References of "Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE]"
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See detailPhysiological and bio-functional properties of gum arabic: a notable interest for certain human diseases
Eloundou Mballa, Pierre; Goffin, Dorothée ULiege; Destain, Jacqueline ULiege et al

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (in press)

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See detailReview: Implementing biostimulants and biocontrol strategies in the agroecological management of cultivated ecosystems
Le Mire, Géraldine ULiege; Nguyen, Minh ULiege; Fassotte, Bérénice ULiege et al

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2016)

This review describes the current methods for exploiting and applying plant growth-promoting rhizbacteria (PGPR), elicitors and semiochemical products in contemporary agricultural systems. The future of ... [more ▼]

This review describes the current methods for exploiting and applying plant growth-promoting rhizbacteria (PGPR), elicitors and semiochemical products in contemporary agricultural systems. The future of these biostimulant and biocontrol tools for the sustainable management of agricultural practices is also discussed. Special attention is given to the formulation of these products and the network of interactions taking place in cultivated ecosystems [less ▲]

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See detailL’utilisation de l’hydrolyse enzymatique pour la production de nanocellulose dans une stratégie de bioraffinage forestier intégré (Synthèse Bibliographique)
Bombeck, Pierre-Louis ULiege; Hebert, Jacques ULiege; Richel, Aurore ULiege

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2016), 20(1), 94-103

Introduction. In a world that seeks to break free from petrochemicals, the concept of forest biomass biorefinery is increasingly being studied as a way to maximize the value of the components of this ... [more ▼]

Introduction. In a world that seeks to break free from petrochemicals, the concept of forest biomass biorefinery is increasingly being studied as a way to maximize the value of the components of this biomass. Due to the high added value expected when transforming cellulose fibers into nanocellulose, this technology is highly attractive to the pulp and paper industrial world. <br />Literature. The concept of integrated forest biorefinery is to adapt existing pulp mills so as to maximize the value of the co-products. Through the use of various methods, two types of nanocellulose may be obtained from the cellulose in the pulp. Due to its production of valuable byproducts, enzymatic hydrolysis is an interesting method to use for this purpose, but it must be combined with mechanical post-treatments. The production of nanocellulose from chemical pulp takes place in the final step of pulp production, and could be implemented without modifying the existing mills. The economic viability of this mode of production and the potential market size are the subject of recent studies that appear encouraging. <br />Conclusions. Nanocellulose is a promising biomaterial whose field of application continues to grow. Cellulose in wood pulp can be used as a raw material for the production of nanocellulose using enzymatic pre-treatments that generate valuable co-products. This process can be integrated into a conventional chemical pulp mill and constitutes a broadening of the products available to the pulp and paper industry. [less ▲]

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See detailImpact of climatic factors on the release of E-β-caryophyllene from alginate beads
Daems, Frédéric ULiege; Bera, François ULiege; Lorge, Stéphanie ULiege et al

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2016), 20(2),

Description of the subject. Alginate beads that release semiochemical compounds are interesting biological control devices used to attract the natural enemies of aphids in infested crops. Little ... [more ▼]

Description of the subject. Alginate beads that release semiochemical compounds are interesting biological control devices used to attract the natural enemies of aphids in infested crops. Little information, however, is available about the impact of climatic factors on the release of semiochemicals from this diffusive system. Objectives. The objective of this scoping study was to investigate the impact of temperature, relative humidity and wind speed, on the release of E-β-caryophyllene from alginate beads. Method. The impact of the three climatic factors on the release of E-β-caryophyllene from alginate beads was evaluated using a Box-Behnken experimental design and a laboratory scale volatile collection system. The influence of relative humidity on bead water content and size, with and without this semiochemical, was also investigated using a gravimetric method and an easy-to-use photographic device, respectively. Results. The results showed that an increase in temperature caused a significant increase in the E-β¬-caryophyllene release rate. Neither relative humidity nor airflow, however, had a significant effect on the release of this semiochemical when relative humidity and wind speed ranged from 33% to 75% and from 6.61 x10-4 m.s-1 to 2.05 x10-2 m.s-1, respectively. The isotherm curves obtained were characteristic of food products and biopolymer materials. The isotherm shapes were not modified by the incorporation of the semiochemical into alginate beads, and showed an important increase in water content when relative humidity values exceeded 85%. Fortunately, this water content increase did not affect bead size, which facilitates the calculation of E-β-caryophyllene release. Conclusion. The present study shows for the first time the impact of the three main climatic factors on the release of E-β-caryophyllene from alginate beads. It allows learning more about how these biological control devices operate in order to optimize future field trials. [less ▲]

