Growth promotion in broilers by both oxytetracycline and Macleaya cordata extract is based on their anti-inflammatory properties
; ; Everaert, Nadia et al
in British Journal of Nutrition (2014)
The non-antibiotic anti-inflammatory theory of antimicrobial growth promoters (AGP) predicts that alternatives can be selected by simple in vitro tests. In vitro, the known AGP oxytetracycline (OTC) and a ... [more ▼]
The non-antibiotic anti-inflammatory theory of antimicrobial growth promoters (AGP) predicts that alternatives can be selected by simple in vitro tests. In vitro, the known AGP oxytetracycline (OTC) and a Macleaya cordata extract (MCE) had an anti-inflammatory effect with a half-maximal inhibitory concentration of 88 and 132 mg/l, respectively. In vivo, chickens received three different concentrations of MCE in drinking-water, OTC in feed and a control. Body weight (BW), feed intake (FI) and gain:feed (G:F) ratio were determined on days 14, 21 and 35. On day 35, body composition was determined. Plasma α1-acid glycoprotein (α1-AG) concentration was measured on days 21 and 35, and the expression of several jejunal inflammatory genes was determined on day 35. OTC-fed chickens showed a significantly higher BW, FI and G:F ratio compared with the control group at all time points. MCE had a significant linear effect on BW on days 21 and 35, and the G:F ratio was improved only over the whole period, whereas FI was not different. Only MCE but not OTC decreased the percentage of abdominal fat. Plasma α1-AG concentration increased from day 21 to 35, with the values being lower in the treatment groups. Both OTC and MCE significantly reduced the jejunal mucosal expression of inducible NO synthase. For most parameters measured, there was a clear linear dose-response to treatment with MCE. In conclusion, the results are consistent with the anti-inflammatory theory of growth promotion in production animals. Copyright © The Authors 2014. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 22 (0 ULg)
Population compliance with national dietary recommendations and its determinants: findings from the ORISCAV-LUX study.
; ; et al
in British Journal of Nutrition (2012)
The objective of the present study was to determine the proportion of adults meeting national recommendations for food and nutrient intake and to identify the demographic, socio-economic and behavioural ... [more ▼]
The objective of the present study was to determine the proportion of adults meeting national recommendations for food and nutrient intake and to identify the demographic, socio-economic and behavioural factors that may contribute to weaken dietary compliance. ORISCAV-LUX is a cross-sectional study that took place in Luxembourg (2007-8). A representative stratified random sample of 1352 adults aged 18-69 years participated in the nationwide cardiovascular health survey. A FFQ was used to estimate food intake. Radar charts were built to compare graphically the compliance of the participants with different key dietary guidelines on the same set of axes. The thirteen food- and nutrient-based recommendations were scored and summed to create a recommendation compliance index (range - 0.5 to 14). Ordinal logistic regression analyses were performed to determine the factors contributing to poor dietary compliance. Several food- and nutrient-based guidelines were insufficiently respected compared with others. The greatest gaps occurred in the adherence to grain and dairy product consumption guidelines, as well as to total fat and notably to SFA recommendations. Age, country of birth, economic status, smoking status and subject's awareness of the importance of balanced meals emerged as independently associated with weak dietary compliance. Obese subjects conformed more to dietary recommendations compared with normal-weight subjects. The findings underscore the need for specific nutrition education messages along with targeted interventions. Efforts should be continued to increase population awareness of the importance of a healthy lifestyle and a balanced diet. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 30 (17 ULg)
Effect of short-chain fructooligosaccharide-enriched energy-restricted diet on weight loss and serum haptoglobin concentration in Beagle dogs.
; ; Godeau, Jean-Marie et al
in British Journal of Nutrition (2011), 106
The effects of the dietary inclusion of two levels of short-chain fructooligosaccharides (sc-FOS) on weight loss, biochemical parameters and serum haptoglobin concentration were investigated in twelve ... [more ▼]
The effects of the dietary inclusion of two levels of short-chain fructooligosaccharides (sc-FOS) on weight loss, biochemical parameters and serum haptoglobin concentration were investigated in twelve experimental obese Beagle dogs. Dogs were randomised into two groups and submitted to a weight loss program (WLP): the control group (C) received a commercial energy-restricted high-protein diet containing 1 % DM sc-FOS, whereas the test group (T) received the same diet enriched with sc-FOS to attain a 3 % DM content. Body weight (BW) and body condition score were weekly assessed in each dog and blood was collected before and after WLP to measure total plasma cholesterol (CHOL), TAG, NEFA, glucose (GLUC), insulin, serum leptin and haptoglobin. Groups showed similar BW and blood parameters before treatment. When values before and after treatment of the dogs were compared, significant reductions were observed for all parameters, with the exception of NEFA and GLUC. However, when these reductions were compared between C and T groups, significant differences were detected only for haptoglobin (T before v. T after: 1545 v. 605 mg/l, P = 0.03; C before v. C after: 1635 v. 1400 mg/l, P = NS). Positive correlations between haptoglobin and CHOL and between haptoglobin and TAG were observed before but not after WLP. In conclusion, feeding obese dogs with the energy-restricted diet caused significant weight loss and reduction of blood parameters, irrespective of the sc-FOS content included. However, serum haptoglobin level, and the subclinical inflammatory condition associated with it, was significantly lowered in the T but not in the C group. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 29 (3 ULg)
Maintenance threonine requirement and efficiency of its use for accretion of whole-body threonine and protein in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) fry.
