References of "Cerebral Cortex"
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See detailInfluence of COMT Genotype on Antero-Posterior Cortical Functional Connectivity Underlying Interference Resolution
Jaspar, Mathieu ULg; Manard, Marine ULg; DIDEBERG, Vinciane ULg et al

in Cerebral Cortex (in press)

Genetic variability related to the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene (Val158Met) has received increasing attention as a possible modulator of executive functioning and its neural correlates ... [more ▼]

Genetic variability related to the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene (Val158Met) has received increasing attention as a possible modulator of executive functioning and its neural correlates. However, this attention has generally centred on the prefrontal cortices because of the well-known direct impact of COMT enzyme on these cerebral regions. In this study, we were interested in the modulating effect of COMT genotype on anterior and posterior brain areas underlying interference resolution during a Stroop task. More specifically, we were interested in the functional connectivity between the right inferior frontal operculum (IFop), an area frequently associated with inhibitory efficiency, and posterior brain regions involved in reading/naming processes (the two main non-executive determinants of the Stroop effect). The Stroop task was administered during fMRI scanning to three groups of 15 young adults divided according to their COMT Val158Met genotype [Val/Val (VV), Val/Met (VM) and Met/Met (MM)]. Results indicate greater activity in the right IFop and the left middle temporal gyrus (MTG) in homozygous VV individuals than in Met allele carriers. In addition, the VV group exhibited stronger positive functional connectivity between these two brain regions and stronger negative connectivity between the right IFop and left lingual gyrus. These results confirm the impact of COMT genotype on frontal function. They also strongly suggest that differences in frontal activity influence posterior brain regions related to a non-executive component of the task. Especially, changes in functional connectivity between anterior and posterior brain areas might correspond to compensatory processes for performing the task efficiently when the available dopamine level is low. [less ▲]

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See detailAttention Supports Verbal Short-Term Memory via Competition between Dorsal and Ventral Attention Networks.
Majerus, Steve ULg; Attout, Lucie ULg; D'Argembeau, Arnaud ULg et al

in Cerebral Cortex (2012), 22

Interactions between the neural correlates of short-term memory (STM) and attention have been actively studied in the visual STM domain but much less in the verbal STM domain. Here we show that the same ... [more ▼]

Interactions between the neural correlates of short-term memory (STM) and attention have been actively studied in the visual STM domain but much less in the verbal STM domain. Here we show that the same attention mechanisms that have been shown to shape the neural networks of visual STM also shape those of verbal STM. Based on previous research in visual STM, we contrasted the involvement of a dorsal attention network centered on the intraparietal sulcus supporting task-related attention and a ventral attention network centered on the temporoparietal junction supporting stimulus-related attention. We observed that, with increasing STM load, the dorsal attention network was activated while the ventral attention network was deactivated, especially during early maintenance. Importantly, activation in the ventral attention network increased in response to task-irrelevant stimuli briefly presented during the maintenance phase of the STM trials but only during low-load STM conditions, which were associated with the lowest levels of activity in the dorsal attention network during encoding and early maintenance. By demonstrating a trade-off between task-related and stimulus-related attention networks during verbal STM, this study highlights the dynamics of attentional processes involved in verbal STM. [less ▲]

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See detailValuing One's Self: Medial Prefrontal Involvement in Epistemic and Emotive Investments in Self-views.
D'Argembeau, Arnaud ULg; Jedidi, Haroun ULg; Balteau, Evelyne ULg et al

in Cerebral Cortex (2012), 22

Recent neuroimaging research has revealed that the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) is consistently engaged when people form mental representations of themselves. However, the precise function of this ... [more ▼]

Recent neuroimaging research has revealed that the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) is consistently engaged when people form mental representations of themselves. However, the precise function of this region in self-representation is not yet fully understood. Here, we investigate whether the MPFC contributes to epistemic and emotive investments in self-views, which are essential components of the self-concept that stabilize self-views and shape how one feels about oneself. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we show that the level of activity in the MPFC when people think about their personal traits (by judging trait adjectives for self-descriptiveness) depends on their investments in the particular self-view under consideration, as assessed by postscan rating scales. Furthermore, different forms of investments are associated with partly distinct medial prefrontal areas: a region of the dorsal MPFC is uniquely related to the degree of certainty with which a particular self-view is held (one's epistemic investment), whereas a region of the ventral MPFC responds specifically to the importance attached to this self-view (one's emotive investment). These findings provide new insight into the role of the MPFC in self-representation and suggest that the ventral MPFC confers degrees of value upon the particular conception of the self that people construct at a given moment. [less ▲]

