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See detailDiversity-function relationship of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria in soils among functional groups of grassland species under climate warming
Malchair, Sandrine ULg; De Boeck, H. J.; Lemmens, CMHM et al

in Applied Soil Ecology (2010), 44

Although warming and plant diversity losses have important effects on aboveground ecosystem functioning, their belowground effects remain largely unknown. We studied the impact of a 3 °C warming and of ... [more ▼]

Although warming and plant diversity losses have important effects on aboveground ecosystem functioning, their belowground effects remain largely unknown. We studied the impact of a 3 °C warming and of three plant functional groups (forbs, grasses, legumes) on ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) diversity (polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, PCR-DGGE) and their function (potential nitrification) in artificial grasslands. Warming did not influence AOB diversity and function. Sequencing of 16S rRNA gene fragments retrieved from DGGE gel revealed that they were all related to Nitrosospira-like sequences. Clustering analysis of DGGE profiles resulted in two nodes, separating AOB community structure under legumes from all other samples. Decreased AOB richness (number of DGGE bands) and concurrent increased potential nitrification were also observed under legumes. We hypothesized that ammonium availability was the driving force regulating the link between aboveground and belowground communities, as well as the AOB diversity and function link. The results document that the physiology of AOB might be an important regulator of AOB community structure and function under plant functional groups. This study highlights the major role of the microbial community composition in soil process responses to changes in the functional composition of plant communities. [less ▲]

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See detailMicrobial inoculation for improving the growth and health of micropropagated strawberry
Vestberg, Mauritz; Kukkonen, Sanna; Saari, K. et al

in Applied Soil Ecology (2004), 27(3), 243-258

Multimicrobial inoculation has been proposed as a way of protecting plants against environmental stress and increasing the sustainability of plant production. To study these possibilities in a ... [more ▼]

Multimicrobial inoculation has been proposed as a way of protecting plants against environmental stress and increasing the sustainability of plant production. To study these possibilities in a micropropagation system, microplants of strawberry, Fragaria x ananssa, were inoculated or left uninoculated with five microorganisms (Glomus mosseae BEG29, Bacillus subtilis M3, Trichoderma harzianum DB11, Pseudomonas fluorescens C7rl2 and Gliocladium catenulatum Gliomix(R)), used either singly or in dual mixtures in the presence or absence of the strawberry diseases crown rot (Phytophthora cactorum) and red stele (P. fragariae). Finnish light Sphagnum peat was used as the growth substrate in the experiments. Seven experiments were performed as two to three months pot experiments in greenhouses of research laboratories in Finland and Belgium and in a nursery in Finland. In most experiments, the inoculated microorganims were detected at sufficient densities four weeks after inoculation. Exceptions were T harzianum and G. mosseae which were detected at insufficient densities in several experiments. This might have been due to the biological and/or nutritional properties of the peat. None of the microorganisms or their mixtures caused significant growth-promoting effects in more than two experiments. Dual inoculation did not increase growth more than inoculation with single organisms. B. subtilis was the most promising growth promoting microorganism. Most of the microbial treatments decreased crown rot shoot symptoms as well as the numbers of oospores in the roots when the experiment was performed in autumn. In the summer experiment with conditions more favourable for strawberry growth, no disease control was obtained, but some of the microorganisms increased the severity of crown rot. No microbial treatment decreased shoot symptoms of red stele, but the degree of root necrosis was slightly decreased by B. subtilis and G. mosseae + G. catenulatum. The numbers of oospores of P. fragariae in strawberry roots were not decreased by any treatment, but several treatments increased them. Both growth promotion and disease control considered, the single microorganisms T harzianum, G. catenulatum and B. subtilis as well as the mixture T harzianum + G. catenulatum were the most promising treatments in this study. However, the great variation between experiments indicates that more studies are needed for optimization of the whole plant-substrate-microorganism system. The importance of microbial inoculation for ensuring subsequent growth in the field also needs to be studied. (C) 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailSoil oribatid mite communities (Acari: Oribatida) from high Shaba (Zaïre) in relation to vegetation
Noti, M.-I.; André, H. M.; Dufrêne, Marc ULg

in Applied Soil Ecology (1997), 5(1), 81-96

Soil oribatid mite communities from three vegetation types (forest, woodland and savanna) are described in Luiswishi (high Shaba, Zaïre) and 151 species were recorded. Oribatid communities are organized ... [more ▼]

Soil oribatid mite communities from three vegetation types (forest, woodland and savanna) are described in Luiswishi (high Shaba, Zaïre) and 151 species were recorded. Oribatid communities are organized along a successional gradient which parallels the regressive sere defined by phytosociologists and going from the dense forest ("muhulu"), the local climax, to the savanna, passing through the woodland ("miombo"). Within this gradient, oribatid communities may vary depending on the habitat (presence of grass, high termitaria). The impact of seasons (dry vs. rainy season) is weak in the forest but drastic in savanna. The various soil oribatid communities are related to man's activities since the regressive sere results from repeated burnings and associated agricultural practices. [less ▲]

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