References of "Behavioural Brain Research"
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See detailProcedural learning as a measure of functional impairment in a mouse model of ischemic stroke
Linden, Jérôme ULg; Van de Beek, Lise; Plumier, Jean-Christophe ULg et al

in Behavioural Brain Research (2016), 307

Basal ganglia stroke is often associated with functional deficits in patients, including difficulties to learn and execute new motor skills (procedural learning). To measure procedural learning in a ... [more ▼]

Basal ganglia stroke is often associated with functional deficits in patients, including difficulties to learn and execute new motor skills (procedural learning). To measure procedural learning in a murine model of stroke (30min. right MCAO), we submitted C57Bl/6J mice to various sensorimotor tests, then to an operant procedure (Serial Order Learning) specifically assessing the ability to learn a simple motor sequence. Results showed that MCAO affected the performance in some of the sensorimotor tests (accelerated rotating rod and amphetamine rotation test) and the way animals learned a motor sequence. The later finding seems to be caused by difficulties regarding the chunking of operant actions into a coherent motor sequence; the appeal for food rewards and ability to press levers appeared unaffected by MCAO. We conclude that assessment of motor learning in rodent models of stroke might improve the translational value of such models. [less ▲]

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See detailFocal cerebral ischemia impairs motivation in a progressive FR schedule of reinforcement in mice
Linden, Jérôme ULg; Plumier, Jean-Christophe ULg; Fassotte, Ludivine et al

in Behavioural Brain Research (2015), 279

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See detailDoes reward unpredictability reflect risk?
Anselme, Patrick ULg

in Behavioural Brain Research (2015), 280(1), 119-127

Most decisions made in real-life situations are risky because they are associated with possible negative consequences. Current models of decision-making postulate that the occasional, unpredictable ... [more ▼]

Most decisions made in real-life situations are risky because they are associated with possible negative consequences. Current models of decision-making postulate that the occasional, unpredictable absence of reward that may result from free choice is a negative consequence interpreted as risk by organisms in laboratory situations. I argue that such a view is difficult to justify because, in most experimental paradigms, reward omission does not represent a cost for the decision maker. Risk only exists when unpredictability may cause a potential loss of own limited resources, whether energetic, social, financial, and so on. Thus the experimental methodologies used to test humans and non-humans relative to risk-taking seem to be limited to studying the effects of reward uncertainty in the absence of true decision cost. This may have important implications for the conclusions that can be drawn with respect to the neurobehavioural determinants of risk-taking in real-life situations. [less ▲]

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See detailDeuterium content of water increases depression susceptibility: the potential role of a serotonin-related mechanism.
Strekalova, Tatyana; Evans, Matthew; Chernopiatko, Anton et al

in Behavioural brain research (2015), 277

Environmental factors can significantly affect disease prevalence, including neuropsychiatric disorders such as depression. The ratio of deuterium to protium in water shows substantial geographical ... [more ▼]

Environmental factors can significantly affect disease prevalence, including neuropsychiatric disorders such as depression. The ratio of deuterium to protium in water shows substantial geographical variation, which could affect disease susceptibility. Thus the link between deuterium content of water and depression was investigated, both epidemiologically, and in a mouse model of chronic mild stress. We performed a correlation analysis between deuterium content of tap water and rates of depression in regions of the USA. Next, we used a 10-day chronic stress paradigm to test whether 2-week deuterium-depleted water treatment (91 ppm) affects depressive-like behavior and hippocampal SERT. The effect of deuterium-depletion on sleep electrophysiology was also evaluated in naive mice. There was a geographic correlation between a content of deuterium and the prevalence of depression across the USA. In the chronic stress model, depressive-like features were reduced in mice fed with deuterium-depleted water, and SERT expression was decreased in mice treated with deuterium-treated water compared with regular water. Five days of predator stress also suppressed proliferation in the dentate gyrus; this effect was attenuated in mice fed with deuterium-depleted water. Finally, in naive mice, deuterium-depleted water treatment increased EEG indices of wakefulness, and decreased duration of REM sleep, phenomena that have been shown to result from the administration of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI). Our data suggest that the deuterium content of water may influence the incidence of affective disorder-related pathophysiology and major depression, which might be mediated by the serotoninergic mechanisms. [less ▲]

