References of "Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE]"
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See detailA review of inversion techniques related to the use of relationship matrices in animal breeding
Faux, Pierre ULg; Gengler, Nicolas ULg

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (in press)

In animal breeding, prediction of genetic effects is usually obtained through the use of mixed models. For any of these genetic effects, mixed models require the inversion of the covariance matrix ... [more ▼]

In animal breeding, prediction of genetic effects is usually obtained through the use of mixed models. For any of these genetic effects, mixed models require the inversion of the covariance matrix associated to that effect, which is equal to the associated relationship matrix times the associated component of the genetic variance. Given the size of many genetic evaluation systems, computing the inverses of these relationship matrices is not trivial. In this review, we aim to cover computational techniques that ease inversion of relationship matrices used in animal breeding for prediction of the following different types of genetic effects: additive effect, gametic effect, effect due to presence of marked quantitative trait loci, dominance effect and different epistasis effects. Construction rules and inversion algorithms are detailed for each relationship matrix. In the final discussion, we draw up a common theoretical frame to most of the reviewed techniques. Two computational constraints come out of this theoretical frame: setting up the matrix of dependencies between levels of the effect and setting up some parts (diagonal or block-diagonal elements) of the relationship matrix to be inverted. [less ▲]

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See detailJatropha curcas L. (Euphorbiaceae): Insectes ravageurs et propriétés biocides
Abdoul Habou, Zakari; Toudou, Adam; Haubruge, Eric ULg et al

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (in press)

Jatropha curcas, ou Pourghère, est un arbuste de la famille des Euphorbiacées, largement répandu dans les pays tropicaux. Ses graines sont riches d'une huile pouvant servir de biocarburant dans les ... [more ▼]

Jatropha curcas, ou Pourghère, est un arbuste de la famille des Euphorbiacées, largement répandu dans les pays tropicaux. Ses graines sont riches d'une huile pouvant servir de biocarburant dans les moteurs diesels modifiés. La plante est attaquée par divers insectes ravageurs appartenant principalement aux ordres des Hétéroptères, Coléoptères et Orthoptères. Ils provoquent des dégâts sur les fruits, les inflorescences et les feuilles. Les ravageurs les plus fréquemment observés sur J. curcas sont des punaises du genre Pachycoris (Hétéroptère : Scutelleridae), qui sont largement répandues au Mexique, en Australie, aux États-Unis, au Brésil et au Nicaragua. Ces punaises causent des dégâts importants sur les fruits et provoquent la malformation des graines, et avec elle une réduction de la teneur en huile. Même si les arbustes de Jatropha sont victime d'infestations d'insectes, plusieurs études démontrent l'effet insecticide de son huile contre des ravageurs importants tels que Busseola fusca (Fuller) (Lépidoptère : Noctuidae), Sesamia calamistis Hampson (Lépidoptère : Noctuidae), Aphis gossypii Glover (Homoptère: Aphididae) et Callosobruchus chinensis L. (Coléoptère : Bruchidae). Dans ce document, nous présentons dans une première partie les principaux insectes ravageurs de J. curcas et dans une seconde section les effets insecticides démontrés de son huile. [less ▲]

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See detailPhysiological and bio-functional properties of gum arabic: a notable interest for certain human diseases
Eloundou Mballa, Pierre; Goffin, Dorothée ULg; Destain, Jacqueline ULg et al

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (in press)

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See detailEffets d’amendements carbonatés et organiques sur la culture de deux légumes sur sol contaminé à Lubumbashi (RD Congo)
Mpundu Mubemba, Michel; Useni, Yannick; Nyembo, Lucien et al

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (in press)

Given the risks of contamination of the vegetables grown in gardens in the city of Lubumbashi due to soil pollution, agronomic solutions to reduce these risks have been experimented. The choice of ... [more ▼]

