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See detailBiFeO3/La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 heterostructures deposited on spark plasma sintered LaAlO3 substrates
Dhanapal, Pravarthana ULg; Trassin, M.; Haw Chu, J. et al

in Applied Physics Letters (2014), 104

Multiferroic BiFeO3 (BFO)/La0.7Sr 0.3MnO3 heterostructured thin films were grown by pulsed laser deposition on polished spark plasma sintered LaAlO3 (LAO) polycrystalline substrates. Both polycrystalline ... [more ▼]

Multiferroic BiFeO3 (BFO)/La0.7Sr 0.3MnO3 heterostructured thin films were grown by pulsed laser deposition on polished spark plasma sintered LaAlO3 (LAO) polycrystalline substrates. Both polycrystalline LAO substrates and BFO films were locally characterized using electron backscattering diffraction, which confirmed the high-quality local epitaxial growth on each substrate grain. Piezoforce microscopy was used to image and switch the piezo-domains, and the results are consistent with the relative orientation of the ferroelectric variants with the surface normal. This high-throughput synthesis process opens the routes towards wide survey of electronic properties as a function of crystalline orientation in complex oxide thin film synthesis. © 2014 AIP Publishing LLC. [less ▲]

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See detailFiber based optofluidic biosensors
Lismont, Marjorie ULg; Vandewalle, Nicolas ULg; Joris, Bernard ULg et al

in Applied Physics Letters (2014)

Medicinal diagnosis requires the development of innovative devices allowing the detection of small amounts of biological species. Among the large variety of available biosensors, the ones based on ... [more ▼]

Medicinal diagnosis requires the development of innovative devices allowing the detection of small amounts of biological species. Among the large variety of available biosensors, the ones based on fluorescence phenomenon are really promising. Here, we show a prototype of the basic unit of a multi-sensing biosensor combining optics and microfluidics benefits. This unit makes use of two crossed optical fibers: the first fiber is used to carry small probe molecules droplets and excite fluorescence, while the second one is devoted to target molecules droplets transport and fluorescence detection. Within this scheme, the interaction takes place in each fiber node. The main benefits of this detection setup are the absence of fibers functionalization, the use of microliter volumes of target and probe species, their separation before interaction, and a better detection limit compared to cuvettes setups. [less ▲]

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See detailDirect observation of the depairing current density in single-crystalline Ba0.5K0.5Fe2As2 microbridge with nanoscale thickness
Li, Jun; Yuan, Jie; Yuan, Ya-Hua et al

in Applied Physics Letters (2013), 103

We investigated the critical current density (Jc) of Ba0.5K0.5Fe2As2 single-crystalline microbridges with thicknesses ranging from 276 to 18 nm. The Jc of the microbridge with thickness down to 91 nm is ... [more ▼]

We investigated the critical current density (Jc) of Ba0.5K0.5Fe2As2 single-crystalline microbridges with thicknesses ranging from 276 to 18 nm. The Jc of the microbridge with thickness down to 91 nm is 10.8 MA/cm2 at 35 K, and reaches 944.4 MA/cm2 by extrapolating Jc(T) to T = 0 K using a two-gap s-wave Ginzburg-Landau model, well in accordance with the depairing current limit. The temperature, magnetic field, and angular-dependence of Jc(T,H,q) indicated weaker field dependence and weakly anisotropic factor of 1.15 (1 T) and 1.26 (5 T), which also yielded the validity of the anisotropic Ginzburg-Landau scaling. [less ▲]

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See detailEnhanced pinning in superconducting thin films with graded pinning landscapes
Motta, M.; Colauto, F.; Ortiz, W.A. et al

in Applied Physics Letters (2013), 102

A graded distribution of antidots in superconducting a-Mo79Ge21 thin films has been investigated by magnetization and magneto-optical imaging measurements. The pinning landscape has maximum density at the ... [more ▼]

A graded distribution of antidots in superconducting a-Mo79Ge21 thin films has been investigated by magnetization and magneto-optical imaging measurements. The pinning landscape has maximum density at the sample border, decreasing linearly towards the center. Its overall performance is noticeably superior than that for a sample with uniformly distributed antidots: For high temperatures and low fields, the critical current is enhanced, whereas the region of thermomagnetic instabilities in the field-temperature diagram is significantly suppressed. These findings confirm the relevance of graded landscapes on the enhancement of pinning efficiency, as recently predicted by Misko and Nori [Phys. Rev. B 85, 184506 (2012)]. [less ▲]

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See detailCurrent crowding effects in superconducting corner-shaped Al microstrips
Adami, Obaïd-Allah ULg; Cerbu, Dorin; Cabosart, Damien et al

in Applied Physics Letters (2013)

The superconducting critical current of corner-shaped Al superconducting microstrips has been investigated. We demonstrate that the sharp turns lead to asymmetric vortex dynamics, allowing for easier ... [more ▼]

