References of "Consciousness & Cognition"
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See detailIntensity and memory characteristics of near-death experiences
Martial, Charlotte ULiege; Charland-Verville, Vanessa ULiege; Cassol, Helena ULiege et al

in Consciousness & Cognition (in press)

Memories of Near-Death Experiences (NDEs) seem to be very detailed and stable over time. At present, there is still no satisfactory explanation for the NDEs’ rich phenomenology. Here we compared ... [more ▼]

Memories of Near-Death Experiences (NDEs) seem to be very detailed and stable over time. At present, there is still no satisfactory explanation for the NDEs’ rich phenomenology. Here we compared phenomenological characteristics of NDE memories with the reported experience’s intensity. We included 152 individuals with a self-reported “classical” NDE (i.e. occurring in life-threatening conditions). All participants completed a mailed questionnaire that included a measure of phenomenological characteristics of memories (the Memory Characteristics Questionnaire; MCQ) and a measure of NDE’s intensity (the Greyson NDE scale). Greyson NDE scale total score was positively correlated with MCQ total score, suggesting that participants who described more intense NDEs also reported more phenomenological memory characteristics of NDE. Using MCQ items, our study also showed that NDE’s intensity is associated in particular with sensory details, personal importance and reactivation frequency variables. [less ▲]

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See detailFuture-oriented mental time travel in individuals with disordered gambling.
Noel, Xavier; Saeremans, Melanie; Kornreich, Charles et al

in Consciousness & Cognition (2017), 49

This study investigated the ability of individuals with disordered gambling to imagine future events. Problem gamblers (n=35) and control participants (n=35) were asked to imagine positive and negative ... [more ▼]

This study investigated the ability of individuals with disordered gambling to imagine future events. Problem gamblers (n=35) and control participants (n=35) were asked to imagine positive and negative future events for three temporal distances (one week, one year, 5-10years). Then, a variety of phenomenological aspects of their future thoughts (e.g., sensory and contextual details, autonoetic consciousness) were rated. Compared to control subjects, problem gamblers generated fewer positive and negative events across all temporal distances, an impairment that was correlated to verbal fluency scores. Furthermore, problem gamblers rated imagined events as containing fewer sensory and contextual details, and lacking autonoetic consciousness. These findings demonstrate that problem gambling is associated with a reduced future-oriented mental time travel ability and, in particular, with diminished autonoetic consciousness when imagining future events. [less ▲]

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See detailNonbelieved memories in middle-aged and older adults
Brédart, Serge ULiege; Bouffier, Marion

in Consciousness & Cognition (2016), 42(2), 352-357

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See detailGiving meaning to illness: an investigation of self-defining memories in patients with multiple sclerosis
Voltzenlogel, Virginie; Ernst, Alexandra ULiege; De Seze, Jérôme et al

in Consciousness & Cognition (2016), 45

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See detailImplicit learning: A way to improve visual search in spatial neglect?
Wansard, Murielle ULiege; Geurten, Marie ULiege; Colson, Catherine et al

in Consciousness & Cognition (2016), 43

Studies have shown that neglect patients are able to use stimulus regularities to orient faster toward the neglected side, without necessarily being aware of that information, or at the very least without ... [more ▼]

Studies have shown that neglect patients are able to use stimulus regularities to orient faster toward the neglected side, without necessarily being aware of that information, or at the very least without being able to verbalize their knowledge. In order to better control for the involvement of explicit processes, the present study sought to test neglect patients’ ability to detect more complex associations between stimuli using tasks similar to those used in implicit learning studies. Our results demonstrate that neglect patients had difficulties implicitly learning complex associations, contrary to what we found with controls. The possible influence of attentional and working memory impairments are discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailProcrastination, consideration of future consequences, and episodic future thinking
Rebetez, Marie My Lien; Barsics, Catherine ULiege; Rochat, Lucien et al

in Consciousness & Cognition (2016), 42

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See detailThe role of personal goals in autonoetic experience when imagining future events
Lehner, Edith; D'Argembeau, Arnaud ULiege

in Consciousness & Cognition (2016), 42

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See detailNear-Death Experiences in patients with locked-in syndrome: Not always a blissful journey
Charland-Verville, Vanessa ULiege; Lugo, Zulay; Jourdan, Jean-Pierre et al

in Consciousness & Cognition (2015), 34

Memories of Near-Death Experiences (NDEs) most often are recounted as emotionally positive events. At present, no satisfactory explanatory model exists to fully account for the rich phenomenology of NDEs ... [more ▼]

