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See detailSurfactant-assisted ultrasonic spray pyrolysis of nickel oxide and lithium-doped nickel oxide thin films, towards electrochromic applications
Denayer, Jessica ULg; Bister, Geoffroy; Simonis, Priscilla et al

in Applied Surface Science (in press)

Lithium-doped nickel oxide and undoped nickel oxide thin films have been deposited on FTO/glass substrates by a surfactant-assisted ultrasonic spray pyrolysis. The addition of polyethylene glycol in the ... [more ▼]

Lithium-doped nickel oxide and undoped nickel oxide thin films have been deposited on FTO/glass substrates by a surfactant-assisted ultrasonic spray pyrolysis. The addition of polyethylene glycol in the sprayed solution has led to improved uniformity and reduced light scattering compared to films made without surfactant. Furthermore, the presence of lithium ions in NiO films has resulted in improved electrochromic performances (coloration contrast and efficiency), but with a slight decrease of the electrochromic switching kinetics. [less ▲]

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See detailStudy of the energy distribution of the interface trap density in a GeSn MOS structure by numerical simulation of the electrical characteristics
Baert, Bruno ULg; Schmeits, Marcel ULg; Nguyen, Ngoc Duy ULg

in Applied Surface Science (2014), 291

Using a custom-made numerical simulation tool, we performed a systematic study of the energy distribution of the interface trap density in a GeSn MOS structure and of their effect on the electrical ... [more ▼]

Using a custom-made numerical simulation tool, we performed a systematic study of the energy distribution of the interface trap density in a GeSn MOS structure and of their effect on the electrical characteristics such as C–V and impedance spectra. Interface traps with various densities of states and energies in the bandgap have been investigated and the application of the conductance method was assessed. Based on a theoretical analysis, we obtained, as key results, direct connections between microscopic parameters of the structures and experimentally accessible features of the simulated macroscopic quantities. A straightforward relationship between the interface state density and the peaks in the conductance response is also highlighted. The dependence of the peak characteristics on the trap states was identified, as well as the effects of traps extending over large energy ranges in the bandgap. [less ▲]

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See detailEvaluation of Fe(III) adsorption onto palygorskite surfaces
Middea, Antonieta; Lima Alves Pinheiro Fernandes, Thais; Neumann, Reiner et al

in Applied Surface Science (2013), 282

In this work, the adsorption of Fe(III) onto Brazilian palygorskite nanoparticles was investigated and the modifications of the mineral–aqueous solution interface properties were evaluated. We also ... [more ▼]

In this work, the adsorption of Fe(III) onto Brazilian palygorskite nanoparticles was investigated and the modifications of the mineral–aqueous solution interface properties were evaluated. We also investigated the influence of the adsorbent concentration and the best contact time for the adsorption to occur. The results showed that an increase in adsorbent dosage also increased the Fe(III) adsorption and the Langmuir model fitted the experimental data, showing that palygorskite is a potential clay mineral for the removal of cations from solutions. [less ▲]

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See detailXPS structural characterization of Pd/SiO2 catalysts prepared by cogelation
Beketov, Gennadiy; Heinrichs, Benoît ULg; Pirard, Jean-Paul ULg et al

in Applied Surface Science (2013), 287

Nanostructured Pd/SiO2xerogel catalysts prepared via cogelation were characterized by X-ray photo-electron spectroscopy. The preparation route allowed highly porous silica particles to be formed alongwith ... [more ▼]

Nanostructured Pd/SiO2xerogel catalysts prepared via cogelation were characterized by X-ray photo-electron spectroscopy. The preparation route allowed highly porous silica particles to be formed alongwith embedded Pd nanocrystals. After heat-treating the catalysts in vacuum, Pd was found to be in themetallic state. To obtain information on the xerogel catalyst texture and, in particular, on the size of thesilica particles, a theoretical formalism was developed based on measuring the relative intensities of Pd 3ddoublet and the associated background tail due to inelastically scattered photoelectrons. The suggestedprocedure also involved the measurement of the background tails accompanying Si 2p and O 1s spectrallines as internal standards. Using the developed formalism, the size of the silica particles in the catalystsafter different treatments was evaluated and compared with TEM data. The results obtained indicate thatthe textural properties of the sol–gel catalysts start to develop already at the level of co-condensation ofalkoxides with the network-forming reagent. Calcination causes these properties to run to completion. [less ▲]

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See detailRipple topography and roughness evolution on surface of polycrystalline gold and silver thin films under low energy Ar-ion beam sputtering
Gailly, Patrick ULg; Petermann, Claire; Tihon, Pierre et al

in Applied Surface Science (2012), 258

Metallic thin films of gold and silver have been sputtered by argon ions at low energy in the framework of technological applications including nanostructuring and ion beam figuring. Ion beam sputtering ... [more ▼]