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See detailL’épandage d’engrais de ferme avant le semis d’une culture intermédiaire (CIPAN) présente-t-il un risque important de lixiviation de nitrate ?
Vandenberghe, Christophe ULiege; De Toffoli, Marc; Lambert, Richard et al

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2016), 20(2),

Description of the subject. The implementation of the Nitrates Directives in the Walloon region (in the south of Belgium) allows the summer spreading of any kind of manure on soils in preparation for the ... [more ▼]

Description of the subject. The implementation of the Nitrates Directives in the Walloon region (in the south of Belgium) allows the summer spreading of any kind of manure on soils in preparation for the sowing of a catch crop. Objectives. This paper aims to assess whether the spreading of a manure before sowing a catch crop is more risky for groundwater quality than planting a cereal followed by another crop without any action being implemented between the harvesting of the cereal and the sowing (winter or spring) of the next crop. Method. This study is based on measurements of the nitrate nitrogen content of soils, at the beginning of the leaching period, performed on reference parcels and on controlled parcels. Results. Three thousand six hundred soil analyses performed in relation to controlled parcels between 2008 and 2013 showed that the presence of a catch crop (information about the possible application of a manure was not known) led to a nitrate nitrogen content (median) lower (with a very highly significant difference) than in a situation where no action was implemented between the two main crops. For the same period, the analysis of 600 results in reference parcels led to the same conclusion. Moreover, no significant difference was found between the two kinds of manure (“fast action”, such as pig slurry or “low action”, such as bovine manure). Conclusions. After the harvesting of a cereal, the spreading of a manure before sowing a catch crop creates no higher risk for water quality than the succession of a cereal by a crop sowed in the autumn. [less ▲]

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See detailMesure des flux de CO2 et séquestration de carbone dans les écosystèmes terrestres ouest-africains (Synthèse Bibliographique)
Ago, Expédit Evariste ULiege; Agbossou, Euloge Kossi; Ozer, Pierre ULiege et al

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2016), 20(1), 1-15

In West Africa, as elsewhere in other parts of the world, preserving terrestrial ecosystems has proven essential to any emissions mitigation policy for greenhouse gases, notably carbon dioxide. A ... [more ▼]

In West Africa, as elsewhere in other parts of the world, preserving terrestrial ecosystems has proven essential to any emissions mitigation policy for greenhouse gases, notably carbon dioxide. A meaningful assessment of the contribution of a given region to the global carbon cycle implies the need to think in terms of balance, taking into account the totality of the carbon export and import within the ecosystems [less ▲]

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See detailOpportunités pour la valorisation des végétaux riches en anthocyanes comme sources de colorants alimentaires (synthèse bibliographique)
Beye, Cheikh ULiege; Tounkara, Lat Souk; Seck, Mamadou Amadou et al

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2015), 19(4), 392-401

Introduction. Très répandues dans le règne végétal, les anthocyanes sont le sujet d’un grand nombre d’études qui abordent en général les aspects concernant leur instabilité vis-à-vis des conditions dans ... [more ▼]

Introduction. Très répandues dans le règne végétal, les anthocyanes sont le sujet d’un grand nombre d’études qui abordent en général les aspects concernant leur instabilité vis-à-vis des conditions dans lesquelles elles sont employées ou l’effet bénéfique de leur consommation sur la santé. Littérature. Ces aspects sont particulièrement importants lorsqu’on envisage de les extraire en vue de leur utilisation comme colorant alimentaire naturel. Dans cette revue bibliographique, les propriétés des anthocyanes susceptibles d’être altérées lors de leur transformation ont été étudiées. Par la suite, un état des lieux sur les méthodes de fabrication de colorants à base d’anthocyanes a été fait afin de dégager des perspectives pour l’exploitation des matières végétales qui en contiennent de grandes quantités. Conclusions. Les fruits et légumes utilisables pour la fabrication de colorants alimentaires sont nombreux et variés. Les différences au niveau du contenu ont une influence sur la stabilité de la couleur des extraits, mais les progrès récents en matière de formulation ouvrent des perspectives pour la valorisation des végétaux riches en anthocyanes. [less ▲]