Memories of Near-Death Experiences (NDEs) most often are recounted as emotionally positive events. At present, no satisfactory explanatory model exists to fully account for the rich phenomenology of NDEs following a severe acute brain injury. The particular population of patients with locked-in syndrome (LIS) provides a unique opportunity to study NDEs following infratentorial brain lesions. We here retrospectively characterized the content of NDEs in 8 patients with LIS caused by an acute brainstem lesion (i.e., ‘‘LIS NDEs’’) and 23 NDE experiencers after coma with supratentorial lesions (i.e., ‘‘classical NDEs’’). Compared to ‘‘classical NDEs’’, ‘‘LIS NDEs’’ less frequently experienced a feeling of peacefulness or well-being. It could be hypothesized that NDEs containing less positive emotions might have a specific neuroanatomical substrate related to impaired pontine/paralimbic connectivity or alternatively might be related to the emotional distress caused by the presence of conscious awareness in a paralyzed body. [less ▲]

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See detailCoherence across consciousness levels: Symmetric visual displays spare working memory resources.
Dumitru, Magdalena ULiege

in Consciousness & Cognition (2015), 38

Two studies demonstrate that the need for coherence could nudge individuals to use structural similarities between binary visual displays and two concurrent cognitive tasks to unduly solve the latter in ... [more ▼]

Two studies demonstrate that the need for coherence could nudge individuals to use structural similarities between binary visual displays and two concurrent cognitive tasks to unduly solve the latter in similar fashion. In an overt truth-judgement task, participants decided whether symmetric colourful displays matched conjunction or disjunction descriptions (e.g., "the black and/or the orange"). In the simultaneous covert categorisation task, they decided whether a colour name (e.g., "black") described a two-colour object or half of a single-colour object. Two response patterns emerged as follows. Participants either acknowledged or rejected matches between disjunction descriptions and two visual stimuli and, similarly, either acknowledged or rejected matches between single colour names and two-colour objects or between single colour names and half of single-colour objects. These findings confirm the coherence hypothesis, highlight the role of coherence in preserving working-memory resources, and demonstrate an interaction between high-level and low-level consciousness. [less ▲]

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See detailCan the exploration of left space be induced implicitly in unilateral neglect?
Wansard, Murielle ULiege; Bartolomeo, Paolo; Geurten, Marie ULiege et al

in Consciousness & Cognition (2015), 31

The purpose of the present study was to explore the ability of neglect patients to detect and exploit the predictive value of a cue to respond more quickly and accurately to targets on their ... [more ▼]

The purpose of the present study was to explore the ability of neglect patients to detect and exploit the predictive value of a cue to respond more quickly and accurately to targets on their contralesional side in a Posner spatial cueing task. The majority of the cues (i.e. 80%) were invalid, indicating that the target would appear on the opposite side, although patients were not informed of this bias. Our results demonstrate that some neglect patients were able to extract the cue’s predictability and use it to orient faster toward the left. This cueing effect was present even in patients who were subsequently unable to describe the predictive character of the cues, and thus was not modulated by reportable awareness of the cue-target relation. [less ▲]

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See detailBeyond the Experience: Detection of Metamemorial Regularities
Geurten, Marie ULiege; Willems, Sylvie ULiege; Meulemans, Thierry ULiege

in Consciousness & Cognition (2015), 33

We examined the mechanisms involved in the development of the easily learned, easily remembered (ELER) heuristic in three groups of young children (4–5 years, 6–7 years, and 8–9 years). A trial-to ... [more ▼]

We examined the mechanisms involved in the development of the easily learned, easily remembered (ELER) heuristic in three groups of young children (4–5 years, 6–7 years, and 8–9 years). A trial-to-acquisition procedure was used to evaluate how much these children’s judgment of learning depended on the ELER heuristic. Moreover, a new experimental paradigm, composed of six phases—a pretest, four training phases, and a posttest—was employed to implicitly influence the validity of the ELER association that underlies this metacognitive rule. Results revealed that the ELER heuristic develops early (4–5 years), but its use is reduced after implicit training. Furthermore, executive monitoring was found to account for the smaller changes observed in older children (8–9 years) after training. From a developmental perspective, these findings present a coherent picture of children’s learning of metacognitive heuristics, wherein early automatic and implicit learning is later followed by effortful control. [less ▲]

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See detailThe organization of prospective thinking: Evidence of event clusters in freely generated future thoughts
Demblon, Julie ULiege; D'Argembeau, Arnaud ULiege

in Consciousness & Cognition (2014), 24

Recent research suggests that many imagined future events are not represented in isolation, but instead are embedded in broader event sequences—referred to as event clusters. It remains unclear, however ... [more ▼]

