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See detailVaricella-zoster virus IE63 protein represses the basal transcription machinery by disorganizing the pre-initiation complex
Di Valentin, Emmanuel ULg; Bontems, Sébastien ULg; Habran, Lionel ULg et al

in Biological Chemistry (2005), 386(3), 255-267

Using transient transfection assays, regulation properties of varicella-zoster virus (VZV)-encoded IE63 protein were analyzed on several VZV immediate early (ORF4), early (ORF28) and late (ORF67 ... [more ▼]

Using transient transfection assays, regulation properties of varicella-zoster virus (VZV)-encoded IE63 protein were analyzed on several VZV immediate early (ORF4), early (ORF28) and late (ORF67) promoters. IE63 was shown to repress the basal activity of most of the promoters tested in epithelial (Vero) and neuronal (ND7) cells to various extents. Trans -repressing activities were also observed on heterologous viral and cellular promoters. Since a construct carrying only a TATA box sequence and a series of wild-type or mutated interleukin (IL)-8 promoters was also repressed by IE63, the role of upstream regulatory elements was ruled out. Importantly, the basal activity of a TATA-less promoter was not affected by IE63. Using a series of IE63 deletion constructs, amino acids 151-213 were shown to be essential to the transrepressing activity in Vero cells, while in ND7 cells the essential region extended to a much larger carboxy-terminal part of the protein. We also demonstrate that IE63 is capable of disrupting the transcriptional pre-initiation complex and of interacting with several general transcription factors. The central and carboxy-terminal domains of IE63 are important for these effects. Altogether, these results demonstrate that IE63 protein is a transcriptional repressor whose activity is directed towards general transcription factors. [less ▲]

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See detail2-Alkyl-3-alkylamino-2H-benzo- and pyridothiadiazine 1,1-dioxides: from K+ATP channel openers to Ca++ channel blockers?
Ouedraogo, R.; Becker, B.; Boverie, S. et al

in Biological Chemistry (2002), 383

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See detailSynthesis of nucleotide-activated oligosaccharides by beta-galactosidase from Bacillus circulans.
Zervosen, Astrid ULg; Nieder, Veronika; Gallego, Ricardo Gutiérrez et al

in Biological Chemistry (2001), 382(2), 299-311

The enzymatic access to nucleotide-activated oligosaccharides by a glycosidase-catalyzed transglycosylation reaction was explored. The nucleotide sugars UDP-GlcNAc and UDP-Glc were tested as acceptor ... [more ▼]

The enzymatic access to nucleotide-activated oligosaccharides by a glycosidase-catalyzed transglycosylation reaction was explored. The nucleotide sugars UDP-GlcNAc and UDP-Glc were tested as acceptor substrates for beta-galactosidase from Bacillus circulans using lactose as donor substrate. The UDP-disaccharides Gal(beta1-4)GlcNAc(alpha1-UDP) (UDP-LacNAc) and Gal(beta1-4)Glc(alpha1-UDP) (UDP-Lac) and the UDP-trisaccharides Gal(beta1-4)Gal(beta1-4)GlcNAc(alpha1-UDP and Gal(beta1-4)Gal(beta1-4)Glc(alpha1-UDP) were formed stereo- and regioselectively. Their chemical structures were characterized by 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy and fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry. The synthesis in frozen solution at -5 degrees C instead of 30 degrees C gave significantly higher product yields with respect to the acceptor substrates. This was due to a remarkably higher product stability in the small liquid phase of the frozen reaction mixture. Under optimized conditions, at -5 degrees C and pH 4.5 with 500 mM lactose and 100 mM UDP-GlcNAc, an overall yield of 8.2% (81.8 micromol, 62.8 mg with 100% purity) for Gal(beta1-4)GlcNAc(alpha1-UDP) and 3.6% (36.1 micromol, 35 mg with 96% purity) for Gal(beta1-4)Gal(beta1-4)GlcNAc(alpha1-UDP) was obtained. UDP-Glc as acceptor gave an overall yield of 5.0% (41.3 micromol, 32.3 mg with 93% purity) for Gal(beta1-4)Glc(alpha1-UDP) and 1.6% (13.0 micromol, 12.2 mg with 95% purity) for Gal(beta1-4)Gal(beta1-4)Glc(alpha1-UDP). The analysis of other nucleotide sugars revealed UDP-Gal, UDP-GalNAc, UDP-Xyl and dTDP-, CDP-, ADP- and GDP-Glc as further acceptor substrates for beta-galactosidase from Bacillus circulans. [less ▲]