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See detailDawn simulation light impacts on different cognitive domains under sleep restriction.
Gabel, Virginie; Maire, Micheline; Reichert, Carolin F. et al

in Behavioural brain research (2015), 281

Chronic sleep restriction (SR) has deleterious effects on cognitive performance that can be counteracted by light exposure. However, it is still unknown if naturalistic light settings (dawn simulating ... [more ▼]

Chronic sleep restriction (SR) has deleterious effects on cognitive performance that can be counteracted by light exposure. However, it is still unknown if naturalistic light settings (dawn simulating light) can enhance daytime cognitive performance in a sustainable matter. Seventeen participants were enrolled in a 24-h balanced cross-over study, subsequent to SR (6-h of sleep). Two different light settings were administered each morning: a) dawn simulating light (DsL; polychromatic light gradually increasing from 0 to 250 lx during 30 min before wake-up time, with light around 250 lx for 20 min after wake-up time) and b) control dim light (DL; <8 lx). Cognitive tests were performed every 2 h during scheduled wakefulness and questionnaires were completed hourly to assess subjective mood. The analyses yielded a main effect of "light condition" for the motor tracking task, sustained attention to response task and a working memory task (visual 1 and 3-back task), as well as for the Simple Reaction Time Task, such that participants showed better task performance throughout the day after morning DsL exposure compared to DL. Furthermore, low performers benefited more from the light effects compared to high performers. Conversely, no significant influences from the DsL were found for the Psychomotor Vigilance Task and a contrary effect was observed for the digit symbol substitution test. No light effects were observed for subjective perception of sleepiness, mental effort, concentration and motivation. Our data indicate that short exposure to artificial morning light may significantly enhance cognitive performance in a domain-specific manner under conditions of mild SR. [less ▲]

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See detailInitial uncertainty in Pavlovian reward prediction persistently elevates incentive salience and extends sign-tracking to normally unattractive cues
Robinson, Mike J.F.; Anselme, Patrick ULg; Fischer, Adam M. et al

in Behavioural Brain Research (2014), 266(1), 119-130

Uncertainty is a component of many gambling games and may play a role in incentive motivation and cue attraction. Uncertainty can increase the attractiveness for predictors of reward in the Pavlovian ... [more ▼]

Uncertainty is a component of many gambling games and may play a role in incentive motivation and cue attraction. Uncertainty can increase the attractiveness for predictors of reward in the Pavlovian procedure of autoshaping, visible as enhanced sign-tracking (or approach and nibbles) by rats of a metal lever whose sudden appearance acts as a conditioned stimulus (CS+) to predict sucrose pellets as an unconditioned stimulus (UCS). Here we examined how reward uncertainty might enhance incentive salience as sign-tracking both in intensity and by broadening the range of attractive CS+s. We also examined whether initially-induced uncertainty enhancements of CS+ attraction can endure beyond uncertainty itself, and persist even when Pavlovian prediction becomes 100% certain. Our results show that uncertainty can broaden incentive salience attribution to make CS cues attractive that would otherwise not be (either because they are too distal from reward or too risky to normally attract sign-tracking). In addition, uncertainty enhancement of CS+ incentive salience, once induced by initial exposure, persisted even when Pavlovian CS-UCS correlations later rose toward 100% certainty in prediction. Persistence suggests an enduring incentive motivation enhancement potentially relevant to gambling, which in some ways resembles incentive-sensitization. Higher motivation to uncertain CS+s leads to more potent attraction to these cues when they predict the delivery of uncertain rewards. In humans, those cues might possibly include the sights and sounds associated with gambling, which contribute a major component of the play immersion experienced by problematic gamblers. [less ▲]

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See detailLight modulation of human sleep depends on a polymorphism in the clock gene Period3.
Chellappa, Sarah Laxhmi ULg; Viola, Antoine U.; Schmidt, Christina ULg et al

in Behavioural Brain Research (2014), 271

Non-image-forming (NIF) responses to light powerfully modulate human physiology. However, it remains scarcely understood how NIF responses to light modulate human sleep and its EEG hallmarks, and if there ... [more ▼]

