References of "Carbohydrate Polymers"
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See detailWater soluble exo-polysaccharide from Syncephalastrum racemosum, a strong inducer of plant defence reactions
Valepyn, Emmanuel ULg; Cabrera, Juan-Carlos; Richel, Aurore ULg et al

in Carbohydrate Polymers (2014), 101

This study examines the production, characterization and bioactivity on plant cell cultured in vitro of exopolysaccharides (EPS) from Syncephalastrum racemosum CBS 443.59. Firstly, the influence of the ... [more ▼]

This study examines the production, characterization and bioactivity on plant cell cultured in vitro of exopolysaccharides (EPS) from Syncephalastrum racemosum CBS 443.59. Firstly, the influence of the fungus culture condition in shake flasks (pH, temperature and different carbon and nitrogen sources) on EPS and biomass production were evaluated. In order to enhance EPS production, a new protocol based on two-stage pH fermentation in a 3 L stirred fermentor was developed. Under this condition, EPS production increased by 3.55 times, compared to a constant pH process, reaching a maximal EPS concentration of 2.62 g/L. Structurally, the EPS contains a polyglucuronic acid backbone, linked essentially with mannose and fucose units and some galactose and glucose units. The bioactivity of EPS as inducer of defence reactions in plant suspension-cultured cells was also studied. Our results show, for first time, that EPS from S. racemosum CBS 443.59 induces, depending on the concentration, PAL activation and H2O2 synthesis in Arabidospsis thaliana cell suspensions. [less ▲]

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See detailImpact of purification and fractionation process on the chemical structure and physical properties of locust bean gum
Gillet, Sébastien ULg; Blecker, Christophe ULg; Aguedo, Mario ULg et al

in Carbohydrate Polymers (2014)

Crude locust bean gum (CLBG) was purified and fractionated into two parts : the first was obtained by solubilization in water at 25 °C (GM25) and the second consisted in a further extraction at 80 °C on ... [more ▼]

Crude locust bean gum (CLBG) was purified and fractionated into two parts : the first was obtained by solubilization in water at 25 °C (GM25) and the second consisted in a further extraction at 80 °C on the residual impoverished fraction (GM80). The complete structural characterization has shown that GM80 possessed relatively longer chain lengths than GM25, a slightly lower degree of galactose substitution and a somewhat sharper galactosyl distribution in substituted and unsubstituted regions. A physical behavior analysis was carried out on solubilization kinetics, viscosity, viscoelasticity and formation of associated gels with xanthan or carrageenan. The average structure of GM80 generated larger intra-chain, inter-chain and inter-molecular interactions, resulting in the appearance of a stronger network. Small structural differences therefore generated very different physical behaviors. This study thus allowed to establish, in a precise and complete manner, fractionation-purification-structure-function relationships of galactomannans extracted from carob. [less ▲]

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See detailExtraction by three processes of arabinoxylans from wheat bran and characterization of the fractions obtained
Aguedo, Mario ULg; Fougnies, Christian; DERMIENCE, Michael ULg et al

in Carbohydrate Polymers (2014), 105

Arabinoxylans (AXs) were extracted from destarched wheat bran (DWB) according to different processes, with a view to their production at industrial scale. Two fractions (F3a and F3b, respectively purified ... [more ▼]

Arabinoxylans (AXs) were extracted from destarched wheat bran (DWB) according to different processes, with a view to their production at industrial scale. Two fractions (F3a and F3b, respectively purified on 10 kDa and 100 kDa ultrafiltration membranes) were obtained with low yields by treating DWB with an endoxylanase and this process left a solid residue exhausted in enzyme-extractable AXs (EDWB). F1 and F2 AX fractions were obtained by treatment with sodium hydroxide of respectively DWB and EDWB. The fraction F4 resulted from a hydrothermal treatment of EDWB in a pressure reactor, followed by ethanol precipitation. The different AX fractions were characterized and compared for the composition in monosaccharides, for the contents in fats and in ferulic, phytic and uronic acids, for the molecular mass distribution and the degrees of methylation and acetylation. The alkaline extractions gave one desesterified AX population with molecular mass (MM) higher than 670 kDa and arabinose/xylose ratios (Ara/Xyl) around 1. The enzyme and thermal treatments yielded AXs with two main populations in size-exclusion chromatography (the largest one at 5-12.5 kDa and a second one at 140-160 kDa), having overall Ara/Xyl of respectively 0.7 and 0.5 for both processes. These data bring information about the influence of the process on the characteristics of AX fractions obtained from pretreated wheat bran. Here are also reported processes that enabled to recover enzyme-unextractable AXs from DWB, including an original and up-scalable hydrothermal extraction. Phytate contents of isolated AXs are described for the first time. [less ▲]

