevent osteoporotic fractures. Exercise programmes, especially those involving high doses of exercise and incorporating balance training, have been shown to be effective. Many older people, especially the very elderly and those living in care institutions, have vitamin D inadequacy. In appropriate patients and given in sufficient doses, vitamin D and calcium supplementation is effective in reducing both falls and osteoporotic fractures, including hip fractures. Specific anti-osteoporosis drugs are underused, even in those most at risk of osteoporotic fracture. The evidence base for the efficacy of most such drugs in the elderly is incomplete, particularly with regard to nonvertebral and hip fractures. The evidence base is perhaps most complete for the relatively recently introduced drug, strontium ranelate. Non-adherence to treatment is a substantial problem, and may be exacerbated by the requirements for safe oral administration of bisphosphonates. Conclusion: Evidence-based strategies are available for reducing osteoporotic fracture risk in the elderly, and include exercise training, vitamin D and calcium supplementation, and use of evidence-based anti-osteoporotic drugs. A positive and determined approach to optimising the use of such strategies could reduce the burden of osteoporotic fractures in this high-risk group. [less ▲]

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See detailPost-fracture management of patients with hip fracture: a perspective.
Bruyère, Olivier ULg; Brandi, M.-L.; Burlet, N. et al

in Current Medical Research & Opinion (2008), 24(10), 2841-51

BACKGROUND: Hip fracture creates a worldwide morbidity, mortality and economic burden. After surgery, many patients experience long-term disability or die as a consequence of the fracture. A fracture is a ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Hip fracture creates a worldwide morbidity, mortality and economic burden. After surgery, many patients experience long-term disability or die as a consequence of the fracture. A fracture is a major risk factor for a subsequent fracture, which may occur within a short interval. METHODS: A literature search on post-fracture management of patients with hip fracture was performed on the Medline database. Key experts convened to develop a consensus document. FINDINGS: Management of hip-fracture patients to optimize outcome after hospital discharge requires several stages of care co-ordinated by a multidisciplinary team from before admission through to discharge. Further studies that specifically assess prevention and post-fracture management of hip fracture are needed, as only one study to date has assessed an osteoporosis medication in patients with a recent hip fracture. Proper nutrition is vital to assist bone repair and prevent further falls, particularly in malnourished patients. Vitamin D, calcium and protein supplementation is associated with an increase in hip BMD and reduction in falls. Rehabilitation is essential to improve functional disabilities and survival rates. Fall prevention and functional recovery strategies should include patient education and training to improve balance and increase muscle strength and mobility. Appropriate management can prevent further fractures and it is critical that high-risk patients are identified and treated. To foster this process, clinical pathways have been established to support orthopaedic surgeons. CONCLUSION: Although hip fracture is generally associated with poor outcomes, appropriate management can ensure optimal recovery and survival, and should be prioritized after a hip fracture to avoid deterioration of health and prevent subsequent fracture. [less ▲]

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See detailOnce-monthly oral ibandronate compared with weekly oral alendronate in postmenopausal osteoporosis: results from the head-to-head MOTION study.
Miller, Paul D; Epstein, Sol; Sedarati, Farhad et al

in Current Medical Research & Opinion (2008), 24(1), 207-13

OBJECTIVE: Oral ibandronate 150 mg is the first bisphosphonate approved for once-monthly treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis. To investigate whether once-monthly ibandronate 150 mg increases lumbar ... [more ▼]