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See detailPAF67, a novel protein that is associated with the initiation-competent form of RNA polymerase I.
Seither, P.; Iben, S.; Thiry, Marc ULg et al

in Biological Chemistry (2001), 382(8), 1163-70

Mammalian RNA polymerase I (Pol I) is a multisubunit enzyme that is decorated with accessory proteins, termed PAFs (polymerase-associated factors). The presence or absence of distinct PAFs may account for ... [more ▼]

Mammalian RNA polymerase I (Pol I) is a multisubunit enzyme that is decorated with accessory proteins, termed PAFs (polymerase-associated factors). The presence or absence of distinct PAFs may account for the functional differences of distinct fractions of cellular Pol I, and suggests that PAFs could be targets of regulatory pathways. Here we describe and functionally characterize PAF67, a novel 67 kDa protein that is tightly associated with a subpopulation of cellular Pol I. Both PAF67-containing and -deficient Pol I transcribe non-specific templates with similar efficiency, however, only the enzyme that contains PAF67 is capable of specifically transcribing rDNA templates. PAF67 co-localizes with Pol I in the nucleolus at sites of active rDNA transcription, indicating that PAF67 serves a role in rDNA transcription initiation. The results suggest that association of PAF67 with the 'core' enzyme endows Pol I with the capability to assemble into a productive transcription initiation complex at the rDNA promoter. [less ▲]

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See detailMultiple Redox Regulation in Nf-Kappab Transcription Factor Activation
Piette, Jacques ULg; Piret, Bernard; Bonizzi, Giuseppina et al

in Biological Chemistry (1997), 378(11), 1237-45

The well-known Rel/NF-kappaB family of vertebrate transcription factors comprises a number of structurally related, interacting proteins that bind DNA as dimers and whose activity is regulated by ... [more ▼]

The well-known Rel/NF-kappaB family of vertebrate transcription factors comprises a number of structurally related, interacting proteins that bind DNA as dimers and whose activity is regulated by subcellular location. This family includes many members (p50, p52, RelA, RelB, c-Rel, ...), most of which can form DNA-binding homo- or hetero-dimers. All Rel proteins contain a highly conserved domain of approximately 300 amino-acids, called the Rel homology domain (RH), which contains sequences necessary for the formation of dimers, nuclear localization, DNA binding and IkappaB binding. Nuclear expression and consequent biological action of the eukaryotic NF-kappaB transcription factor complex are tightly regulated through its cytoplasmic retention by ankyrin-rich inhibitory proteins known as IkappaB. The IkappaB proteins include a group of related proteins that interact with Rel dimers and regulate their activities. The interaction of a given IkappaB protein with a Rel complex can affect the Rel complex in distinct ways. In the best characterized example, IkappaB-alpha interacts with a p50/RelA (NF-kappaB) heterodimer to retain the complex in the cytoplasm and inhibit its DNA-binding activity. The NF-kappaB/IkappaB-alpha complex is located in the cytoplasm of most resting cells, but can be rapidly induced to enter the cell nucleus. Upon receiving a variety of signals, many of which are probably mediated by the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), IkappaB-alpha undergoes phosphorylation at serine residues by a ubiquitin-dependent protein kinase, is then ubiquitinated at nearby lysine residues and finally degraded by the proteasome, probably while still complexed with NF-kappaB. Removal of IkappaB-alpha uncovers the nuclear localization signals on subunits of NF-kappaB, allowing the complex to enter the nucleus, bind to DNA and affect gene expression. Like proinflammatory cytokines (e.g. IL-1, TNF), various ROS (peroxides, singlet oxygen, ...) as well as UV (C to A) light are capable of mediating NF-kappaB nuclear translocation, while the sensor molecules which are sensitive to these agents and trigger IkappaB-alpha proteolysis are still unidentified. We also show that a ROS-independent mechanism is activated by IL-1beta in epithelial cells and seems to involve the acidic sphingomyelinase/ceramide transduction pathway. [less ▲]

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