Non-image-forming (NIF) responses to light powerfully modulate human physiology. However, it remains scarcely understood how NIF responses to light modulate human sleep and its EEG hallmarks, and if there are differences across individuals. Here we investigated NIF responses to light on sleep in individuals genotyped for the PERIOD3 (PER3) variable-number tandem-repeat (VNTR) polymorphism. Eighteen healthy young men (20-28 years; mean+/-SEM: 25.9+/-1.2) homozygous for the PER3 polymorphism were matched by age, body-mass index, and ethnicity. The study protocol comprised a balanced cross-over design during the winter, during which participants were exposed to either light of 40lx at 6500K (blue-enriched) or light at 2500K (non-blue enriched), during 2h in the evening. Compared to light at 2500K, light at 6500K induced a significant increase in all-night NREM sleep slow-wave activity (SWA: 1.0-4.5Hz) in the occipital cortex for PER3(5/5) individuals, but not for PER3(4/4) volunteers. Dynamics of SWA across sleep cycles revealed increased occipital NREM sleep SWA for virtuallyall sleep episode only for PER3(5/5) individuals. Furthermore, they experienced light at 6500K as significantly brighter. Intriguingly, this subjective perception of brightness significantly predicted their increased occipital SWA throughout the sleep episode. Our data indicate that humans homozygous for the PER3(5/5) allele are more sensitive to NIF light effects, as indexed by specific changes in sleep EEG activity. Ultimately, individual differences in NIF light responses on sleep may depend on a clock gene polymorphism involved in sleep-wake regulation. [less ▲]

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See detailThe histamine H3-receptor inverse agonist Pitolisant improves fear memory in mice
Brabant, Christian ULg; Charlier, Yana ULg; Tirelli, Ezio ULg

in Behavioural Brain Research (2013), 243

Numerous studies have demonstrated that brain histamine plays a crucial role in learning and memory and histamine H3 receptor inverse agonists (H3R inverse agonists) have been proposed to treat cognitive ... [more ▼]

Numerous studies have demonstrated that brain histamine plays a crucial role in learning and memory and histamine H3 receptor inverse agonists (H3R inverse agonists) have been proposed to treat cognitive disorders. Pitolisant (BF2.649, 1-{3-[3-(4-chlorophenyl)propoxy]propyl}piperidine, hydrochloride) was the first H3R inverse agonist that has been tested in human trials and is well tolerated. The present study investigated whether Pitolisant (0.625–20 mg/kg, i.p.) improves consolidation and reconsolidation processes in the fear conditioning task in female C57BL/6J mice. We also tested whether Pitolisant reverses memory deficits induced by the non-competitive N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) antagonist dizocilpine (MK-801). Our results indicate that post-training systemic injections of Pitolisant facilitated consolidation of contextual fear memory and reversed amnesia induced by an i.p. injection of 0.12 mg/kg dizocilpine. In addition, none of the doses of Pitolisant we have tested after reactivation (reexposure to the context in which training took place 48 h earlier) affected reconsolidation, whereas dizocilpine disrupted it. However, Pitolisant was able to reverse the deficit in reconsolidation induced by 0.12 mg/kg dizocilpine. The present results are the first demonstration that Pitolisant is effective in improving consolidation processes in the fear condition task and add further evidence to its potential for treating cognitive disorders. [less ▲]

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See detailDopamine, motivation, and the evolutionary significance of gambling-like behaviour
Anselme, Patrick ULg

in Behavioural Brain Research (2013), 256(1), 1-4

If given a choice between certain and uncertain rewards, animals tend to prefer the uncertain option, even when the net gain is suboptimal. Animals are also more responsive to reward-related cues in ... [more ▼]

If given a choice between certain and uncertain rewards, animals tend to prefer the uncertain option, even when the net gain is suboptimal. Animals are also more responsive to reward-related cues in uncertain situations. This well-documented phenomenon in many animal species is in opposition to the basic principles of reinforcement as well as the optimal foraging theory, which suggest that animals will prefer the option associated with the highest reward rate. How does the brain code the attractiveness of unreliable/poor reward sources? And how can we interpret this evidence from an adaptive point of view? I argue that unpredictability and deprivation – whether physiological or psychological – enhance motivation to seek valuable stimuli for the same reason: compensating the difficulty an organism has to predict significant objects and events in the environment. [less ▲]

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See detailReward uncertainty enhances incentive salience attribution as sign-tracking
Anselme, Patrick ULg; Robinson, Mike J.F.; Berridge, Kent C.

in Behavioural Brain Research (2013), 238(1), 53-61

Conditioned stimuli (CSs) come to act as motivational magnets following repeated association with unconditioned stimuli (UCSs) such as sucrose rewards. By traditional views, the more reliably predictive a ... [more ▼]