OBJECTIVE: Oral ibandronate 150 mg is the first bisphosphonate approved for once-monthly treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis. To investigate whether once-monthly ibandronate 150 mg increases lumbar spine and total hip bone mineral density (BMD) to the same degree as weekly alendronate 70 mg. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: This was a 12-month, randomised, multinational, multicentre, double-blind, double-dummy, parallel-group, non-inferiority trial, conducted in 65 centres in North America, Latin America, Europe and South Africa. The study included postmenopausal women, mean lumbar spine (L2-L4) BMD T-score < -2.5 and > or = -5.0. Patients received either ibandronate 150 mg once monthly or alendronate 70 mg once weekly. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Co-primary efficacy endpoints were 12-month change (%) from baseline in mean lumbar spine and total hip BMD. Changes (%) from baseline in trochanter and femoral neck BMD were also evaluated. Adverse events were monitored throughout. Once-monthly ibandronate was considered non-inferior to weekly alendronate if the lower boundary of the one-sided 97.5% confidence interval (CI) (or two-sided 95% CI) was > or = -1.41% for lumbar spine and > or = -0.87% for total hip. RESULTS: Mean relative 12-month changes were 5.1% and 5.8% (95% CI for difference, -1.13, -0.23) in lumbar spine and 2.9% and 3.0% (95% CI for difference, -0.38, 0.18) in total hip BMD with once-monthly ibandronate and weekly alendronate, respectively; meeting the non-inferiority criteria at both sites. Gains in trochanter and femoral neck BMD were similar with both treatments. Both regimens were well tolerated. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The MOTION study is registered with the International Federation of Pharmaceutical Manufacturers and Associations trial portal, under the ID number MM17385. CONCLUSIONS: Once-monthly ibandronate was shown to be clinically comparable to weekly alendronate at increasing BMD after 12 months in both the lumbar spine and total hip. [less ▲]

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See detailRelationship between Change in Femoral Neck Bone Mineral Density and Hip Fracture Incidence During Treatment with Strontium Ranelate
Bruyère, Olivier ULg; Roux, Christian; Badurski, J. et al

in Current Medical Research & Opinion (2007), 23(12), 3041-5

OBJECTIVE: Strontium ranelate (SR) increases bone mineral density (BMD) in postmenopausal osteoporotic women and reduces vertebral and non-vertebral fracture incidence. Hip fracture reduction has also ... [more ▼]

OBJECTIVE: Strontium ranelate (SR) increases bone mineral density (BMD) in postmenopausal osteoporotic women and reduces vertebral and non-vertebral fracture incidence. Hip fracture reduction has also been observed during 3-year treatment with SR in osteoporotic women at high risk of hip fracture. The objective of this study is to analyse the association between BMD changes and hip fracture incidence during treatment with SR. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In this post-hoc analysis, 465 women aged over 74 years with low BMD at the femoral neck (T-score < or = -2.4 according to NHANES normative values) were selected from the population of a recently published study (the Treatment of Peripheral Osteoporosis Study - TROPOS). BMD was assessed at the femoral neck at baseline and after a follow-up of 3 years. Hip fractures were reported by study investigators. RESULTS: After adjusting for age, body mass index, femoral neck BMD at baseline and number of prevalent vertebral fractures, we found that for each 1% increase in femoral neck BMD observed after 3 years, the risk to experience a hip fracture after 3 years decreased by 7% (95% CI: 1-14%) (p = 0.04). In patients experiencing a hip fracture over 3 years of treatment with SR, femoral neck BMD increased by (mean [SE]) 3.41 (1.02)% compared to 7.23 (0.81)% in patients without hip fracture (p = 0.02). CONCLUSION: In this post-hoc analysis of women undergoing 3 years of SR treatment, an increase in femoral neck BMD is associated with a decrease in hip fracture incidence. [less ▲]

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See detailPrevalence of vitamin D inadequacy in European postmenopausal women
Bruyère, Olivier ULg; Malaise, Olivier ULg; Neuprez, A. et al

in Current Medical Research & Opinion (2007), 23(8), 1939-1944

Objective: Inadequate vitamin D level is associated with secondary hyperparathyroidism and increased bone turnover and bone loss, which in turn increases fracture risk. The objective of this study is to ... [more ▼]