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See detailÉcologie et gestion des espèces multi-usages du genre Erythrophleum (Fabaceae-Caesalpinioideae) en Afrique (synthèse bibliographique)
Gorel, Anaïs ULiege; Fayolle, Adeline; Doucet, Jean-Louis ULiege

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2015), 19

Littérature. Erythrophleum ivorense, E. suaveolens, E. africanum et E. lasianthum diffèrent morphologiquement et sont présentes dans des aires climatiques distinctes. Elles sont héliophiles non pionnières ... [more ▼]

Littérature. Erythrophleum ivorense, E. suaveolens, E. africanum et E. lasianthum diffèrent morphologiquement et sont présentes dans des aires climatiques distinctes. Elles sont héliophiles non pionnières (E. ivorense et E. suaveolens) ou pionnières (E. africanum). La dispersion primaire est ballochore. Les graines présentent une période de dormance et peuvent rester plusieurs années dans le sol. La phénologie est régulière et annuelle. La croissance annuelle moyenne varie entre les espèces, de la plus élevée pour E. ivorense (0,65 cm par an) à la plus faible pour E. africanum (0,16 cm par an). Elles sont largement utilisées dans la médecine traditionnelle. Seules E. ivorense et E. suaveolens sont exploitées pour le bois d’oeuvre et soumises à des normes d’exploitation et des tests sylvicoles. Conclusions. Les données sur l’écologie des espèces du genre Erythrophleum sont globalement mieux renseignées pour E. ivorense et E. suaveolens en raison de leur importance économique. Cette synthèse a permis de mettre en évidence certains manques de connaissances notamment sur la phénologie (relation avec le climat, périodes de fructifications), les diamètres minimums de fructification et les mécanismes de levée de dormance naturelle des graines. Remédier à ces lacunes contribuerait notablement à améliorer les méthodes de gestion des populations de ces espèces. [less ▲]

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See detailUPLC®-MS/MS, an analytical tool for the accurate and rapid quantification of phytoestrogen metabolites in milk
Daems, Frédéric ULiege; Jasselette, Christophe; Romnee, Jean-Michel et al

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2015, April 17), 19(2), 121-122

The term ‘phytoestrogen’ is used to define a wide variety of nonsteroidal compounds that occur naturally in many plants. When they are absorbed by cows, these polyphenolic compounds undergo ... [more ▼]

The term ‘phytoestrogen’ is used to define a wide variety of nonsteroidal compounds that occur naturally in many plants. When they are absorbed by cows, these polyphenolic compounds undergo biotransformation by specific bacteria present in the gastrointestinal tract. The resulting metabolites are absorbed in the organism and some are excreted in milk. The impact of these compounds on human health divides opinion. Some scientists believe that they might have adverse health effects. Others believe the opposite, especially with regard to their microbial metabolites, such as equol. Whatever one's view on the subject, scientists need accurate, sensitive and rapid analytical methods in order to continue the research on clarifying the phytoestrogen issue. Cow's milk is an animal product that is common in the human diet, and it is therefore important to evaluate its content of phytoestrogen metabolites. In order to study the human intake of equol via commercial milk, an analytical method was developed and validated following EMA/CVMP/VICH/463202/2009 guidelines. Enzymatic hydrolysis was used to release the equol. It was then extracted using double liquid/liquid extraction and analyzed using UPLC®-MS/MS, with an analysis runtime of only 5 min. This analytical method produced a linear calibration curve with a high correlation coefficient (R2≥0.996) between 5 and 1,000 ng mL−1. Good intra- and inter-day precision (RSDs≤5.3% and ≤5.2%, respectively) and accuracy (bias≤8.6%) were achieved. The recovery rate differed slightly among the different types of milk, ranging between 60.6±1.09% and 82.3±5.21%. Good method repeatability was observed (RSDs<15%). There was neither a matrix effect nor a carry-over effect, and the sample extracts were stable during storage for at least 7 days at −21°C and 5°C. In order to apply the proposed method and obtain an initial estimate of equol concentration in cow’s milk in Belgium, 44 samples of various brands found in several supermarkets and 5 raw milk samples from Walloon farms were analyzed. Equol was found in all the samples analyzed, with a concentration ranging from 10 to 50 ng mL−1 for conventional milk and from 70 to 130 ng mL−1 for organic milk. These results were compared with other European studies and the same trend was observed. The results obtained show the specificity, sensitivity and precision of this method for analyzing oestrogenic metabolite-equol in cow’s milk. This study should be extended to include a greater number of samples and be implemented over a longer period to see if there is a correlation between livestock practice and/or sample origins with the equol content in milk. The addition of other phytoestrogen compounds with this method, using UPLC®-MS/MS technology, could also lead to more reliable monitoring of these compounds in dairy production. [less ▲]