Conditioned stimuli (CSs) come to act as motivational magnets following repeated association with unconditioned stimuli (UCSs) such as sucrose rewards. By traditional views, the more reliably predictive a Pavlovian CS-UCS association, the more the CS becomes attractive. However, in some cases, less predictability might equal more motivation. Here we examined the effect of introducing uncertainty in CS-UCS association on CS strength as an attractive motivation magnet. In the present study, Experiment 1 assessed the effects of Pavlovian predictability versus uncertainty about reward probability and/or reward magnitude on the acquisition and expression of sign-tracking (ST) and goal-tracking (GT) responses in an autoshaping procedure. Results suggested that uncertainty produced strongest incentive salience expressed as sign-tracking. Experiment 2 examined whether a within-individual temporal shift from certainty to uncertainty conditions could produce a stronger CS motivational magnet when uncertainty began, and found that sign-tracking still increased after the shift. Overall, our results support earlier reports that ST responses become more pronounced in the presence of uncertainty regarding CS-UCS associations, especially when uncertainty combines both probability and magnitude. These results suggest that Pavlovian uncertainty, although diluting predictability, is still able to enhance the incentive motivational power of particular CSs. [less ▲]

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See detailBehavior in the open field predicts the number of KCl-induced cortical spreading depressions in rats.
Bogdanov, Volodymyr Borysovych; Bogdanova, Olena Viktorivna; Koulchitsky, Stanislav ULg et al

in Behavioural Brain Research (2013), 236(1), 90-3

Anxiety disorders are known to be comorbid with migraine, and cortical spreading depression (CSD) is the most likely cause of the migraine aura. To search for possible correlations between susceptibility ... [more ▼]

Anxiety disorders are known to be comorbid with migraine, and cortical spreading depression (CSD) is the most likely cause of the migraine aura. To search for possible correlations between susceptibility to CSD and anxiety we used the open field test in male Sprague-Dawley rats chronically treated with the preventive anti-migraine drugs valproate or riboflavin. Animals avoiding the central area of the open field chamber and those with less exploratory activity (i.e. rearing) were considered more anxious. After 4 weeks of treatment CSDs were elicited by application of 1M KCl over the occipital cortex and the number of CSDs occurring over a 2h period was compared to the previously assessed open field behavior. Higher anxiety-like behavior was significantly correlated with a higher frequency of KCl-induced CSDs. In saline-treated animals, fewer rearings were found in animals with more frequent CSDs (R=-1.00). The duration of ambulatory episodes in the open field center correlated negatively with number of CSDs in the valproate group (R=-0.83; p<0.005) and in riboflavin treated group (R=-0.69; p<0.05) as well as total time spent in the open field center in both groups (R=-0.75; p<0.05 and R=-0.58; p<0.1 respectively). These results suggest that anxiety symptoms are associated with susceptibility to CSD and might explain why it can be an aggravating factor in migraine with aura. [less ▲]

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See detailChronic ethanol exposure during adolescence alters the behavioral responsiveness to ethanol in adult mice
Quoilin, Caroline ULg; Didone, Vincent ULg; Tirelli, Ezio ULg et al

in Behavioural Brain Research (2012), 229

Alcohol exposure during early adolescence is believed to durably alter the behavioral properties of ethanol, increasing the likelihood of later alcohol-related disorders. The aim of the present ... [more ▼]

Alcohol exposure during early adolescence is believed to durably alter the behavioral properties of ethanol, increasing the likelihood of later alcohol-related disorders. The aim of the present experiments was to characterize changes in the behavioral effects of ethanol in adult female Swiss mice after a chronic ethanol exposure during adolescence, extending from postnatal day 28 to postnatal day 42. After a chronic ethanol exposure during adolescence (daily injections of 0, 2.5 or 4 g/kg ethanol for 14 consecutive days), adult mice were tested at postnatal day 63. The locomotor stimulant effects of ethanol, together with ethanol sensitization were tested in experiment 1. In experiment 2, the sedative effects of ethanol were assessed with the loss of righting reflex procedure. Finally, in experiment 3, the anxiolytic effects of ethanol were tested with the light/dark box test. Adult mice chronically exposed to ethanol during adolescence showed a lower basal locomotor activity, but higher locomotor stimulant effects of ethanol than non-exposed mice. Additionally, these adult mice developed higher rates of ethanol sensitization after chronic re-exposure to ethanol in adulthood. Adult mice exposed to ethanol during adolescence also had a stronger tolerance to the sedative effects of high ethanol doses, although they showed no evidence of changes in the anxiolytic effects of ethanol. These results are in agreement with the thesis that chronic alcohol consumption during adolescence, especially in high amounts, increases the risk of later alcohol-related disorders. [less ▲]