Objective: Inadequate vitamin D level is associated with secondary hyperparathyroidism and increased bone turnover and bone loss, which in turn increases fracture risk. The objective of this study is to assess the prevalence of inadequate serum vitamin D levels in postmenopausal European women. There are no clear international agreements on what constitutes a level of vitamin D inadequacy, but recent publications suggest that the circulating level of vitamin D should be over 80 nmol/L or at least between 50 and 80 nmol/L. Material and methods: Assessment of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] was performed in 8532 European postmenopausal women with osteoporosis or osteopenia. European countries included France, Belgium, Denmark, Italy, Poland, Hungary, United Kingdom, Spain and Germany. Two cut-offs of 25(OH)D inadequacy were fixed < 80 nmol/L and < 50 nmol/L. Results: Mean (SD) age of the patients was 74.2 (7.1) years, body mass index was 25.7 (4.1)kg/m(2). Level of 25(OH)D was 61.0 (27.2) nmol/L. There was a highly significant difference of 25(OH)D level across European countries (p < 0.0001). The lowest level of 25(OH)D was found in France [51.5 (26.1) nmol/L] and the highest in Spain [85.2 (33.3) nmol/L]. In the whole study population, the prevalence of 25(OH)D inadequacy was 79.6% and 32.1 % when considering cut-offs of 80 and 50 nmol/L, respectively and when considering patients aged less than 65 years, the prevalence reached 86% (cut-off of 80 nmol/L) and 45% (cutoff of 50 nmol/L). Conclusion: This study indicates a high prevalence of vitamin D [25(OH)D] inadequacy in European postmenopausal women. The prevalence could be even higher in some particular countries. A greater awareness of the importance of vitamin D inadequacy is needed to address this public health problem. [less ▲]

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See detailDevelopment of an algorithm for using PINP to monitor treatment of patients with teriparatide
Eastell, R.; Krege, J. H.; Chen, P. Q. et al

in Current Medical Research & Opinion (2006), 22(1), 61-66

Introduction: Teriparatide effects are mediated via the preferential stimulation of osteoblastic activity over osteoclastic activity. Amino-terminal propeptide of type I procollagen (PINP) is an indicator ... [more ▼]

Introduction: Teriparatide effects are mediated via the preferential stimulation of osteoblastic activity over osteoclastic activity. Amino-terminal propeptide of type I procollagen (PINP) is an indicator of osteoblastic activity. Objective: Develop an algorithm using PINP as an aid in the management of patients with postmenopausal osteoporosis treated with teriparatide. Research design and methods: For inclusion in this post-hoc analysis, trials had to be investigations of teriparatide 20 mu g/day in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis having measurements of PINP at 3 months and bone mineral density (BMD) at 12 months. Signal-to-noise ratio was calculated for a series of markers of bone turnover in the Fracture Prevention Trial. An algorithm was developed to monitor patients treated with teriparatide using PINP. Results:Three trials met inclusion criteria and included the Fracture Prevention, Forteo-Alendronate Comparator and Anabolic After Antiresorptive trials. PINP had the highest signal-to-noise ratio of all bone-turnover markers. Positive PINP responses defined as increases > 10 mu g/L were observed in 77-97% of teriparatide- and in 6% of placebo-treated patients after 3 months of study drug. Mean lumbar spine BMD increases after 12 months of teriparatide in patients having PINP changes > 10 mu g/L ranged from 8.3% to 9.5% and in patients with PINP changes <= 10 mu g/L ranged from 5.9% to 7.6%. In the algorithm, PINP is measured at baseline and after 1-3 months of therapy. Patients with PINP increases > 10 mu g/L are given a positive message. Patients with PINP increases <= 10 mu g/L are assessed for adherence, teriparatide administration and storage techniques, and for the presence of medical conditions that might limit their therapeutic response, and these issues are addressed as appropriate. Patients without these issues and with PINP increases <= 10 mu g/L should be given a neutral message because BMD may significantly increase with continued therapy. Conclusions: The PINP algorithm provides information regarding the anabolic response to teriparatide therapy and has the potential to identify patients requiring help with issues of adherence, injection technique, teriparatide storage, and medical problems limiting therapeutic responsiveness to teriparatide treatment, Data assessing the relationship of changes in PINP to fracture risk reduction are not available. We recommend physicians audit the use of the algorithm in practice so that improvements can be made. [less ▲]

