References of "Atherosclerosis"
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See detailESC/EAS Guidelines for the management of dyslipidaemias The Task Force for the management of dyslipidaemias of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) and the European Atherosclerosis Society (EAS).
Catapano, Alberico L; Reiner, Zeljko; De Backer, Guy et al

in Atherosclerosis (2011), 217(1), 3-46

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See detailManagement of familial hypercholesterolemia in children and young adults: Consensus paper developed by a panel of lipidologists, cardiologists, paediatricians, nutritionists, gastroenterologists, general practitioners and a patient organization.
Descamps, O. S.; Tenoutasse, S.; Stephenne, X. et al

in Atherosclerosis (2011), 218(2), 272-80

Since heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (HeFH) is a disease that exposes the individual from birth onwards to severe hypercholesterolemia with the development of early cardiovascular disease, a ... [more ▼]

Since heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (HeFH) is a disease that exposes the individual from birth onwards to severe hypercholesterolemia with the development of early cardiovascular disease, a clear consensus on the management of this disease in young patients is necessary. In Belgium, a panel of paediatricians, specialists in (adult) lipid management, general practitioners and representatives of the FH patient organization agreed on the following common recommendations. Conclusion: The aim of this consensus statement is to achieve more consistent management in the identification and treatment of children with HeFH in Belgium. [less ▲]

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See detailAlcohol consumption and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome: a meta-analysis of observational studies.
Alkerwi, Ala'a; Boutsen, Michel; Vaillant, Michel et al

in Atherosclerosis (2009), 204(2), 624-35

BACKGROUND: In the past two decades, the metabolic syndrome has given rise to much clinical and research interest. The broad overlap of alcohol consumption with different components of metabolic syndrome ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: In the past two decades, the metabolic syndrome has given rise to much clinical and research interest. The broad overlap of alcohol consumption with different components of metabolic syndrome makes alcohol-metabolic syndrome relationship a controversial topic. OBJECTIVES: To support the evidence available about the relationship between alcohol consumption and metabolic syndrome as a comprehensive clinical entity, as well as to identify the gender-specific dose-response, by performing a meta-analysis based on information from published data. METHODS: Manual and computer searches in different bibliographic databases were performed to identify the relevant scientific publications, on the relation between alcohol consumption and metabolic syndrome. Alcohol intake was converted into a same unit (g/day) and then categorized using standard classification in order to provide relevant comparisons. Fixed and random effects models were used to aggregate individual odds ratios and to derive pooled estimates and 95% confidence intervals. RESULTS: Fourteen relevant publications were identified on the relation between alcohol consumption and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome. 7 studies were included in the meta-analysis. The results showed that alcohol consumption of less than 40 g/day in men and 20 g/day in women significantly reduced the prevalence of metabolic syndrome. CONCLUSION: "Responsible alcohol intake" appears to be associated with a reduced prevalence of metabolic syndrome. Favorable metabolic effect seemed to be restricted to alcohol consumption of less than 20 g/day among women, and of less than 40 g/day among men. These findings support the actual recommendations regarding alcohol consumption among apparently healthy people. [less ▲]

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See detailContribution of platelet glycoprotein VI to the thrombogenic effect of collagens in fibrous atherosclerotic lesions.
Cosemans, Judith M E M; Kuijpers, Marijke J E; Lecut, Christelle ULg et al

in Atherosclerosis (2005), 181(1), 19-27

Collagens (types I and III) are among the strongest thrombus-forming components of the vascular subendothelium. We compared the thrombogenic effects of four collagen-containing advanced atherosclerotic ... [more ▼]

Collagens (types I and III) are among the strongest thrombus-forming components of the vascular subendothelium. We compared the thrombogenic effects of four collagen-containing advanced atherosclerotic lesions with those of purified types I and III collagen fibers. Cell-free homogenates from the human plaques effectively promoted platelet adhesion and aggregate formation under high-shear flow conditions, as well as exposure of procoagulant phosphatidylserine (PS) on platelets. With all plaques, blocking of the glycoprotein VI (GPVI) receptor for collagen abolished aggregation and PS exposure. Blocking of platelet ADP receptors resulted in similar, but less complete inhibitory effects. Type I collagen was more potent than type III collagen in inducing aggregation and PS exposure under flow, via stimulation of GPVI and ADP receptors. Type I collagen also more strongly enhanced thrombin generation with platelets and tissue factor, again via GPVI activation and PS exposure. The plaque material enhanced thrombin generation, partly due to the presence of tissue factor and partly via GPVI and ADP receptors. Together, these results indicate that in advanced plaques collagen type I is a major trigger of thrombus formation and PS exposure, acting via GPVI and ADP release, while tissue factor directly enhances coagulation. [less ▲]

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See detailStructural and functional properties of apolipoprotein B in chemically modified low density lipoproteins.
Vanderyse, L.; Devreese, A. M.; Baert, J. et al

in Atherosclerosis (1992), 97(2-3), 187-99

The structural and compositional changes occurring during in vitro chemical modification of apolipoprotein B-100 (apo B), the apolipoprotein component of low density lipoproteins (LDL), were investigated ... [more ▼]

The structural and compositional changes occurring during in vitro chemical modification of apolipoprotein B-100 (apo B), the apolipoprotein component of low density lipoproteins (LDL), were investigated in this study. The functional properties of chemically modified apo B and especially its potential to induce accumulation of cholesterol esters in macrophages were related to the structural changes of apo B. Acetylation, maleylation or malondialdehyde conjugation did not significantly affect the lipid composition of LDL. However, the unsaturated cholesteryl esters content, especially that of cholesteryl arachidonate was significantly decreased through Cu-oxidation. The number of reactive lysine residues in apo B was decreased by Cu-catalyzed LDL oxidation, acetylation, maleylation and by malondialdehyde conjugation. The number of free cysteines decreased from six in native apo B-100 to three in Cu-oxidized LDL. The tryptophan fluorescence intensity decreased most in malondialdehyde-conjugated LDL and in Cu-oxidized LDL, compared with acetylated and maleylated LDL. The secondary structure of native and chemically modified LDL was measured by attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy and by circular dichroism. No significant changes were observed in the secondary structure of any of the modified LDL. These data suggest that neither acetylation, malondialdehyde treatment or even Cu-oxidation substantially altered the secondary structure of apo B, in spite of significant modifications in the primary structure. Incubation of chemically modified LDL with J774 macrophages induced an accumulation of cellular cholesteryl esters and foam cell formation. The highest cholesterol accumulation was induced after malondialdehyde treatment of LDL. These data suggest that the cellular uptake and accumulation of modified LDL is not modulated by changes in the apo B structure. Rather it seems dependent upon the net charge of the apo B protein and probably involves the modification of critical lysine residues. [less ▲]

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