The superconducting critical current of corner-shaped Al superconducting microstrips has been investigated. We demonstrate that the sharp turns lead to asymmetric vortex dynamics, allowing for easier penetration from the inner concave angle than from the outer convex angle. This effect is evidenced by a rectification of the voltage signal otherwise absent in straight superconducting strips. At low magnetic fields, an enhancement of the critical current with increasing magnetic field is observed for a particular combination of field and current polarity, confirming a theoretically predicted competing interplay of superconducting screening currents and applied currents at the inner side of the turn. [less ▲]

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See detailEnhanced thermoelectric performance in spark plasma textured bulk n-type BiTe2.7Se0.3 and p-type Bi0.5Sb 1.5Te3
Bhame, S. D.; Dhanapal, Pravarthana ULg; Prellier, W. et al

in Applied Physics Letters (2013), 102

Bulk p and n-type bismuth tellurides were prepared using spark plasma texturization method. The texture development along the uniaxial load in the 001 direction is confirmed from both x-ray diffraction ... [more ▼]

Bulk p and n-type bismuth tellurides were prepared using spark plasma texturization method. The texture development along the uniaxial load in the 001 direction is confirmed from both x-ray diffraction analysis and electron backscattering diffraction measurements. Interestingly, those textured samples outperform the samples prepared by conventional spark plasma sintering (SPS) leading to a reduced thermal conductivity in the ab-plane. The textured samples of n-type BiTe2.7Se0.3 and p-type Bi0.5Sb 1.5Te3 showed a 42% and 33% enhancement in figure of merit at room temperature, respectively, as compared to their SPS counterparts, opening the route for applications. © 2013 AIP Publishing LLC. [less ▲]

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See detailHigh-throughput synthesis of thermoelectric Ca3Co 4O9 films
Dhanapal, Pravarthana ULg; Lebedev, O. I.; Hebert, S. et al

in Applied Physics Letters (2013), 103

Properties of complex oxide thin films can be tuned over a range of values as a function of mismatch, composition, orientation, and structure. Here, we report a strategy for growing structured epitaxial ... [more ▼]

Properties of complex oxide thin films can be tuned over a range of values as a function of mismatch, composition, orientation, and structure. Here, we report a strategy for growing structured epitaxial thermoelectric thin films leading to improved Seebeck coefficient. Instead of using single-crystal sapphire substrates to support epitaxial growth, Ca3Co 4O9 films are deposited, using the Pulsed Laser Deposition technique, onto Al2O3 polycrystalline substrates textured by spark plasma sintering. The structural quality of the 2000 Å thin film was investigated by transmission electron microscopy, while the crystallographic orientation of the grains and the epitaxial relationships were determined by electron backscatter diffraction. The use of a polycrystalline ceramic template leads to structured films that are in good local epitaxial registry. The Seebeck coefficient is about 170 μV/K at 300 K, a typical value of misfit material with low carrier density. This high-throughput process, called combinatorial substrate epitaxy, appears to facilitate the rational tuning of functional oxide films, opening a route to the epitaxial synthesis of high quality complex oxides. © 2013 AIP Publishing LLC. [less ▲]

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See detailControlling flux flow dissipation by changing flux pinning in superconducting films
Grimaldi, G; Leo, A; Nigro, A et al

in Applied Physics Letters (2012), 100

We study the flux flow state in superconducting materials characterized by rather strong intrinsic pinning, such as Nb, NbN, and nanostructured Al thin films, in which we drag the superconducting ... [more ▼]

We study the flux flow state in superconducting materials characterized by rather strong intrinsic pinning, such as Nb, NbN, and nanostructured Al thin films, in which we drag the superconducting dissipative state into the normal state by current biasing. We modify the vortex pinning strength either by ion irradiation, by tuning the measuring temperature or by including artificial pinning centers. We measure critical flux flow voltages for all materials and the same effect is observed: switching to low flux flow dissipations at low fields for an intermediate pinning regime. This mechanism offers a way to additionally promote the stability of the superconducting state. [less ▲]

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See detailEffect of carbon doping on the structure of amorphous GeTe phase change material
Ghezzi, G. E.; Raty, Jean-Yves ULg; Maitrejean, S. et al

in Applied Physics Letters (2011), 99(15), 1519063-15190631519063

Carbon-doped GeTe is a promising material for use in phase change memories since the addition of C increases the stability of the amorphous phase. By combining x-ray total scattering experiments and ab ... [more ▼]

Carbon-doped GeTe is a promising material for use in phase change memories since the addition of C increases the stability of the amorphous phase. By combining x-ray total scattering experiments and ab initio molecular dynamics, we show that carbon deeply modifies the structure of the amorphous phase through long carbon chains and tetrahedral and triangular units centered on carbon. A clear signature of these units is the appearance of an additional interatomic distance, around 3.3 Aring in the measured pair distribution function. Besides, the first Ge-Ge and Ge-Te distances are almost not affected by doping. [less ▲]