Given the risks of contamination of the vegetables grown in gardens in the city of Lubumbashi due to soil pollution, agronomic solutions to reduce these risks have been experimented. The choice of appropriate amendments (type and quantity) and the selection of plant varieties able to restrict transfers of trace metals (TM) from the soil to plant edible organs are part of the most conventional remediation techniques. Amaranth and spinach beet have been cultivated in pot trials according to randomized complete blocks with four replications on a contaminated soil that received different doses of liming and/or organic products and slightly contaminated soil. Along with an effect on soil chemistry, the amendments have been effective in reducing the transfer of trace metals from soil to plant. The lime-based treatments were more effective than compost. TM levels in plants however remained high whatever the application of amendments and the question of food chain contamination remains posed. [less ▲]

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See detailNutritive value of Adenodolichos rhomboideus leaves compared with Leucaena leucocephala and Stylosanthes guianensis forages in indigenous goats in Lubumbashi (DR Congo).
Tshibangu, Muamba Innocent; Nsahlai, Ignatus Verla; Kiatoko, Mangeye Honoré et al

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (in press)

Forage from three species (Adenodolichos rhomboideus, Leucaena leucocephala, Stylosanthes guianensis) were evaluated by determining chemical composition, voluntary intake and apparent in vivo ... [more ▼]

Forage from three species (Adenodolichos rhomboideus, Leucaena leucocephala, Stylosanthes guianensis) were evaluated by determining chemical composition, voluntary intake and apparent in vivo digestibility of dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fibre (NDF) and acid detergent fibre (ADF). Six goats (17.1±0.7 kg) were used in 3 x 3 double latin square design to determine the digestibility and intake of the three forages. Forage from S. guianensis had lower (p<0.001) CP content than L. leucocephala forage and A. rhomboideus leaves. Fibres content (ADF and NDF) were lower (p<0.001) in L. leucocephala (35%) forage than A. rhomboideus (59.5%) leaves and S. guianensis forages (56.5%). L. leucocephala forage was superior in CP, Ash, EE concentrations, digestibility and voluntary intake of CP. A. rhomboideus leaves had lower (p<0.05) apparent digestibility and intake of DM. Digestible CP intake were similar between A. rhomboideus leaves and S. guianensis forages. Low digestibility and voluntary intake of A. rhomboideus leaves may be due to negative effect of anti-nutritional factor such as tannin. Digestible CP was similar for A. rhomboideus leaves and S. guianensis forage. [less ▲]

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See detailSynthèse bibliographique sur la mobilité des éléments traces dans les sols et l’utilisation de la stabilisation physico-chimique comme technique de gestion in situ des sites contaminés
Liénard, Amandine ULg; Colinet, Gilles ULg

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (in press)

Industrial activities have deeply impacted the quality of biophysical environment at places. This review focuses on consequences of soil contaminations by metallic trace elements: what conditions the ... [more ▼]

Industrial activities have deeply impacted the quality of biophysical environment at places. This review focuses on consequences of soil contaminations by metallic trace elements: what conditions the mobility of contaminants in soils and what are the remediation practices based upon physico-chemical stabilization? This technique is an in situ remediation which aims at limiting the dispersion of metals in the environment by use of soil conditioners and amendments in contaminated sites. First of all, we reviewed the concepts of mobility of trace elements and their indicators. Then, we compiled the different kinds of amendments applied to stabilize contaminants in soils and the processes involved. [less ▲]

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See detailLes porcheries : réservoirs des culicoïdes (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae), vecteurs des virus de la Maladie de la Langue bleue et de Schmallenberg ?
Zimmer, Jean-Yves ULg; Saegerman, Claude; Martinelle, Ludovic et al

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2014)

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See detailImpacts of earthworms on soil components and dynamics. A review
Lemtiri, Aboulkacem ULg; Colinet, Gilles ULg; Alabi, Taofic ULg et al

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2014), 18

Earthworm populations are important decomposers contributing to aggregate formation and nutrient cycling processes involving nitrogen cycles, phosphorus and carbon. They are known to influence soil ... [more ▼]

Earthworm populations are important decomposers contributing to aggregate formation and nutrient cycling processes involving nitrogen cycles, phosphorus and carbon. They are known to influence soil fertility by participating to important processes in soil such as soil structure regulation and organic matter dynamics. Earthworms also modify the microbial communities through digestion, stimulation and dispersion in casts. Consequently, changes in the activities of earthworm communities, as a result of soil management practices, can also be used as indicators of soil fertility and quality. It is therefore important to understand how earthworm communities affect soil dynamics. This review adresses the current state of knowledge on earthworm’s impacts on soil structure and soil organic matter (carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus) dynamics, with special emphasis on the effects of land management practices on earthworm communities. [less ▲]