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See detailAn analysis of potential resistance of the phytophagous mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) to four botanical pesticides
Attia, Sabrine; Lebdi, KL; Heuskin, Stéphanie ULiege et al

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2015), 19(3), 232-238

Description of the subject. Synthetic acaricides have been widely used to manage Tetranychus urticae. Due to the excessive use of biocide and the associated problems of pesticide resistance and ... [more ▼]

Description of the subject. Synthetic acaricides have been widely used to manage Tetranychus urticae. Due to the excessive use of biocide and the associated problems of pesticide resistance and environmental pollution, there is an increasing demand for sustainable, environmentally-friendly control methods. Among the current alternative strategies aimed at decreasing the pest populations, the pesticides based on plant extracts are currently one of the most promising methods. Essential oils with acaricidal properties have been categorized as green pesticides because they are biodegradable and predominantly non-toxic to vertebrates. Objectives. With an aim to reduce the use of synthetic pesticides, they represent a promising approach for eco-chemical control of mites. Method. The aim of the present work was to analyze the risk of resistance emergence of T. urticae to repeated treatments with four plant extracts: Deverra scoparia Coss. & Durieu (Araliales: Apiaceae), Hertia cheirifolia (L.) Kuntze (Asterales: Ateraceae), Santolina africana Jord. & Fourr. (Asterales: Asteraceae) essential oils and garlic distillate Allium sativum L. (Asparagales: Alliaceae) after 20 generations. Results. Repeated treatments with S. africana essential oil during 20 generations did not provoke an emergence of resistance while a low development of resistance was observed with H. cheirifolia, A. sativum and D. scoparia extracts. Conclusions. The efficacy of these extracts against the two spotted spider mite and their low development of resistance make them a promising use for pest management. [less ▲]

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See detailAssessing variability of literature based methane indicator traits in a large dairy cow population
Kandel, Purna Bhadra ULiege; Gengler, Nicolas ULiege; Soyeurt, Hélène ULiege

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2015), 19(1), 11-19

Description du sujet. La production laitière est reconnue comme une des sources majeures d’émissions de méthane (CH4). Le recours à un programme de sélection spécifique pourrait être une bonne méthode ... [more ▼]