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See detailBlood pressure reduction with olmesartan in mild-to-moderate essential hypertension: a planned interim analsis of an open label sub-study in German patients
Barrios, Vivencio; Böhm, Michael; Boccanelli, Alessandro et al

in Current Medical Research & Opinion (2006), 22(7), 1375-1380

Objective : To present the baseline characteristics and open-label treatment phase results for German patients in OLMEBEST, a European, multinational, partially randomized, partially double-blind study in ... [more ▼]

Objective : To present the baseline characteristics and open-label treatment phase results for German patients in OLMEBEST, a European, multinational, partially randomized, partially double-blind study in patients with mild-to-moderate essential hypertension. Research design an methods: after a 2-week placebo run-in, patients received olmesartan 20 mg for 8 weeks. Controlled patients (mean sitting diastolic blood pressure [sDBP] < 90 mmHg) continued on olmesartan 20 mg/day for a further 4 weeks. Non-controlled patients (sDBP > 90 mmHg) were randomized to olmesartan 40 mg/day or olmesartan 20 mg/day plus 12.5 mg hydrochlorothiazide for 4 weeks. Of 823 patients included, 558 continued olmesartan 20 mg treatment and 228 patients were randomized to olmesartan 40 mg/day or combination therapy. Efficacy variables included the change from baseline in mean sitting DBP and systolic blood pressure [sDBP] at Week 8 (and Week 12 for controlled patients), and the proportion of controlled patients and responders (mean sDBP < 90 mmHg or improvement of > 10 mmHg from baseline at Week 8). Results: After 8 Weeks of olmesartan medoxomil 20 mg, mean reduction from baseline in sDBP was 11.8 mmHg and in sSBP was 17.1 mmHg. In controlled patients continuing open-label olmesartan medoxomil 20 mg, mean reduction from baseline at 12 weeks in sDBP was 14.9 mmHg and in sSBP was 20.1 mmHg. At Week 8, the response rate was 76% and the control rate was 30.9% of patients experienced and adverse event, and the majority of these events were judged by the investigators to be mild. Conclusion:l Olmesartan medoxomil monotherapy at the recommended dosage of 20 mg once daily is effective and well tolerated in patients with mild-to-moderate hypertension. [less ▲]

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See detailEfficacy and tolerability of olmesartan medoxomil in patients with mild to moderate essential hypertension - The OLMEBEST study
Barrios, V.; Boccanelli, A.; Ewald, S. et al

in Current Medical Research & Opinion (2006), 22(7), 1375-1380

Background and objective: Achieving target BP is important to control the increased cardiovascular risk associated with uncontrolled hypertension. However, failure to respond to therapy is common with all ... [more ▼]

