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See detailA new oil-based formulation of Trichoderma asperellum for the biological control of cacao black pod disease caused by Phytophthora megakarya
Mbarga, J.B.; Begoude, B.A.D.; Ambang, Z. et al

in Biological Control (2014), 77

In African cacao-producing countries, control of cacao black pod disease caused by hytophthora megakarya is a priority. Introducing biological control agents as part of a P. megakarya control strategy is ... [more ▼]

In African cacao-producing countries, control of cacao black pod disease caused by hytophthora megakarya is a priority. Introducing biological control agents as part of a P. megakarya control strategy is highly desirable, especially in a perspective of pesticide reduction. Trichoderma species are among the most used biological control agents. In Cameroon, Trichoderma asperellum formulated in wettable powder has produced positive effects against this disease. However, with this type of formulation, shelf-life and persistence of conidia on pods are limited. Our study therefore sought to develop a new T. asperellum formulation that would be more effective and better suited to the conditions of field application by small-scale producers in Cameroon. We selected a soybean oil-based oil dispersion, in which the half-life of the conidia reached 22.5 weeks, versus 5 weeks in aqueous suspension. Tested on detached pods, the formulation completely inhibited the development of the disease. When sprayed in the field on cacao clones highly sensitive to P. megakarya, the formulation resulted in 90% protection of treated pods after 1 week, and 50% after 3.2 weeks. The formulations exercised a measurable effect for up to 7 weeks, versus 2 weeks in the case of an aqueous conidial suspension and 5 weeks for that of a conventional fungicide (Kocide). Trichoderma asperellum formulated in oil dispersion has therefore great potential for the control of cacao black pod disease with less recourse to synthetic fungicides. [less ▲]

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See detailThe functional significance of E-b-Farnesene: Does it influence the populations of aphid natural enemies in the fields?
Cui, L-L; Francis, Frédéric ULg; Heuskin, Stéphanie ULg et al

in Biological Control (2012)

Aphids cause much damage to Chinese cabbage in northern China. Over reliance on pesticides have large environmental and human health costs that compel researchers to seek alternative management tactics ... [more ▼]

Aphids cause much damage to Chinese cabbage in northern China. Over reliance on pesticides have large environmental and human health costs that compel researchers to seek alternative management tactics for aphid control. The component of aphid alarm pheromone, E-b-Farnesene (EbF), extracted from Matricaria chamomilla L., which attracts natural enemies in the laboratory, may have significant implications for the design of cabbage aphid control strategies. The purpose of this paper is to understand the effects of EbF on natural enemies to cabbage aphid control in Chinese cabbage fields. Ladybeetles on Chinese cabbage leaves in EbF released plots and Aphidiidae in EbF released yellow traps were significantly higher than those of in controls. No significant differences were detected in the interactions of different treatments and the two years for all natural enemies. More important, lower aphid densities were found in EbF released plots. Our results suggested that the EbF extracted from M. chamomilla L. could attract natural enemies to reduce cabbage aphids in the Chinese cabbage fields. [less ▲]

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See detailQuantitative food webs of herbivore and related beneficial community in non–crop and crop habitats
Alhmedi, Ammar; Haubruge, Eric ULg; D’Hoedt, Sandrine et al

in Biological Control (2011), 58

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See detailAn introduction device for the aphidophagous hoverfly Episyrphus balteatus (De Geer) (Diptera: Syrphidae)
Leroy, Pascal ULg; Verheggen, François ULg; Capella, Quentin et al

in Biological Control (2010), 54(3), 181-188

Augmentative biocontrol constitutes a safe option to reduce pest populations through the enhancement of natural enemies’ activity. In this context, the aphidophagous syrphid Episyrphus baltetaus (De Geer ... [more ▼]

Augmentative biocontrol constitutes a safe option to reduce pest populations through the enhancement of natural enemies’ activity. In this context, the aphidophagous syrphid Episyrphus baltetaus (De Geer) (Diptera: Syrphidae) is a promising candidate for aphid biological control: larvae of this syrphid attack and consume a wide range of aphid species and are found on many vegetable crops. Because natural populations of beneficial insects are not always sufficient to regulate the pest infestations, this work has focused on the conception of a biological control device containing syrphid eggs which ones can easily be introduced in fields or greenhouses. Using semiochemicals [E-(β)-farnesene, R-(+)-limonene and (Z)-3-hexenol], honeydews and “artificial honeydews” (10% or 30% aqueous solutions of sucrose, fructose and glucose), the syrphid oviposition was artificially induced on an inert surface. Specifically, E-(β)-farnesene and concentrated mono-sugars (30%) were identified as the most efficient ovipositional stimulants. To test and validate the biological control device described above, laboratory and field experiments were performed: a plastic lamella covered with syrphid eggs was suspended on aphid infested plants in order to measure the efficiency of the device. The results obtained were promising since populations of 500 aphids were eliminated in ten days when 15 syrphid eggs were introduced. The use of such a biological control device could certainly contribute to the biological control to reduce the aphid infestations. [less ▲]

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See detailIntegrated control of crown rot of banana with Candida oleophila strain O, calcium chloride and modified atmosphere packaging
Bastiaanse, H.; de Lapeyre de Bellaire, Luc; Lassois, Ludivine ULg et al

in Biological Control (2010), 53

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See detailBiological Control of Crown Rot of Bananas With Pichia Anomala Strain K And Candida Oleophila Strain O
Lassois, Ludivine ULg; De lapeyre de Bellaire, Luc; Jijakli, Haissam ULg

in Biological Control (2008), 45(3), 410-418

The antagonistic activity of two yeast strains (Pichia anomala (E.C. Hansen) Kurtzman, strain K and Candida oleophila Montrocher, strain O) against the parasitic complex responsible for banana crown rot ... [more ▼]

The antagonistic activity of two yeast strains (Pichia anomala (E.C. Hansen) Kurtzman, strain K and Candida oleophila Montrocher, strain O) against the parasitic complex responsible for banana crown rot was evaluated. The strains were applied at three different concentrations (106, 107 , 108 cfu/ml) and their efficacy tested in vivo on three separate fungi (Colletotrichum musae (Berk. & Curt.) Arx, Fusarium moniliforme Sheldon, and Cephalosporium sp.) and on a parasitic complex formed by association of these three fungi. At the concentrations used C. musae appeared to be the most pathogenic. The complex showed intermediate aggressiveness between C. musae and both other fungi. Statistically significant antagonistic effects were observed on C. musae, F. moniliforme, and the fungal complex. The highest protection level (54.4%) was observed with strain O added at 108 cfu/ml on crowns previously inoculated with the fungal complex. The level was lower when the fungi were inoculated separately. Furthermore, the antagonistic effect was strongly reinforced when strain O at 108 cfu/ml was applied 24 h before fungal complex inoculation (59.9%), as compared to its application 15 min (24.3%) or 3 h (27.3%) after fungal complex inoculation. Bananas showed increased susceptibility to the fungal complex from March to June, and this influenced the level of protection by yeast, which decreased over the same period. A strict negative correlation (R2 = 0.83) was highlighted between susceptibility of banana to crown rot and protection provided by yeast. [less ▲]

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