Metallic thin films of gold and silver have been sputtered by argon ions at low energy in the framework of technological applications including nanostructuring and ion beam figuring. Ion beam sputtering at high angle of incidence usually leads to spontaneous formation of periodic structures on the target surface, commonly referred as ripples. In this work, ripples dimensions and roughness evolution have been studied as function of the angle of incidence (0–80°), ion beam energy (400 – 1200 eV) and ion flux. The ripple wave vector direction was always observed perpendicular to the ion beam direction for both materials, in agreement with theoretical predictions for the investigated experimental conditions. The decrease of ripple wavelength with energy and ion flux shows the dominance of thermal diffusion as smoothing mechanism. Moreover, three regimes for roughness evolution on gold and silver films have been observed as function of the angle of incidence for sputtering at 650 eV, with a minimum roughness achieved around 45° and 60° for gold and silver, respectively. [less ▲]

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See detailAminealkylthiol and dithiol self-assembly as adhesion promoter between copper substrate and epoxy resin
Denayer, Jessica ULg; Delhalle, J.; Mekhalif, Z.

in Applied Surface Science (2011), 257(24), 10686-10691

To improve adhesion between copper and epoxy resin in printed circuit board, a roughness treatment of copper has been widely used. Nevertheless, new adhesion promoters have to be developed to face the ... [more ▼]

To improve adhesion between copper and epoxy resin in printed circuit board, a roughness treatment of copper has been widely used. Nevertheless, new adhesion promoters have to be developed to face the miniaturization and sophistication of the electronic device. Self-assembled monolayers have met increasing interest in this field by using them as coupling agent between copper and the epoxy resin. This paper presents the deposition of an epoxy resin on copper modified by amine alkylthiol and dithiol monolayers and highlights the benefit brought by the monolayer in terms of adhesion. The chemical linkage between the amine SAMs and the epoxy function has been proved by the deposition on a short epoxy fragment, the 2-(4-fluorophenoxy-methyl)oxirane. The deposition of an epoxy resin mixed with amine curing agent has then been successfully achieved on amine terminated SAMs. The resulting polymer is homogeneous and well adherent on their surface, while the adhesion is lower on bare copper and not existing on methyl terminated SAMs. The formation of chemical bond Cu-S and N-epoxy is thus essential to increase the adhesion strength between copper and the polymer. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailSurface modification of copper with 2-dodecylpropane-1,3-dithiol: The key effect of the solvent
Denayer, Jessica ULg; Delhalle, J.; Mekhalif, Z.

in Applied Surface Science (2009), 256(5), 1426-1430

Self-assembly of alkanethiol on gold in various solvents (alkane, alcohol, etc) leads to monolayers with similar properties. However when the self-assembly is performed on copper substrates, the nature of ... [more ▼]

Self-assembly of alkanethiol on gold in various solvents (alkane, alcohol, etc) leads to monolayers with similar properties. However when the self-assembly is performed on copper substrates, the nature of the solvent has an effect on the properties of the monolayer. This phenomenon arises from the chemical interaction of copper with the solvent, which is not the case of gold. Ethanol is a solvent widely used for self-assembly, however some studies pointed out its negative effect due to its significant chemical reactivity towards copper and its ability to chemisorb on the surface. The aim of this work consists in a comparative investigation of 2-dodecylpropane-1,3-dithiol (or R(SH)2) in various solvents and its ability to form stable SAMs, densely packed and well ordered. Characterizations of the SAMs are carried out using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), polarization modulation infrared reflection-absorption spectroscopy (PM-IRRAS) and cyclic voltammetry (CV). © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailLow-temperature epitaxy of highly-doped n-type Si at high growth rate by chemical vapor deposition for bipolar transistor application
Nguyen, Ngoc Duy ULg; Loo, Roger; Caymax, Matty

in Applied Surface Science (2008), 264

We investigated the growth of in-situ n-type doped epitaxial Si layers with arsenic and phosphorus by means of low-temperature chemical vapor deposition using trisilane as Si-precursor. Indeed, in order ... [more ▼]

We investigated the growth of in-situ n-type doped epitaxial Si layers with arsenic and phosphorus by means of low-temperature chemical vapor deposition using trisilane as Si-precursor. Indeed, in order to prevent the alteration of the characteristics of the devices which are already present on the wafer, an epitaxy process at low temperature is highly desired for applications such as BiCMOS. In this work, the varying parameters are the deposition temperature, the Si-precursor mass flow and the dopant gas flow. As a result, a process for the deposition of heavily doped epilayers was demonstrated at 600 °C with high deposition rate, which is important for maintaining high throughput and low process cost. We showed that using trisilane as a Si-precursor resulted in a much more linear n-type doping behavior than using dichlorosilane. Therefore it allowed an easier process control and a wider dynamic doping range. Our process is an interesting route for the epitaxy of a low-resistance emitter layer for bipolar transistor application. [less ▲]