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See detailSynthèse bibliographique : l'écologie larvaire des culicoïdes (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae)
Zimmer, Jean-Yves ULg; Haubruge, Eric; Francis, Frédéric

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2014), 18

Cet article présente une synthèse de l’écologie larvaire des culicoïdes (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) en vue de rassembler les connaissances, souvent très parsemées, des sites d’oviposition et des habitats ... [more ▼]

Cet article présente une synthèse de l’écologie larvaire des culicoïdes (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) en vue de rassembler les connaissances, souvent très parsemées, des sites d’oviposition et des habitats larvaires actuellement identifiés à travers le monde pour les principales espèces de culicoïdes. Ces moucherons piqueurs hématophages sont impliqués dans la transmission de divers parasites (protozoaires et filaires) et virus aux animaux. Le développement larvaire des culicoïdes est généralement optimal dans les substrats humides et riches en débris organiques divers. Cependant, chaque espèce présente ses propres exigences écologiques et fréquente par conséquent des micro-habitats spécifiques. Dans cette synthèse, les gîtes larvaires sont répartis en substrats aquatiques et semi-aquatiques d’eau douce (I) et d’eau salée ou saumâtre (II), substrats terrestres (III) & substrats anthropiques liés à l’élevage (IV). Les gîtes larvaires de nombreuses espèces appartenant au genre Culicoides Latreille demeurent cependant encore méconnus. La connaissance de ces derniers et leur caractérisation sont pourtant essentielles pour permettre la mise au point de stratégies de lutte efficaces contre ces insectes vecteurs, permettant ainsi de renforcer la vaccination du bétail et les autres moyens de lutte mis en œuvre. Les habitats larvaires actuellement identifiés pourraient permettre d’orienter les investigations des recherches écologiques futures et les propositions de contrôle de ces moucherons vecteurs. [less ▲]

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See detailVers une synthèse de la conception et une définition des zones dans le gradient urbain-rural
Andre, Marie ULg; Mahy, Grégory ULg; Lejeune, Philippe ULg et al

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2014), 18(1),

The increasing footprint of urbanization on landscapes justifies the study of cities and the zones surrounding them. Paradoxically, the concepts relating to these zones remain unclear. Scientists from ... [more ▼]

The increasing footprint of urbanization on landscapes justifies the study of cities and the zones surrounding them. Paradoxically, the concepts relating to these zones remain unclear. Scientists from different disciplines diverge when defining these zones or their limits; they even often mention the zones without any definition. This practice excludes comparison between studies. By means of bibliographic research, the variety of terms used to describe the different zones composing the urban-rural gradient has been evidenced, as well as the characteristics of the zones themselves. They have been evaluated according to their relative importance and according to a series of criteria. Finally, new definitions for the different zones have been proposed in order to enable their identification in the field. [less ▲]

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See detailIsolation of an amylolytic chrysophyte, Poterioochromonas sp. from the digestive tract of the termite R. santonensis
Tarayre, Cédric ULg; Bauwens, Julien ULg; Brasseur, Catherine ULg et al

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2014), 18(1),

The aim of this work was the isolation and cultivation of amylolytic protists living in the digestive tract of the termite Reticulitermes santonensis (Feytaud). A chrysophyte identified as ... [more ▼]