Description du sujet. La production laitière est reconnue comme une des sources majeures d’émissions de méthane (CH4). Le recours à un programme de sélection spécifique pourrait être une bonne méthode pour optimiser les émissions de méthane par les vaches laitières. Le développement d’un tel programme nécessiterait un nombre important d’enregistrements relatifs aux émissions de méthane. Malheureusement, aucune méthode pratique et bon marché n’existe actuellement pour créer une telle base de données. Cependant, quatre indicateurs CH4 basés sur les quantités en acides gras dans la matière grasse laitière ont été recensés dans la littérature. Objectifs. L’objectif de cette étude est d’utiliser ces indicateurs de la littérature afin d’apprécier la variabilité des émissions de méthane éructées par les vaches laitières. Méthode. Ces indicateurs utilisent les quantités en acides gras obtenues par chromatographie en phase gazeuse. Comme ce type de données n’est pas disponible pour toute la population laitière, un échantillon de 602 analyses chromatographiques a été créé dans cette étude afin de développer une équation de calibrage permettant de prédire les quantités de méthane émises à partir du spectre moyen infrarouge (MIR) du lait qui est disponible pour toutes les vaches étudiées. Ensuite, l’équation de calibrage ainsi obtenue a été appliquée sur 604 028 données spectrales enregistrées entre 2007 et 2011 auprès de 70 872 vaches au cours de leurs trois premières lactations afin de prédire les quantités de méthane émises. Les paramètres génétiques de ces nouveaux indicateurs méthane prédits par MIR ont également été estimés en utilisant un modèle animal de type jour de test avec régressions aléatoires. Résultats. Ces quantités prédites par MIR variaient selon une gamme attendue s’étalant entre 350 ± 40 et 449 ± 65 g par jour. L’émission prédite moyenne de CH4 en g par jour augmentait au début de la lactation, atteignait sa plus haute concentration au pic de lactation et ensuite diminuait jusqu’à la fin de la lactation. Les héritabilités journalières moyennes variaient entre 0,29-0,35 ; 0,26-0,40 et 0,22-0,37 pour les différents indicateurs méthane étudiés au cours des trois premières lactations. Les plus grandes différences entre les valeurs d’élevage estimées pour des taureaux ayant des filles en production émettant le plus et le moins de méthane étaient de 24,18 ; 29,33 et 27,77 kg par lactation pour les trois premières lactations. Des corrélations faiblement négatives ont été observées entre les indicateurs CH4 et la quantité de lait. À l’inverse, des corrélations positives ont été estimées entre ces mêmes indicateurs et les taux en matières grasses et en protéines. Conclusions. Cette étude montre la possibilité de prédire des indicateurs méthane issus de la littérature et utilisant les concentrations en acides gras dans la matière grasse laitière à partir de la spectrométrie MIR. De plus, cette étude suggère également à partir des paramètres génétiques obtenus l’existence d’une variabilité phénotypique et génétique des quantités de méthane éructées par les vaches laitières Holstein. [less ▲]

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See detailInfluence of sugar beet pulp on feeding behavior, growth performance, carcass quality and gut health of fattening pigs.
Laitat, Martine ULiege; Antoine, Nadine ULiege; Cabaraux, Jean-François ULiege et al

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2015), 19(1), 20-31

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See detailBiologie, diversité et outils pour l'analyse de la diversité génétique de l'oignon, Allium cepa L. (synthèse bibliographique)
Rabiou, Abdou; Bakasso, Yacoubou; Adam, Toudou et al

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2015), 19(2), 184-196

This study explores important information on biology, genetic resources, taxonomy, as well as morphological, biochemical and molecular markers in order to provide a better understanding of the genetic ... [more ▼]

This study explores important information on biology, genetic resources, taxonomy, as well as morphological, biochemical and molecular markers in order to provide a better understanding of the genetic diversity of the onion (Allium cepa L.). The study has a particular focus on the plant as grown in Africa. The onion is a monocotyledonous, allogamous, and entomophilous plant, with a one-year production cycle for bulb production, and a two-year production cycle for seeds. The onion is one of the most significant vegetables in the world because of its use as both a food and a médicine. [less ▲]

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See detailNew lipolytic enzymes identified by screening two metagenomic libraries derived from the soil of a winter wheat field
Stroobants, Aurore ULiege; Martin, Renée ULiege; Roosens, Lyse et al

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2015), 19(2), 125-131

Lipolytic enzymes are widely distributed and fulfil important physiological functions in the microorganisms inhabiting diverse environments. Soils are rich, diversified environments containing microbial ... [more ▼]

Lipolytic enzymes are widely distributed and fulfil important physiological functions in the microorganisms inhabiting diverse environments. Soils are rich, diversified environments containing microbial communities that remain largely unknown. [less ▲]

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See detailCaractérisation des systèmes sols-plantes dans les collines de l’arc cuprifère du Katanga (synthèse bibliographique)
Kaya Muyumba, Donato ULiege; Liénard, Amandine ULiege; Mahy, Grégory ULiege et al