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See detailLoss in risk-taking: Absence of optimal gain or reduction in one’s own resources?
Anselme, Patrick ULg

in Behavioural Brain Research (2012), 229(2), 443-446

Determining how living beings react to tasks that reflect realistic situations of risk has given rise to a vast literature. However, I argue that the methodologies traditionally used to test humans and ... [more ▼]

Determining how living beings react to tasks that reflect realistic situations of risk has given rise to a vast literature. However, I argue that the methodologies traditionally used to test humans and nonhumans relative to risk often fail to achieve their goal. When risk is modelled in laboratory, potential decision cost (or potential loss) typically denotes an absence of optimal gain. In contrast, when risk occurs in real-life situations, potential loss denotes the reduction in an individual’s limited resources – whether energetic, social, financial, etc. This conceptual difference about the nature of risk may have important implications for the understanding of the parameters that control risk-taking behaviour. [less ▲]

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See detailDo excitatory and inhibitory conditioning processes underlie psychomotor sensitization to amphetamine? An analysis using simple and multiple regressions
Brabant, Christian ULg; Tambour, Sophie; Quertemont, Etienne ULg et al

in Behavioural Brain Research (2011), 221

Excitatory or inhibitory conditioning processes have been proposed to account for the context-dependent establishment of amphetamine psychomotor sensitization in rodents. The purpose of this study was to ... [more ▼]

Excitatory or inhibitory conditioning processes have been proposed to account for the context-dependent establishment of amphetamine psychomotor sensitization in rodents. The purpose of this study was to test the predictions of these theories in mice. We first assessed the consequence of the extinction of post-sensitization conditioned activity (CR) on the ulterior expression of sensitization. We also assessed the relations between several measures of sensitization and conditioned hyperactivity revealed on a saline challenge using simple and multiple regression analyses. Context-dependent sensitization was induced via 7 amphetamine injections in the test context given alternately with 7 saline injections in another context in paired mice, unpaired mice receiving the converse pretreatment. Context-dependent sensitization (drug challenge) and the CR (saline challenge) were revealed subsequently. After CR extinction (over 7 every-other-day repetition of the saline challenge), mice were tested again for context-dependent sensitization. Against the excitatory conditioning model, CR extinction spared context-dependent sensitization in paired mice, and regression analyses revealed no significant correlations between the size of the CR and several measures of sensitization. In apparent agreement with the inhibitory conditioning model, unpaired mice expressed higher levels of sensitization in the test context after extinction than before. However, regression analyses did not indicate that activity on the saline challenge was related to measures of sensitization in unpaired mice. Therefore, the present results support neither the excitatory nor the inhibitory conditioning models of context-dependent sensitization, but remain compatible with theories proposing that other inhibitory mechanisms modulate sensitization. [less ▲]

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See detailThe uncertainty processing theory of motivation
Anselme, Patrick ULg

in Behavioural Brain Research (2010), 208(2), 291-310

Most theories describe motivation using basic terminology (drive, ‘wanting’, goal, pleasure, etc.) that fails to inform well about the psychological mechanisms controlling its expression. This leads to a ... [more ▼]

Most theories describe motivation using basic terminology (drive, ‘wanting’, goal, pleasure, etc.) that fails to inform well about the psychological mechanisms controlling its expression. This leads to a conception of motivation as a mere psychological state ‘emerging’ from neurophysiological substrates. However, the involvement of motivation in a large number of behavioural parameters (triggering, intensity, duration, and directedness) and cognitive abilities (learning, memory, decision, etc.) suggest that it should be viewed as an information processing system. The Uncertainty Processing Theory (UPT) presented here suggests that motivation is the set of cognitive processes allowing organisms to extract information from the environment by reducing uncertainty about the occurrence of psychologically significant events. This processing of information is shown to naturally result in the highlighting of specific stimuli. The UPT attempts to solve three major problems: (i) how motivations can affect behaviour and cognition so widely, (ii) how motivational specificity for objects and events can result from nonspecific neuropharmacological causal factors (such as mesolimbic dopamine), and (iii) how motivational interactions can be conceived in psychological terms, irrespective of their biological correlates. The UPT is in keeping with the conceptual tradition of the incentive salience hypothesis while trying to overcome the shortcomings inherent to this view. [less ▲]

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