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See detailSugar-labeled and PEGylated (bio)degradable polymers intended for targeted drug delivery systems
Freichels, Hélène; Jérôme, Robert ULg; Jérôme, Christine ULg

in Carbohydrate Polymers (2011), 86(3), 1093-1106

This paper aims at giving a comprehensive view of the research effort devoted to the preparation of sugar coated long-circulating degradable polymers intended for drug delivery applications. In the recent ... [more ▼]

This paper aims at giving a comprehensive view of the research effort devoted to the preparation of sugar coated long-circulating degradable polymers intended for drug delivery applications. In the recent past, many research projects have focused on the controlled drug delivery and, therefore, on the design of drug carriers. Among them, polymeric carriers have great potential because they can be chemically modified to a large extent and so endowed with specific properties. For instance, depending on the selected polymer, either the circulation time in the bloodstream can be increased very significantly (long-circulating polymer) or the drug carrier can be completely degraded after administration. Moreover, active targeting, i.e., carriers bearing a ligand known for specific affinity for one tissue, has emerged as a method of choice in targeting the delivery of drugs. This concept is of the utmost importance because the large variety of receptors present in the body makes the selective targeting a must in order to prevent any healthy tissue from being damaged irreversibly. The purpose of this paper is to emphasize that carbohydrates are very promising pilot molecules for the next generation of drug delivery [less ▲]

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See detailEffect of non-ionic surfactant and acidity on chitosan nanofibers with different molecular weights
Ziani, Khalid; Henrist, Catherine ULg; Jerome, Christine et al

in Carbohydrate Polymers (2011), 83(2), 470-476

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See detailIn situ SAXS under shear unveils the gelation of aqueous starch suspensions and the impact of added amylose-lipid complexes
Putseys, Joke; Gommes, Cédric ULg; Van Puyvelde, P. et al

in Carbohydrate Polymers (2011), 84

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See detailCharacterization of hemicellulosic fractions from spelt hull extracted by different methods
Escarnot, Emmanuelle; Aguedo, Mario ULg; Paquot, Michel ULg

in Carbohydrate Polymers (2011), 85

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See detailEffect of blend levels on composite wheat doughs performance made from yam and cassava native starches and bread quality
Nindjin, Charlemagne; Amani, G. N.; Sindic, Marianne ULg

in Carbohydrate Polymers (2011), 86

The effects of refined wheat flour substitution with two native starches from yam tuber and cassava root, and two commercial products, a specialty starch, C*Actistar and a wheat bran flour, at 10%, 20 ... [more ▼]

The effects of refined wheat flour substitution with two native starches from yam tuber and cassava root, and two commercial products, a specialty starch, C*Actistar and a wheat bran flour, at 10%, 20%, 30%, 40% and 60% dry basis, on the rheological properties of dough and bread characteristics, have been examined. In general, during the mixing phase, the substitution of white wheat flour for starch or wheat bran flour had a tendency to modify the flour strength from strong to weak, depending on the nature of the added fraction and the level of substitution. Yam starch and wheat bran flour weakened dough strength to a lesser extent in comparison with cassava starch, and by far, the resistant starch, C*Actistar. In addition, differences in dough expansion appeared among the botanical origins of composite dough and the blend proportions, during the fermentation phase. White wheat flour substitution for yam starch up to 30% or cassava starch up to 20% led to kinetics expansions of resulted doughs close to that of the control, while those of doughs containing C*actistar starch or wheat bran flour were significantly slower than that of the control, whatever the level of substitution. The baking phase showed that yam starch enriched breads from 10% to 40% of substitution and cassava starch enriched breads from 10% to 30% of substitution gave as bulky loaves as the refined wheat bread. Beyond these concentrations, the resulting breads were less voluminous. Hedonic tests revealed that, 30% yam starch substitution and 20% added cassava starch led to composite breads which met consumer satisfaction on all attributes, as the control. [less ▲]