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2015), 19(2), 204-214

Introduction: The Copper belt of Katanga presents huge resources of Cu and Co-ore. On the copper hills, mineralized rocks outcrop and a specific flora did develop as a response to the high levels of Cu ... [more ▼]

Introduction: The Copper belt of Katanga presents huge resources of Cu and Co-ore. On the copper hills, mineralized rocks outcrop and a specific flora did develop as a response to the high levels of Cu and Co in soil. Soil-vegetation relationships need to be understood in order to elaborate biodiversity conservation programs prior to industrial mining of the copper hills. Literature: This paper reviews knowledge about soil characterization in the copper hills of Katanga and makes proposals for further research about the influence of the very specific chemical conditions of contaminated soils on the vegetation. The focus was put on the geochemical background and the bioavailability of Cu and Co. A lot of progress has been made recently about identification of soil-vegetation relationships. Conclusion: However, the issue of Cu and Co mobility within soil-plant systems is not entirely solved. [less ▲]

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See detailImpact of drying and heat treatment on the feeding value of corn. A review
Odjo, Djosse Psijus Sylvanus ULiege; Malumba Kamba, Paul ULiege; Beckers, Yves ULiege et al

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2015), 19(3), 301-312

Introduction: Corn is the main cereal cultivated in the world. As feedstuffs for broiler chickens, corn grains provide the majority of the animals’ required metabolizable energy and an appreciable amount ... [more ▼]

Introduction: Corn is the main cereal cultivated in the world. As feedstuffs for broiler chickens, corn grains provide the majority of the animals’ required metabolizable energy and an appreciable amount of protein. However, when submitted to high temperature treatment, such as during drying, the feeding value of corn grain may change significantly. This review reports the current knowledge on changes that occur within corn grains during high temperature drying processes, which can impact on the feeding value of the grains. Literature. Studies show that during these high temperature drying processes, structural changes occur within the major components of corn grains, including starch and proteins, which may affect their bioavailability. These changes may have a significant impact on metabolizable energy and zootechnical performance. Drying could also affect the physical traits of corn grains and in turn the feeding behavior of animals. Conclusions. In spite of the importance of grain drying within the corn grain sector, few studies have been devoted to the effect of drying on the feeding value of corn and no consensus has been reached on this subject, possibly because of the different conditions involved in the experiments reported to date. Strict controls over drying conditions and the use of appropriate methods of analysis for a better appreciation of the effects of drying are therefore recommended. [less ▲]

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See detailA survey of bacteria found in Belgian dairy farm products
N'Guessan, Elise; Godrie, Thérèse ULiege; De Laubier, Juliette ULiege et al

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2015), 19(4), 346-354

Description of the subject. Due to the potential hazards caused by pathogenic bacteria, farm dairy production remains a challenge from the point of view of food safety. As part of a public program to ... [more ▼]

Description of the subject. Due to the potential hazards caused by pathogenic bacteria, farm dairy production remains a challenge from the point of view of food safety. As part of a public program to support farm diversification and short food supply chains, farm dairy product samples including yogurt, ice cream, raw-milk butter and cheese samples were collected from 318 Walloon farm producers between 2006 and 2014. Objectives. Investigation of the microbiological quality of the Belgian dairy products using the guidelines provided by the European food safety standards. Method. The samples were collected within the framework of the self-checking regulation. In accordance with the European Regulation EC 2073/2005, microbiological analyses were performed to detect and count Enterobacteriaceae, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella spp., Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. Results. Even when results met the microbiological safety standards, hygienic indicator microorganisms like E. coli and S. aureus exceeded the defined limits in 35% and 4% of butter and cheese samples, respectively. Unsatisfactory levels observed for soft cheeses remained higher (10% and 2% for S. aureus and L. monocytogenes respectively) than those observed for pressed cheeses (3% and 1%) and fresh cheeses (3% and 0%) (P ≥ 0.05). Furthermore, the percentages of samples outside legal limits were not significantly higher in the summer months than in winter months for all mentioned bacteria. Conclusions. This survey showed that most farm dairy products investigated were microbiologically safe. However, high levels of hygiene indicators (e.g., E. coli) in some products, like butter, remind us of applying good hygienic practices at every stage of the dairy production process to ensure consumer safety. [less ▲]