The aim of this work was the isolation and cultivation of amylolytic protists living in the digestive tract of the termite Reticulitermes santonensis (Feytaud). A chrysophyte identified as Poterioochromonas sp. was isolated in a special medium containing rice grains as a source of carbon and nitrogen. Then, the protist was grown in a medium containing starch as a carbon source, tryptone, and a phosphate buffer at different pH values (5, 6 and 7). Yeast extract was added or not. Ciprofloxacin was used to avoid the bacterial development. Other antibiotics were also tested but showed an inhibitive effect on the growth of Poterioochromonas sp. Yeast extract allowed reaching 1.9 (pH 5), 2.3 (pH 6) and 2.2 (pH 7) times higher final cell concentrations, and 2.8 (pH 5), 2.8 (pH 6) and 2.2 (pH 7) times higher biomass yields. The starch concentration did not decrease in the medium until 3 and 4 days of culture, with and without yeast extract, respectively. Eight days of culture were necessary for hydrolyzing the starch completely, with and without yeast extract. Maltose and maltotriose were detected in the culture media and were hydrolyzed progressively. Maximal maltose concentrations were 0.68, 0.66 and 0.51 g.l-1 in the medium containing yeast extract. Maltotriose concentrations were only 0.17, 0.14 and 0.12 g.l-1. Other glucose oligomers were also detected but in lower quantities. It was determined that the protist developed a weak amylase activity, particularly at a weakly acidic pH (5-6). Such a pH also allowed a better growth of the protist. A maximal amylase activity of 112 nkat.l-1 was measured with yeast extract at pH 5. No other enzymatic activity (protease, cellulase or xylanase) was detected except amylase. The degradation products of starch which were obtained by enzymatic hydrolysis allow the identification of α-amylase, amyloglucosidase and possibly β-amylase activities. [less ▲]

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See detailConcepts d’efficience et de productivité de l’eau (synthèse bibliographique)
Kambou, Donkora ULg; Xanthoulis, Dimitri ULg; Ouattara, Korodjouma et al

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2014), 18(1),

Water efficiency and productivity indicators are used in many scientific disciplines, usually to account for water losses that occur during its use, or products generated per unit of water consumed. The ... [more ▼]

Water efficiency and productivity indicators are used in many scientific disciplines, usually to account for water losses that occur during its use, or products generated per unit of water consumed. The interpretation of these indicators is very diverse in the literature. However, the majority of definitions consider water efficiency as a measure of the effectiveness of irrigation, and view water productivity as a measure of the effectiveness of the physiological processes of both biomass production and crop yield formation, linked to the actual consumption of water by the crops. Thus, the consensus seems to be for water application efficiency (Ea) to be considered as the ratio of actual evapotranspiration to the water applied and productivity as the ratio of yield to actual evapotranspiration. The point of divergence relates fundamentally to the understanding of the constituent expressions of productivity (PE, product/“water consumed”) and efficiency of water application (Ea, “water consumed”/“applied water”). Indeed, the term “water consumed” is referred to variously by several authors as “actual evapotranspiration”, “gross irrigation plus rainfall”, “evapotranspiration plus water lost at the plot but beneficial to other users”, etc. Furthermore, while providing more details on the concepts of efficiency and water productivity, this review shows that the factors affecting these indicators have not yet been sufficiently elucidated. Thus, one of the axes of investigation could be to model the application efficiency of water firstly, according to water management practices and secondly, in terms of productivity levels in relation to the crop establishment period. [less ▲]

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See detailReprésentation du couvert forestier dans la modélisation hydrologique : Comparaison de dix modèles
Deraedt, Deborah ULg; Colinet, Gilles ULg; Claessens, Hugues ULg et al

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2014), 18(1), 83-96

There are many hydrological models, some of which can be used for forested environments. This review aims to compare ten of them (BILJOU, EPIC, BROOK90, SWAT, RHESSys, MIKE SHE, SHETRAN, WaSiM ETH, DHSVM ... [more ▼]

There are many hydrological models, some of which can be used for forested environments. This review aims to compare ten of them (BILJOU, EPIC, BROOK90, SWAT, RHESSys, MIKE SHE, SHETRAN, WaSiM ETH, DHSVM et Hydrus) to guide the choice. The compared fluxes are the interception, the transpiration and the root water uptake, the root distribution, the undercover effect, the tree growth and the model validation. The review underlines that each model deals with the forest fluxes in different ways. Most of the time, interception is similarly dealt by the models and the root distribution is used in the process of root water uptake. Understory and growth are seldom considered. [less ▲]

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See detailSynthese bibliographique de l'influence du procédé d'extraction et de purification sur les caractéristiques et les propriétés d'une gomme de caroube
Gillet, Sébastien ULg; Simon, mathilde; Paquot, Michel ULg et al