Recent research suggests that many imagined future events are not represented in isolation, but instead are embedded in broader event sequences—referred to as event clusters. It remains unclear, however, whether the production of event clusters reflects the underlying organizational structure of prospective thinking or whether it is an artifact of the event-cuing task in which participants are explicitly required to provide chains of associated future events. To address this issue, the present study examined whether the occurrence of event clusters in prospective thought is apparent when people are left to think freely about events that might happen in their personal future. The results showed that the succession of events participants spontaneously produced when envisioning their future frequently included event clusters. This finding provides more compelling evidence that prospective thinking involves higher-order autobiographical knowledge structures that organize imagined events in coherent themes and sequences. [less ▲]

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See detailLanguage-guided visual processing affects reasoning: the role of referential and spatial anchoring.
Dumitru, Magdalena ULiege; Joergensen, Gitte H.; Cruickshank, Alice G. et al

in Consciousness & Cognition (2013), 22(2), 562-71

Language is more than a source of information for accessing higher-order conceptual knowledge. Indeed, language may determine how people perceive and interpret visual stimuli. Visual processing in ... [more ▼]

Language is more than a source of information for accessing higher-order conceptual knowledge. Indeed, language may determine how people perceive and interpret visual stimuli. Visual processing in linguistic contexts, for instance, mirrors language processing and happens incrementally, rather than through variously-oriented fixations over a particular scene. The consequences of this atypical visual processing are yet to be determined. Here, we investigated the integration of visual and linguistic input during a reasoning task. Participants listened to sentences containing conjunctions or disjunctions (Nancy examined an ant and/or a cloud) and looked at visual scenes containing two pictures that either matched or mismatched the nouns. Degree of match between nouns and pictures (referential anchoring) and between their expected and actual spatial positions (spatial anchoring) affected fixations as well as judgments. We conclude that language induces incremental processing of visual scenes, which in turn becomes susceptible to reasoning errors during the language-meaning verification process. [less ▲]

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See detailConcern-induced negative affect is associated with the occurrence and content of mind-wandering
Stawarczyk, David ULiege; Majerus, Steve ULiege; D'Argembeau, Arnaud ULiege

in Consciousness & Cognition (2013), 22(2), 442-448

Previous research has shown that the content and frequency of mind-wandering episodes—the occurrence of thoughts that are both stimulus-independent and task-unrelated—are closely related to an ... [more ▼]

Previous research has shown that the content and frequency of mind-wandering episodes—the occurrence of thoughts that are both stimulus-independent and task-unrelated—are closely related to an individual’s future-related concerns. Whether this relationship is shaped by the affective changes that are usually associated with future-related concerns still remains unclear, however. In this study, we induced the anticipation of a negatively valenced event and examined whether the ensuing affective changes were related to the occurrence and content of mind-wandering during an unrelated attentional task. We found that the increase in negative affect following concern induction predicted the general frequency of mind-wandering episodes. Furthermore, mind-wandering episodes specifically directed at the induced concern were related to a lower decrease in negative affect during the attentional task. These results suggest that the negative emotional impact of future-related concerns is an important factor to be taken into consideration for the subsequent occurrence of mind-wandering episodes, which might in turn be involved in the maintenance of negative affect over time. [less ▲]

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See detailFrom armchair to wheelchair: How patients with a locked-in syndrome integrate bodily changes in experienced identity.
Nizzi, M. C.; Demertzi, Athina ULiege; Gosseries, Olivia ULiege et al

in Consciousness & Cognition (2012), 21

Different sort of people are interested in personal identity. Philosophers frequently ask what it takes to remain oneself. Caregivers imagine their patients' experience. But both philosophers and ... [more ▼]

Different sort of people are interested in personal identity. Philosophers frequently ask what it takes to remain oneself. Caregivers imagine their patients' experience. But both philosophers and caregivers think from the armchair: they can only make assumptions about what it would be like to wake up with massive bodily changes. Patients with a locked-in syndrome (LIS) suffer a full body paralysis without cognitive impairment. They can tell us what it is like. Forty-four chronic LIS patients and 20 age-matched healthy medical professionals answered a 15-items questionnaire targeting: (A) global evaluation of identity, (B) body representation and (C) experienced meaning in life. In patients, self-reported identity was correlated with B and C. Patients differed with controls in C. These results suggest that the paralyzed body remains a strong component of patients' experienced identity, that patients can adjust to objectives changes perceived as meaningful and that caregivers fail in predicting patients' experience. [less ▲]