Background and objective: Achieving target BP is important to control the increased cardiovascular risk associated with uncontrolled hypertension. However, failure to respond to therapy is common with all classes of antihypertensive agents. Angiotensin H type I receptor antagonists (angiotensin receptor blockers [ARBs]) possess many of the positive features of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, with fewer adverse effects. However, many patients fail to respond adequately to low-dose monotherapy. This study examined whether olmesartan medoxomil dose titration and olmesartan medoxomil/hydrochlorothiazide combination therapy were therapeutically equivalent in patients with mild to moderate essential hypertension who had shown an inadequate response to low-dose olmesartan medoxomil monotherapy. Methods: This was a prospective, parallel group, partially randomised, double-blind study set in 463 centres in nine European countries. 2306 male and female adult patients aged 18-75 years with mild to moderate essential hypertension (sitting diastolic BP [DBP] >= 90mm Hg and < 110mm Hg) were enrolled. All enrolled patients received open-label olmesartan medoxomil 20mg once daily for 8 weeks. At the end of this period, patients whose BP had not normalised (sitting DBP >= 90mm Hg) were randomised to receive olmesartan medoxomil monotherapy (40mg once daily, n = 302) or olmesartan medoxomil (20mg once daily)/ hydrochlorothiazide (12.5mg once daily) combination therapy (n = 325) for 4 weeks. The main outcome measure was change in mean sitting DBP during randomised treatment. Results: After 8 weeks of open-label treatment with olmesartan medoxomil 20 mg/day, 76% of patients showed a DBP response (sitting DBP < 90mm Hg or reduction of >= 10mm Hg). During the randomised phase of the study, both treatments were associated with further improvements in sitting SBP/DBP: a reduction of 5.3/5. 1 mm Hg with olmesartan medoxomil 40 mg/day, and a reduction of 10.8/7.9mm Hg with olmesartan medoxomil/thydrochlorothiazide combination therapy. Final mean BPs of 145.3/90.9mm Hg (olmesartan medoxomil 40 mg/day) and 140.7/88.7mm Hg (olmesartan medoxomil 20mg + hydrochlorothiazide) were achieved, compared with a mean BP of 160.8/ 100.5mm Hg at baseline. The two treatments were not therapeutically equivalent. Sitting DBP showed a response and was normalised (< 90mm Hg) in 62% and 47% of olmesartan medoxomil monotherapy patients, respectively. In the combination therapy group, these endpoints were achieved by 71 % (response) and 59% (normalisation) of patients. Treatment with olmesartan medoxomil 40 mg/day was associated with a lower frequency of adverse events than olmesartan medoxomil/hydrochlorothiazide combination therapy (21.5% vs 28.3%, respectively). Conclusion: For patients who did not achieve adequate BP control after initial treatment with olmesartan medoxomil 20 mg/day, olmesartan medoxomil dose titration (to 40 mg/day) or addition of hydrochlorothiazide (12.5 mg/day) elicited a sitting DBP response in the majority of patients who had failed to respond to low-dose monotherapy, and normalisation of sitting DBP in approximately 50% of patients. Both these strategies represent effective and well tolerated treatment options in patients who show an inadequate response to low-dose monotherapy with olmesartan medoxomil. [less ▲]

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See detailIron and the anaemia of chronic disease: a review and strategic recommendations.
Cavill, Ivor; Auerbach, Michael; Bailie, George R et al

in Current Medical Research & Opinion (2006), 22(4), 731-7

BACKGROUND: The incidence of anaemia is high in many chronic conditions, yet it often receives little attention. SCOPE/METHODS: A panel of international experts with experience in haematology, nephrology ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: The incidence of anaemia is high in many chronic conditions, yet it often receives little attention. SCOPE/METHODS: A panel of international experts with experience in haematology, nephrology, oncology, rheumatology and pharmacy was convened to prepare strategic guidelines. A focused literature search was conducted after key issues had been identified. A series of recommendations was agreed, backed, wherever possible, by published evidence which is included in the annotations. RECOMMENDATIONS: Anaemia is a critical issue for patients with chronic diseases. Healthcare professionals need to recognise that anaemia is a frequent companion of cancer and chronic conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis and heart failure. It reduces patients' quality of life and can increase morbidity and mortality. Anaemia should be considered as a disordered process in which the rate of red cell production fails to match the rate of destruction which leads eventually to a reduction in haemoglobin concentration; this process is common to all chronic anaemias. The aim of anaemia management should be to restore patient functionality and quality of life by restoring effective red cell production. Blood transfusion can elevate haemoglobin concentration in the short term but does nothing to address the underlying disorder; red cell transfusion is, therefore, not an appropriate treatment for chronic anaemia. Patients with anaemia of chronic disease may benefit from iron therapy and/or erythropoiesis stimulating agents (ESAs). Intravenous iron should be considered since this can be given safely to patients with chronic diseases while intramuscular iron causes unacceptable adverse effects and oral iron has limited efficacy in chronic anaemia. CONCLUSION: The management of anaemia calls for the development of a specialist service together with education of all healthcare professionals and transfer of skills from areas of good practice. Improvement in the management of anaemia requires a fundamental change of attitude from healthcare professionals. [less ▲]