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See detailPreparation and characterization of organic-soluble acetylated starch nanocrystals
Xu, Yue; Ding, Wanqiang; Liu, Ji ULg et al

in Carbohydrate Polymers (2010), 80(4), 1078-1084

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See detailComparative study of the effect of drying temperatures and heat-moisture treatment on the physicochemical and functional properties of corn starch
Malumba Kamba, Paul ULg; Janas, Sébastien ULg; Roiseux, Olivier et al

in Carbohydrate Polymers (2010), 79(3), 633-641

This manuscript compares the modifications induced by the heat-moisture treatment of native starch (HMT) and by the hot-air drying of corn on wet-milled starch granules. High temperatures applied during ... [more ▼]

This manuscript compares the modifications induced by the heat-moisture treatment of native starch (HMT) and by the hot-air drying of corn on wet-milled starch granules. High temperatures applied during both corn drying and HMT reduced the swelling capacity of granules, increased the starch gelatinization temperatures and decreased their residual enthalpy. Pasting behaviour of pre-treated starch showed a decrease of peak and breakdown viscosity when corn drying and HMT temperatures increased. Microscopic analysis showed that after hydrothermal treatment, starch granules extracted from corn dried at lower temperature swell more significantly than those extracted from corn dried at higher temperature. All these changes suggest the occurring of structural modifications within starch granules during high-temperature pre-treatments. At similar temperatures and initial moisture contents, HMT affected the physicochemical and functional properties of cornstarch more dramatically than hot-air drying. Differences induced by these two treatments were attributed to the availability of water around granules during these two pre-treatment procedures. [less ▲]

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See detailRheological and morphological characterization of the culture broth during exopolysaccharide production by Enterobacter sp.
Alves, Vitor D.; Freitas, Filomena; Torres, Cristiana A.V. et al

in Carbohydrate Polymers (2010), 81

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See detailPhysicochemical and functional properties of starches from sorghum cultivated in the Sahara of Algeria
Boudries, Nadia; Belhaneche, Naima; Nadjemi, Boubekeur et al

in Carbohydrate Polymers (2009), 78(3), 475-480

Pure starches were isolated from white and red sorghum cultivated in Tidikelt, a hyper and region situated in south Algeria. Amylose content, X-ray pattern and theological properties of starches were ... [more ▼]

Pure starches were isolated from white and red sorghum cultivated in Tidikelt, a hyper and region situated in south Algeria. Amylose content, X-ray pattern and theological properties of starches were examined. The amylose content in white sorghum starch (27.1%) was slightly higher than that in red sorghum (24.8%). The swelling power and the solubility behavior of both starches were nearly similar below 65 degrees C. At higher temperatures, starch isolated from the white sorghum cultivar showed higher swelling power and lower solubility index than pigmented sorghum starch. The pasting properties of starches determined by RVA, Rapid Visco Analyser showed different viscosity peaks. Red sorghum starch had a higher value (4731 cP) than white sorghum starch (4093 cP). For both sorghum, X-ray diffractograms exhibit an A-type diffraction pattern, typical of cereal starches and the relative degrees of crystallinity were estimated at 22.72% and 28.91%, respectively, for local white and red sorghum starch. DSC analysis revealed that sorghum starches present higher temperatures at the peak (70.60 and 72.28 degrees C for white and red sorghum starches, respectively) and lower gelatinization enthalpies (9.087 and 8.270 J/g for white and red sorghum starches, respectively) than other cereal starches. The results showed that physicochemical and functional properties of sorghum cultivar starches were influenced by the genotype and the environment. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailInfluence of drying temperature on functional properties of wet-milled starch granules
Malumba Kamba, Paul ULg; Massaux, Carine; Deroanne, Claude et al

in Carbohydrate Polymers (2009), 75

Relationships between swelling capacities, pasting properties, rotational flow behaviour and textural properties of hydro-thermally heated wet-milled starch granules from corn dried between 60 and 130°C ... [more ▼]

Relationships between swelling capacities, pasting properties, rotational flow behaviour and textural properties of hydro-thermally heated wet-milled starch granules from corn dried between 60 and 130°C were investigated. High-drying temperatures applied during the corn drying process conferred to the wet-milled starch granules (WSG) such a rigidity which reduced their swelling capacities, their water binding capacities and their water solubility index after gelatinization. These granules changes affected their pasting characteristics, their flow behaviour and several textural parameters of gel formed from the wet-milled starch granule after gelatinization. The rigidity of granules was a major factor determining the formation of either starch pastes or gels. [less ▲]