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See detailPredicting the phenomenology of episodic future thoughts
D'Argembeau, Arnaud ULiege; Van der Linden, Martial ULiege

in Consciousness & Cognition (2012), 21

Recent findings suggest that multiple event properties contribute to shape the phenomenology of episodic future thoughts, but the specific role of each property is not yet fully understood. This study ... [more ▼]

Recent findings suggest that multiple event properties contribute to shape the phenomenology of episodic future thoughts, but the specific role of each property is not yet fully understood. This study shows that different phenomenological features are predicted by distinct event properties. The vividness of an episodic future thought largely depends on the familiarity of its constitutive elements (i.e., the envisioned location, persons and objects), while the visual perspective adopted is instead related to the temporal distance of the imagined event. Cognitive feelings such as the sense of pre-experiencing the future depend on sensory-perceptual qualities, and are further modulated by the personal importance attributed to the event. These findings suggest that the essence of episodic future thought—the sensation of mentally visiting one’s personal future—lies, in part, in the relevance of imagined events with respect to personal goals. [less ▲]

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See detailRecalling episodic information about personally known faces and voices
Barsics, Catherine ULiege; Brédart, Serge ULiege

in Consciousness & Cognition (2011), 20(2), 303-308

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See detailFeeling of doing in obsessive–compulsive checking
Belayachi, Sanaa ULiege; Van der Linden, Martial ULiege

in Consciousness & Cognition (2010), 19(2), 534-546

Research on self-agency emphasizes the importance of a comparing mechanism, which scans for a match between anticipated and actual outcomes, in the subjective experience of doing. This study explored the ... [more ▼]

Research on self-agency emphasizes the importance of a comparing mechanism, which scans for a match between anticipated and actual outcomes, in the subjective experience of doing. This study explored the “feeling of doing” in individuals with checking symptoms by examining the mechanism involved in the experienced agency for outcomes that matched expectations. This mechanism was explored using a task in which the subliminal priming of potential action-effects (emulating outcome anticipation) generally enhances people’s feeling of causing these effects when they occur, due to the unconscious perception of a match between primed and observed outcomes. The main result revealed a negative relationship between checking and self-agency for observed outcomes that were primed prior to actions. This suggests that checking individuals fail to grasp the correspondence between actual outcomes of their actions and expected ones. We discuss the possible role of undermined self-agency in checking phenomena and its relationship with cognitive dysfunction. [less ▲]

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See detailNarrative identity in schizophrenia.
Raffard, Stephane; D'Argembeau, Arnaud ULiege; Lardi, Claudia et al

in Consciousness & Cognition (2010), 19(1), 328-40

This study examined narrative identity in a group of 81 patients with schizophrenia and 50 healthy controls through the recall of self-defining memories. The results indicated that patients' narratives ... [more ▼]

This study examined narrative identity in a group of 81 patients with schizophrenia and 50 healthy controls through the recall of self-defining memories. The results indicated that patients' narratives were less coherent and elaborate than those of controls. Schizophrenia patients were severely impaired in the ability to make connections with the self and extract meaning from their memories, which significantly correlated with illness duration. In agreement with earlier research, patients exhibited an early reminiscence bump. Moreover, the period of the reminiscence bump, which is highly relevant for identity development, was characterized by fewer achievements and more life-threatening event experiences, compared with controls. A negative correlation was found between negative symptoms, number of self-event connections and specificity of narratives. Our results suggest that schizophrenia patients have difficulties to organize and extract meaning from their past experiences in order to create coherent personal narratives. [less ▲]

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See detailLevel of agency in sub-clinical checking
Belayachi, Sanaa ULiege; Van der Linden, Martial ULiege

in Consciousness & Cognition (2009), 18(1), 293-299

This study examined cognitive representations of routine action, through the assessment of level of agency, in individuals with sub-clinical checking. The level of agency stems from Action Identification ... [more ▼]

This study examined cognitive representations of routine action, through the assessment of level of agency, in individuals with sub-clinical checking. The level of agency stems from Action Identification Theory [Vallacher, R. R., Wegner, D. M. (1989). Levels of personal agency: Individual variation in action identification. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 57, 660-671], which states that how actions are usually identified (based on instrumental aspects or purpose) reflects the predominant accessibility of internal representation (movements executed vs. goal pursued). Furthermore, this framework proposed that altered action regulation is related to low-level of agency (i.e., action identification at an instrumental level). In the current study, the main result indicated that checking symptoms were related to a low-level of agency, that is, individuals with sub-clinical checking identified habitual actions on the basis of instrumental aspects. This seems to indicate that checkers may act with a lack of goal representations. The results are discussed in terms of the role of low-level of agency in checking phenomena and related cognitive dysfunction. [less ▲]

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