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See detailMeliponini and Apini in Africa (Apidae: Apinae): a review on the challenges and stakes bound to their diversity and their distribution
Fabre Anguilet, Edgard ULiege; Nguyen, Bach Kim ULiege; Bengone Ndong, Toussaint et al

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2015), 19(4),

Introduction. Meliponini and Apini contribute to the pollination of flowering plants and to improving agricultural yields. These bees’ diversity, distribution and abundance depend on the ecosystem in ... [more ▼]

Introduction. Meliponini and Apini contribute to the pollination of flowering plants and to improving agricultural yields. These bees’ diversity, distribution and abundance depend on the ecosystem in which they evolve. The present work aims to summarize the diversity, distribution, abundance, potential threats, challenges and issues faced with respect to these social bees in Africa. Literature. In Africa, there were 21 species of Meliponini and 2 species of Apini (Apis). Aspects related to the species diversity, distribution, biology, ecology and abundance of nests are poorly documented, especially for Meliponini. This deficit could be related to a lack of interest of the authors or the various difficulties in performing these studies in Africa. With regard to the difficulties, there is a need to clarify the taxonomy of Meliponini, and the observation of nests in certain forest environments is difficult. Nest predation and habitat loss are the main threats that could cause the depopulation of certain social bee species in Africa. If there is currently new evidence that diseases and pests did not endanger these bees, then there is a need for further studies for better assessment of the risks that are associated with these potential threats. Conclusions. Work on the diversity, distribution and abundance of the social bees must be strengthened to address the challenges that are related to these insects in Africa. Indeed, this approach will contribute to answering the challenges of sustainable management of the biodiversity and economic and agricultural issues. [less ▲]

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See detailMonitoring the pregnancy status of dairy cows using mid-infrared spectra of milk collected from milk recording
Laine, Aurélie ULiege; Dale, Laura-Monica ULiege; Bel Mabrouk, Hana ULiege et al

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2015), 19(2), 97-124

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See detailEvaluation of observer effect in botanical surveys of grasslands
Couvreur, Jean-Marc; Fievet, Vincent; Smits, Quentin et al

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2015)

Description of the subject. A field study has been conducted on 24 grasslands with five different botanical experts in order to assess inter-observer bias when making botanical surveys as well as the ... [more ▼]

Description of the subject. A field study has been conducted on 24 grasslands with five different botanical experts in order to assess inter-observer bias when making botanical surveys as well as the possible consequences in terms of descripting a semi-natural habitat. Objectives. Fieldwork has been conducted to understand the most important factors of variability affecting botanical surveys conducted by several observers. These results were used to suggest practical solutions to enhance the quality of such surveys. Method. Five observers performed a complete botanical survey of 24 grassland plots in the Famenne (Wallonia, Belgium) in June 2009. All surveys were statistically analyzed in order to detect and quantify the sources of variability between observers. The main parameters compared are the habitat diagnosis made on the field by the experts, the rate of detection of the characteristic species as well as their coverage in each plot. Results. Regarding habitat identification, the biggest differences between observers are seen in plots where the composition is intermediate between a habitat in good and in bad status. Overall, there was a slight tendency to undervalue the quality of the habitat. The analysis revealed that the primary cause of variability between observers is the fact that the experts did not always strictly follow the criteria for habitat identification. As regards the comparison between observers, several sources of variability were identified. The main ones are the variability of the estimated coverage of some plants, the variability of the detection rate of characteristic species, as well as the variability of the prospecting effort that can be sub-optimal in each plot. Conclusions. Some of the sources of variability that have been pointed out can be resolved easily, other have to be taken in consideration when comparing the results of surveys in the future. The solutions proposed to reduce the variability between observers are to encourage better self-control of the parameters to be taken into account at each step of the work, the organization of targeted training courses and more standardized prospecting efforts. Keywords. Grassland, detection rate, cover rate, observer effect, bias, prospection, monitoring, habitat, identification. [less ▲]

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