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See detailSolution properties of an exopolysaccharide from a Pseudomonas strain obtained using glycerol as sole carbon source
Hilliou, Loic; Freitas, Filomena; Oliveira, Rui et al

in Carbohydrate Polymers (2009), 78

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See detailOptimization of pectin extraction from lemon by-product with acidified date juice using response surface methodology
Masmoudi, Manel; Besbes, Souhail; Chaabouni, Moncef et al

in Carbohydrate Polymers (2008), 74(2), 185-192

Response surface methodology was used to optimize pectin recovery from lemon by-product using an acidified date juice as extraction solution. When enriched in pectin, this latter can be useful for ... [more ▼]

Response surface methodology was used to optimize pectin recovery from lemon by-product using an acidified date juice as extraction solution. When enriched in pectin, this latter can be useful for preparation of date-lemon jelly. The effects of three parameters namely temperature, pH and extraction time, on pectin extraction were Studied. The fitted mathematical model allowed Lis to plot response surfaces as well as isoresponse curves and to determine optimal extraction conditions. Results clearly indicated that the temperature was the main factor influencing the pectin yield which increased with temperature and time or decreasing pH. The selected optimal conditions were: temperature 84.34 degrees C extraction time 3 h 34 min and pH 2.8. These conditions yielded about 11.21%, of pectin versus 10.89% for the predicted value. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailVariations In Physicochemical And Functional Properties Of Starches Extracted From European Soft Wheat (Triticum Aestivum L.): The Importance To Preserve The Varietal Identity
Massaux, Carine; Sindic, Marianne ULg; Lenartz, Jonathan et al

in Carbohydrate Polymers (2008), 71(1), 32-41

The quality valuation of wheat is based on characteristics like yield, specific weight, protein content and protein quality. Until now. the starch properties are rarely considered as a quality criterion ... [more ▼]

The quality valuation of wheat is based on characteristics like yield, specific weight, protein content and protein quality. Until now. the starch properties are rarely considered as a quality criterion. In this study, we showed the influence of wheat cultivars (Triticum aestivum L.) and culture year on the intrinsic properties of starch, extracted from European wheat grown in the same conditions. For example, starch damage varied from 13.2 to 19.9 CDU in function of the cultivars and contribution of the B-type starch granules (<10 mu m) to the total volume ranged from 11.6% to 29.9%. Starch viscosity at 95 degrees C, characterized with alpha-amylase inactivation by 2 mM AgNO3 addition. varied from 276.5 to 351.5 BU with the wheat cultivars. It is apparent from this study that starch properties were principally influenced by the wheat cultivar and slightly by the culture year. A good relationship between the pasting properties of whole flour and starch were finally established, showing the important role of starch in the whole flour viscosity. A thorough working knowledge of starch properties could lead to an appropriate selection of wheat cultivar, well-adapted to industrial end uses, without encountering processing or end-products quality problems and with most cost-competitive production. [less ▲]

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See detailDetermination of physical changes of inulin related to sorption isotherms: An X-ray diffraction, modulated differential scanning calorimetry and environmental scanning electron microscopy study
Ronkart, Sébastien ULg; Blecker, Christophe ULg; Fougnies, C. et al

in Carbohydrate Polymers (2006), 63(2), 210-217

This paper gives a relationship between powdered inulin behaviour and physical parameters determination. Glass transition temperature (T,) and development of crystallinity were measured in relation to the ... [more ▼]

This paper gives a relationship between powdered inulin behaviour and physical parameters determination. Glass transition temperature (T,) and development of crystallinity were measured in relation to the water moisture of the polymer. These parameters were obtained by Modulated Differential Scanning Calorimetry (MDSC) and powder X-ray diffraction, respectively. In order to change the water content of the powder, adsorption and desorption isotherms (using different relative humidity storage conditions) were done and successfully fitted to the Guggenheim-Anderson-de Boer (GAB) model. Dependent on the relative humidity storage, a caking phenomenon occurred when glass transition temperature was under storage temperature. An Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy (ESEM) study showed a structural change when water activity increased above 0.56 at 20 degrees C. A correlation between the increase of the crystallinity and the hardening of the powder was determined. ESEM permitted an observation of the development of some crystal structures among the amorphous system, confirmed by an increase of the diffraction peaks obtained by powder X-ray diffraction. These observations lead to an understanding of the physical characteristics of inulin related to the water moisture. (c) 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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