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2014), 18(1),

The carob tree is a species cultivated, in mediterranean countries, for its seeds. These seeds contain an endosperm rich in galactomannans used by the food industry for its texturing properties. After ... [more ▼]

The carob tree is a species cultivated, in mediterranean countries, for its seeds. These seeds contain an endosperm rich in galactomannans used by the food industry for its texturing properties. After harvesting, the seeds pass through a decutilation and a degermination. Cleaned endosperms are then milled to give crude locust bean gum. The purification step consists in a flour solubilization and then a precipitation of the galactomannans. Purification influences the characteristics of the resulting gum. The solubilization temperature is the parameter that affects the most on the final characteristics of the product. If it is hot or cold, galactomannans with different structural characteristics (and thus very different physical properties in aqueous solutions) will be selected. [less ▲]

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See detailPreliminary description of the diet of Hippopotamus amphibius L. in Loango National Park (Gabon)
Michez, Adrien ULg; Doucet, Jean-Louis ULg; Dendocker, Nicolas et al

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2013), 17(4),

Due to the paucity of suitable habitat, hippos are very rare in the Congo Bassin. Compared to East-African populations, Central African populations of hippos have been less studied. Information found in ... [more ▼]

Due to the paucity of suitable habitat, hippos are very rare in the Congo Bassin. Compared to East-African populations, Central African populations of hippos have been less studied. Information found in the literature regarding the animal’s basic ecology is limited. This study focuses on the description of the diet of an isolated hippo population in Loango National Park (Gabon), comparing faecal analysis with a reference collection ofherbaceous species from the savannas. The effectiveness of using faecal analysis versus using the floristic description of hippos’ pastures was demonstrated. The most frequent herbaceous species identified in faeces samples were Paspalum vaginatum, Axonopus compressus, Stenotaphrum secundatum (Poaceae) and Desmodium triflorum (Fabaceae). The voluntary consumption of a dicotyledonous species (Desmodium triflorum) is novel for this species. [less ▲]

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See detailSoil model systems used to assess fouling, soil adherence and surface cleanability in the laboratory: a review
Toure, Yetioman ULg; Mabon, Nicolas; Sindic, Marianne ULg

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2013), 17(3), 527-539

Surface fouling is a chronic problem in processing industries. The hygienic state of surfaces is thus a critical parameter with respect to the performance of the production process and to the final ... [more ▼]

Surface fouling is a chronic problem in processing industries. The hygienic state of surfaces is thus a critical parameter with respect to the performance of the production process and to the final quality of the product. For this reason, cleaning and disinfection are essential. The most important first step in implementing a fouling mitigation strategy through cleaning and disinfection is to understand the mechanisms of fouling. This allows ways to be found to reduce, even to eliminate fouling, or to improve the effectiveness of cleaning and disinfection. This paper reviews the relevant literature and summarizes a selection of soil model systems used to aid such improvements. Organic, mineral, microbial, particulate, and composite soil model systems are presented. These soil model systems are of particular relevance in the study of fouling, cleaning or soil adhesion onto solid surfaces in the laboratory environment. The key features of the models, as well as their practical advantages and disadvantages, are described and discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailContribution to the study of the resistance to drying of Pseudomonas fluorescens
Mputu Kanyinda, Jean-Noël ULg

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2013)

The objective of this thesis is to study the resistance to drying of Pseudomonas fluorescens. Freeze-drying is the most suitable method for drying P. fluorescens. However, freeze-drying induced loss of ... [more ▼]

The objective of this thesis is to study the resistance to drying of Pseudomonas fluorescens. Freeze-drying is the most suitable method for drying P. fluorescens. However, freeze-drying induced loss of cell viability. This loss of viability is mainly due to membrane rupture, temperature and oxidation of fatty acids, membrane proteins and glutathione. For this purpose, the use of protective compounds during freeze-drying has allowed us to obtain a powder having a high viability. We then studied the impact of these protective compounds, oxygen and storage temperature on the viability of P. fluorescens during storage. Analyses of fatty acids, proteins, glutathione and the study of membrane integrity during the various manufacturing processes and storage have established a link between the degree of oxidation and cell death. The results of flow cytometry showed that the freeze-drying longer affects the viability of P. fluorescens rather than storage. We have increased the yield of the production in bioreactor of P. fluorescens and time of culture was halved. [less ▲]