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See detailThe high prevalence of inadequate serum vitamin D levels and implications for bone health
Reginster, Jean-Yves ULg

in Current Medical Research & Opinion (2005), 21(4), 579-585

Background: Inadequate serum vitamin D is associated with secondary hyperparathyroidism, increased bone turnover, and bone loss, which increase fracture risk. Osteomalacia has also been observed in severe ... [more ▼]

Background: Inadequate serum vitamin D is associated with secondary hyperparathyroidism, increased bone turnover, and bone loss, which increase fracture risk. Osteomalacia has also been observed in severe cases. Indeed, vitamin D and calcium are essential components of management strategies for the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. Despite this, many people currently do not have adequate vitamin D levels. This problem has been documented in many studies around the world, regardless of age, health status, or latitude, and is especially common among older adults, who are also likely to have osteoporosis. Factors that contribute to low vitamin D include low exposure to sunlight, decreased synthesis in skin and reduced intestinal absorption related to aging, and limited dietary sources. Supplementation is the most effective means of correcting poor vitamin D nutrition. However, few patients with osteoporosis currently take sufficient vitamin D supplements. Scope: This review article discusses the role of vitamin D in osteoporosis and skeletal health, and summarizes what is known about the high prevalence of inadequate serum vitamin D and recommendations for supplementation. Conclusion: Greater awareness of the importance of vitamin D for skeletal health and more aggressive supplementation efforts are urgently needed to address this important public health problem. [less ▲]

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See detailComparison of change in bone resorption and bone mineral density with once-weekly alendronate and daily risedronate: a randomised, placebo-controlled study
Hosking, D.; Adami, S.; Felsenberg, D. et al

in Current Medical Research & Opinion (2003), 19(5), 383-394

Objective: To compare the effects of alendronate (ALN) 70 mg once weekly (OW) and risedronate (RIS) 5 mg daily between-meal dosing on biochemical markers of bone turnover and bone mineral density (BMD) in ... [more ▼]

Objective: To compare the effects of alendronate (ALN) 70 mg once weekly (OW) and risedronate (RIS) 5 mg daily between-meal dosing on biochemical markers of bone turnover and bone mineral density (BMD) in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. Research design and methods: This was a 3-month, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study with a double-blind extension to 12 months. The study enrolled 549 postmenopausal women (ALN 219, RIS 222 and placebo (PBO) 108) who were : 60 years of age at outpatient centres. Main outcome measures: The primary endpoint was reduction in urine N-telopeptides of type 1 collagen (NTx) corrected for creatinine level at 3 months. Secondary parameters included change in BMD at the spine and hip at 6 and 12 months, NTx at 1, 6 and 12 months, and serum bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BSAP) at 1, 3, 6 and 12 months. Adverse experiences (AEs) were recorded throughout the study for an assessment of treatment safety profiles and tolerability. Results: Over 3 months, ALN produced a significantly greater mean reduction in urine NTx than did RIS (-52% vs -32%, p < 0.001), which was maintained at 12 months. ALN produced a significantly greater mean BMD increase than did RIS at 6 months, and it was maintained at 12 months at the lumbar spine (4.8% vs 2.8%, p < 0.001) and total hip (2.7% vs 0.9%, p < 0.001), as well as at the trochanter and femoral neck. Significant reductions in BSAP with ALN compared to RIS were maintained over the 12 months of treatment. Study size did not allow for meaningful assessment of differences in fracture rates. Tolerability was generally similar between ALN, RIS and PBO, and the incidence of upper GI AEs causing discontinuation and oesophageal AEs was similar in the ALN and RIS groups. Conclusion: In this study, ALN 70 mg OW produced a 50% greater reduction in bone resorption as measured by urine NTx and significantly greater increases in lumbar spine and hip BMD than did RIS 5 mg daily. The treatments had similar safety profiles and were generally well-tolerated. Additional studies are needed comparing OW ALN with OW RIS, which became available after the commencement of the present study. [less ▲]

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