; ; et al
in British Journal of Nutrition (2006), 95(2), 234-45
Eighteen groups of seventy Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) fry (initial mean body weight 0.8 (sd 0.01) g) were fed on semi-purified diets containing graded levels of l-threonine (Thr) in 15 litres ... [more ▼]
Eighteen groups of seventy Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) fry (initial mean body weight 0.8 (sd 0.01) g) were fed on semi-purified diets containing graded levels of l-threonine (Thr) in 15 litres aquaria at a temperature of 14.5+/-1 degrees C. Doses of Thr represented 1, 31, 41, 51, 62, 72, 83 and 93 % of its ideal level for optimum protein deposition. Indispensable amino acids other than Thr were included in the same proportion (on a g/16 g N basis) as in the Atlantic salmon fry whole-body carcass. Following 36 d of feeding and a 36 h fast, fry were killed for whole-body protein and amino acid analysis. Weight gain (r2 0.98), protein accretion (r2 0.97), and Thr accretion (r2 0.97) were linear (P<0.01) functions of Thr intake. Slope of the Thr accretion regression line showed that the efficiency of Thr utilisation above maintenance was 76 %. At zero Thr intake, fry lost 5.4 mg Thr/kg body weight0.75 per d. The Thr maintenance requirement was 7.2 mg/kg body weight0.75 per d and the Thr requirement for growth was 66 mg for 1 g protein deposition. Increasing doses of Thr resulted in increased (P<0.05) concentrations of histidine and lysine, and decreased concentrations of isoleucine in whole-body protein. The maintenance need for Thr represented 13.4 % of the total need for Thr. The data suggest that efficiency of Thr utilisation above maintenance is constant at all levels of Thr intake between 1 and 93 % of the level required for optimum protein deposition. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 11 (0 ULg)
Effects on plasma insulin of intermittent infusions of propionic acid, glucose or casein into the alimentary tract of non-lactating cows maintained on a liquid diet.
Istasse, Louis ; ; et al
in British Journal of Nutrition (1987), 58(1), 139-48
1. An experiment was conducted using three non-lactating cows completely maintained by infusions of volatile fatty acids into the rumen, and casein into the abomasum. Plasma insulin responses to propionic ... [more ▼]
1. An experiment was conducted using three non-lactating cows completely maintained by infusions of volatile fatty acids into the rumen, and casein into the abomasum. Plasma insulin responses to propionic acid, glucose or casein were recorded. Further information was obtained using protein-free infusions. 2. When part of the propionic acid was infused into the rumen in a twice-daily 3 h dose and the remainder infused continuously with acetic and butyric acids and casein, there were large increases in the concentrations of propionic acid and insulin in the jugular blood. When glucose, corresponding in energy to that supplied by the intermittent propionic acid infusions was similarly infused, the plasma levels of glucose and insulin were increased. Glucose appeared to stimulate a greater increase in insulin than did propionic acid. Casein infused into the abomasum in intermittent doses produced a rise in plasma insulin, but smaller than that observed with propionic acid or with glucose. 3. The protein-free infusion was characterized by a lower concentration of insulin in the blood plasma, a reduction in plasma urea and free amino nitrogen and unchanged plasma glucose. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 11 (1 ULg)
Investigation of nitrogen balance in dairy cows and steers nourished by intragastric infusion. Effects of submaintenance energy input with or without protein.
; ; et al
in British Journal of Nutrition (1983), 50(1), 99-107
Two dairy cows were maintained by intragastric infusion of volatile fatty acids and casein. Except when fasting, the casein-nitrogen was held constant, while total gross energy supply was varied from zero ... [more ▼]
Two dairy cows were maintained by intragastric infusion of volatile fatty acids and casein. Except when fasting, the casein-nitrogen was held constant, while total gross energy supply was varied from zero during fasting to 650 kJ/kg body-weight (W)0 . 75. One cow was estimated to attain zero N balance at an energy intake of 255 kJ/kg W0 . 75 and the other at 307 kJ/kg W0 . 75, which was calculated to be substantially below the estimated energy required for zero energy balance. When the cows were later given an N-free infusion for a period preceding the trial, N balance occurred at 98 kJ/kg W0 . 75 for one cow and 115 kJ/kg W0 . 75 for the other. Four steers were similarly nourished by intragastric infusion and the energy nutrient increased from 0 at fasting to 450 kJ/kg W0 . 75. The protein was held constant at 1 g N/kg W0 . 75 except at fasting. The energy level at which N balance occurred was 154 (SE 38) kJ/kg W0 . 75 or approximately equal to the energy content of the protein. The practical implications of these findings are discussed. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 18 (0 ULg)