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See detailImpacts of logging and hunting on western lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) populations and consequences for forest regeneration. A review
Haurez, Barbara ULg; Petre, Charles-Albert ULg; Doucet, Jean-Louis ULg

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2013), 17(2), 364-317

Timber exploitation is rapidly expanding throughout the Congo Basin. Forest areas assigned to timber harvesting have sharply expanded over the decades and logging concessions now largely overlap with the ... [more ▼]

Timber exploitation is rapidly expanding throughout the Congo Basin. Forest areas assigned to timber harvesting have sharply expanded over the decades and logging concessions now largely overlap with the range of western lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla Savage & Wyman, 1847). However this species, which is considered as critically endangered by IUCN, could play an essential role in maintaining the structure and composition of tropical rainforest notably through seed dispersal services. This is likely due to its frugivorous diet, high stomach capacity and ability to swallow seeds of variable sizes. Moreover gorillas have a long gut retention time of ingested food, travel long daily distances and deposit most ingested seeds in suitable habitats for plant development (such as logging gaps). Consequently, the preservation of the role of gorilla in forest regeneration is essential in the context of logged forest ecosystems. Timber harvesting has two major opposing impacts on gorilla populations: on the one hand, gorillas benefit from growth of herbaceous vegetation (e.g. Marantaceae and Zingiberaceae) following forest canopy opening, as such herbs provide both staple food and nest-building materials; on the other hand, gorilla populations suffer with the rise in hunting associated with logging activity, especially with road network installation. Considering the potential negative knock-on effects of logging concessions on the ecological function of western lowland gorilla, the implementation of timber harvesting methods that preserve gorilla populations is a considerable challenge for forest sustainability, as well as for gorilla’s conservation. [less ▲]

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See detailKivuguto traditional fermented milk and the dairy industry in Rwanda. A review
Karenzi, Eugène ULg; Mashaku, Albert; Nshimiyimana, Alphonse M. et al

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2013), 17(2), 383-391

Traditional methods of fermenting milk involve the use of indigenous microorganisms, leading to the production of a variety of tastes in fermented milk products. Kivuguto is a fermented milk product ... [more ▼]

Traditional methods of fermenting milk involve the use of indigenous microorganisms, leading to the production of a variety of tastes in fermented milk products. Kivuguto is a fermented milk product, which is popular in Rwanda. Kivuguto is produced by traditional spontaneous acidification of raw milk by a microflora present both on utensils and containers used for milk preservation and in the near environment of cattle. Thus, this method does not allow the shelf stability of the product. Faced to such a situation, modern dairies now produce fermented milk and other dairy products using exotic strains. The main objectives of this paper are firstly, to provide documentation on the traditional production of kivuguto, as well as its by-products, and secondly, to describe the current situation of the dairy industry in Rwanda. [less ▲]

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See detailDifferent methods for spatial interpolation of rainfall data for operational hydrology and hydrological modeling at watershed scale: a review
Ly, Sarann ULg; Charles, Catherine ULg; Degré, Aurore ULg

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2013), 17(2), 392-406

Watershed management and hydrological modeling require data related to the very important matter of precipitation, often measured using raingages or weather stations. Hydrological models often require a ... [more ▼]

Watershed management and hydrological modeling require data related to the very important matter of precipitation, often measured using raingages or weather stations. Hydrological models often require a preliminary spatial interpolation as part of the modeling process. The success of spatial interpolation varies according to the type of model chosen, its mode of geographical management and the resolution used. The quality of a result is determined by the quality of the continuous spatial rainfall which ensues from the interpolation method used. The objective of this article is to review the existing methods for interpolation of rainfall data that are usually required in hydrological modeling. We review the basis for the application of certain common methods and geostatistical approaches used in interpolation of rainfall. Previous studies have highlighted the need for new research to investigate ways of improving the quality of rainfall data and ultimately, the quality of hydrological modeling. [less ▲]

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