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See detailGesture Subtype-Dependent Left Lateralization of Praxis Planning: An Event-Related fMRI Study.
Bohlhalter, Stephan; Hattori, Nori; Wheaton, Lewis et al

in Cerebral Cortex (2008)

Ideomotor apraxia is a disorder mainly of praxis planning, and the deficit is typically more evident in pantomiming transitive (tool related) than intransitive (communicative) gestures. The goal of the ... [more ▼]

Ideomotor apraxia is a disorder mainly of praxis planning, and the deficit is typically more evident in pantomiming transitive (tool related) than intransitive (communicative) gestures. The goal of the present study was to assess differential hemispheric lateralization of praxis production using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging. Voxel-based analysis demonstrated significant activations in posterior parietal cortex (PPC) and premotor cortex (PMC) association areas, which were predominantly left hemispheric, regardless of whether planning occurred for right or left hand transitive or intransitive pantomimes. Furthermore, region of interest-based calculation of mean laterality index (LI) revealed a significantly stronger left lateralization in PPC/PMC clusters for planning intransitive (LI = -0.49 + 0.10, mean + standard deviation [SD]) than transitive gestures (-0.37 + 0.08, P = 0.02, paired t-tests) irrespective of the hand involved. This differential left lateralization for planning remained significant in PMC (LI = -0.47 + 0.14 and -0.36 + 0.13, mean + SD, P = 0.04), but not in PPC (-0.56 + 0.11 and -0.45 + 0.12, P = 0.11), when both regions were analyzed separately. In conclusion, the findings point to a left-hemispheric specialization for praxis planning, being more pronounced for intransitive gestures in PMC, possibly due to their communicative nature. [less ▲]

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See detailWavelength-dependent modulation of brain responses to a working memory task by daytime light exposure
Vandewalle, Gilles ULg; Gais, S.; Schabus, Manuel ULg et al

in Cerebral Cortex (2007), 17(12), 2788-2795

In addition to classical visual effects, light elicits nonvisual brain responses, which profoundly influence physiology and behavior. These effects are mediated in part by melanopsin-expressing light ... [more ▼]

In addition to classical visual effects, light elicits nonvisual brain responses, which profoundly influence physiology and behavior. These effects are mediated in part by melanopsin-expressing light-sensitive ganglion cells that, in contrast to the classical photopic system that is maximally sensitive to green light (550 nm), is very sensitive to blue light (470-480 nm). At present, there is no evidence that blue light exposure is effective in modulating nonvisual brain activity related to complex cognitive tasks. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we show that, while participants perform an auditory working memory task, a short (18 min) daytime exposure to blue (470 nm) or green (550 nm) monochromatic light (3 x 10(13) photons/cm(2)/s) differentially modulates regional brain responses. Blue light typically enhanced brain responses or at least prevented the decline otherwise observed following green light exposure in frontal and parietal cortices implicated in working memory, and in the thalamus involved in the modulation of cognition by arousal. Our results imply that monochromatic light can affect cognitive functions almost instantaneously and suggest that these effects are mediated by a melanopsin-based photoreceptor system. [less ▲]

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See detailA role for proneural genes in the maturation of cortical progenitor cells.
Britz, Olivier; Mattar, Pierre; Nguyen, Laurent ULg et al

in Cerebral Cortex (2006), 16 Suppl 1

We showed previously that the proneural genes Neurogenin1 (Ngn1) and Ngn2 are required to specify the phenotypes of early- and not late-born neurons in the neocortex, acting in part through repression of ... [more ▼]

We showed previously that the proneural genes Neurogenin1 (Ngn1) and Ngn2 are required to specify the phenotypes of early- and not late-born neurons in the neocortex, acting in part through repression of Mash1, a third cortically expressed proneural gene. The precise timing of Ngn1/2 specification activity was unexpected given these genes are expressed throughout cortical development, prompting us to search for a later function. Here we reveal that Ngn2 and Mash1 are expressed in a dynamic fashion, acquiring a cell cycle-biased, nonoverlapping distribution, with preferential expression in prospective basal progenitors, during mid corticogenesis. We also identified a new function for Ngn2 during this latter period, demonstrating that it is required to regulate the transit of cortical progenitors from the ventricular zone (VZ) to the subventricular zone. Notably, Ngn2 regulates progenitor maturation at least in part through repression of Mash1 as misexpression of Mash1 strongly enhanced progenitor cell exit from the VZ. Significantly, the ability of Mash1 to promote progenitor cell maturation occurred independently of its ability to respecify cortical cells and is thus a novel function for Mash1. Taken together, these data support a model whereby Ngn2 and Mash1 function together to regulate the zonal distribution of progenitors in the developing neocortex. [less ▲]

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