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See detailModeling the dissociation and ionization of a sputtered organic molecule
Solomko, V.; Verstraete, Matthieu ULg; Delcorte, A. et al

in Applied Surface Science (2006), 252

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See detailMolecule orientation in self-assembled monolayers determined by infrared-visible sum-frequency generation spectroscopy
Mani, A. A.; Schultz, Z. D.; Champagne, B. et al

in Applied Surface Science (2004), 237

The molecular orientation in self-assembled monolayers of thiophenol (TP) on Ag(1 1 1) and of para-nitroanilinododecane-thiol (NAT) on Au was investigated by infrared-visible sum-frequency generation ... [more ▼]

The molecular orientation in self-assembled monolayers of thiophenol (TP) on Ag(1 1 1) and of para-nitroanilinododecane-thiol (NAT) on Au was investigated by infrared-visible sum-frequency generation between 500 and 1500 cm-1. Ab initio calculations were performed to determine the interface nonlinear response. The combined experimental and theoretical results reveal that the S–C bond of TP is tilted 37° from the Ag(1 1 1) surface normal, with the aromatic ring plane perpendicular to the surface. On Au, the tilt angle of the NAT molecule stabilizes below 60° at the end of film growth. [less ▲]

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See detailSelf-assembled organic and fullerene monolayers characterisation by two-colour SFG spectroscopy: a pathway to meet doubly resonant SFG process
Humbert, C.; Caudano, Y.; Dreesen, Laurent ULg et al

in Applied Surface Science (2004), 237

Two-colour sum-frequency generation (two-colour SFG) spectroscopy was used to probe both vibrational and electronic properties of 1-dodecanethiol/Ag(1 1 1), Au(1 1 1), and Pt(1 1 1), of 5-[p-(6 ... [more ▼]

Two-colour sum-frequency generation (two-colour SFG) spectroscopy was used to probe both vibrational and electronic properties of 1-dodecanethiol/Ag(1 1 1), Au(1 1 1), and Pt(1 1 1), of 5-[p-(6-mercaptohexoxy)-phenyl]-10,15,20-triphenylporphin/Pt(1 1 1), and of C60/Ag(1 1 1). The role of the various physical parameters determining the sum-frequency generation (SFG) intensity equation is highlighted. The enhancement of the non-linear second order susceptibility in the aforementioned interfaces is explained in terms of metal interband transition, molecular electronic transition and of electron–phonon coupling, respectively. [less ▲]

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See detailStructural investigation of reconstituted high density lipoproteins by scanning tunnelling microscopy
Culot, C.; Durant, F.; Lazarescu, S. et al

in Applied Surface Science (2004), 203

Being able to participate in the reverse cholesterol transport (RCT), high density lipoproteins (HDL) are known to be anti-atherogenic. In order to understand such a process, it is thus essential to have ... [more ▼]

Being able to participate in the reverse cholesterol transport (RCT), high density lipoproteins (HDL) are known to be anti-atherogenic. In order to understand such a process, it is thus essential to have a detailed knowledge of the structure and molecular organisation of HDL. Reconstituted nascent high density lipoproteins (r-HDL), consisting of synthetic phospholipids together with different apolipoproteins (apo A-I, A-IV and E), were thus analysed by scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM). Both shape and dimensions of the discoidal HDL particles measured by this technique were found in good agreement with the data available from the literature. The accuracy of the STM pictures presented in this paper enables for the first time the visualisation of the molecular organisation of such macromolecules. The arrangement of the protein as antiparallel helical segments, is consistent with the general mode of organisation of apolipoprotein/phospholipid discoidal particles previously reported. [less ▲]

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See detailProbing a molecular electronic transition by two-colour sum-frequency generation spectroscopy
Humbert, Christophe; Dreesen, Laurent ULg; Nihonyanagi, S. et al

in Applied Surface Science (2003), 212–213

We demonstrate that a new emerging technique, two-colour sum-frequency generation (SFG) spectroscopy, can be used to probe the molecular electronic properties of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs). In the ... [more ▼]

We demonstrate that a new emerging technique, two-colour sum-frequency generation (SFG) spectroscopy, can be used to probe the molecular electronic properties of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs). In the CH spectral range (2800–3200 cm-1), we show that the sum-frequency generation signal of a porphyrin alkanethiol derivative adsorbed on Pt(1 1 1) reaches a maximum intensity at ~435 nm SFG wavelength. This wavelength corresponds to the porphyrin moiety specific p–p*$ molecular electronic transition which is called the Soret or B band. This resonant behaviour is not observed for 1-dodecanethiol SAMs, which are devoid of molecular electronic transition in the investigated visible spectral range. [less ▲]

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