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See detailBalanced ternary addition using a gated silicon nanowire
Mol, J. A.; Van der Heijden, J.; Verduijn, J. et al

in Applied Physics Letters (2011), 99(26), 263109

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See detailTernary logic implemented on a single dopant atom field effect silicon transistor
Klein, M.; Mol, J. A.; Verduijn, J. et al

in Applied Physics Letters (2010), 96

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See detailGuided nucleation of superconductivity on a graded magnetic substrate
Milosevic, M. V.; Gillijns, W.; Silhanek, Alejandro ULg et al

in Applied Physics Letters (2010), 96(3),

We demonstrate the controlled spatial nucleation of superconductivity in a thin film deposited on periodic arrays of ferromagnetic dots with gradually increasing diameter. The perpendicular magnetization ... [more ▼]

We demonstrate the controlled spatial nucleation of superconductivity in a thin film deposited on periodic arrays of ferromagnetic dots with gradually increasing diameter. The perpendicular magnetization of the dots induces vortex-antivortex molecules in the sample, with the number of (anti)vortices increasing with magnet size. The resulting gradient of antivortex density between the dots predetermines local nucleation of superconductivity in the sample as a function of the applied external field and temperature. In addition, the compensation between the applied magnetic field and the antivortices results in an unprecedented enhancement of the critical temperature. [less ▲]

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See detailRelaxation of strained pseudomorphic SixGe1-x layers on He-implanted Si/δ-Si:C/Si(100) substrates
Buca, D.; Minamisawa, R. A.; Trinkaus, H. et al

in Applied Physics Letters (2009), 95

In this letter we present a method to increase the efficiency of SiGe layer relaxation by He+ ion implantation and annealing. Preferential nucleation of He platelets along a 􏰀-impurity layer grown in the ... [more ▼]

In this letter we present a method to increase the efficiency of SiGe layer relaxation by He+ ion implantation and annealing. Preferential nucleation of He platelets along a 􏰀-impurity layer grown in the Si substrate below the SiGe layer results in planar localization and homogenization of dislocation loop sources inducing a more uniform distribution of misfit dislocations. We demonstrate this for a thin Si:C layer grown by reduced pressure chemical vapor deposition. The optimization of the conditions for efficient relaxation and layer quality is studied with respect to the position of the Si:C layer and the process parameters. Relaxation degrees up to 85% are obtained for Si0.77Ge0.23 layers. [less ▲]

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See detailDigital microfluidics on a wire
Gilet, Tristan ULg; Terwagne, Denis ULg; Vandewalle, Nicolas ULg

in Applied Physics Letters (2009), 95

In this letter, we discuss the behavior of droplets on fiber networks. An on/off transition is observed when a droplet comes around an intersection between several fibers: large droplets cross the ... [more ▼]

In this letter, we discuss the behavior of droplets on fiber networks. An on/off transition is observed when a droplet comes around an intersection between several fibers: large droplets cross the junction while small droplets remain pinned. We show that fibers perform advantageously most operations of digital microfluidics, such as multiplexed biochemical microreactions: intersections are the basic component of fiber-based microfluidic devices. [less ▲]

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See detailSwitchable magnetic dipole induced guided vortex motion (vol 93, 022507, 2008)
Verellen, N.; Silhanek, Alejandro ULg; Gillijns, W. et al

in Applied Physics Letters (2009), 94(21),

erratum to the Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 022507 (2008)

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See detailMagnetically controlled superconducting weak links
Van de Vondel, J.; Silhanek, Alejandro ULg; Raes, B. et al

in Applied Physics Letters (2009), 95(3),

We have designed and characterized a magnetic template which can be switched between chains of parallel and antiparallel field distribution by applying an in-plane magnetic field. The parallel field ... [more ▼]

We have designed and characterized a magnetic template which can be switched between chains of parallel and antiparallel field distribution by applying an in-plane magnetic field. The parallel field profile creates highly mobile vortex channels in a superconducting film deposited on top, reproducing the behavior of a weak link as evidenced by the presence of Shapiro steps in the current-voltage characteristics under rf excitation. The Josephson coupling can be fully suppressed by changing the field distribution to the antiparallel state. As a result, a reversible ON/OFF switch for magnetically induced weak links has been demonstrated. [less ▲]

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See detailComment on "Transverse rectification in superconducting thin films with arrays of asymmetric defects" [Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 062505 (2007)]
Silhanek, Alejandro ULg; de Vondel, J Van; Moshchalkov, V. V. et al

in Applied Physics Letters (2008), 92(17),

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See detailSwitchable magnetic dipole induced guided vortex motion
Verellen, N.; Silhanek, Alejandro ULg; Gillijns, W. et al

in Applied Physics Letters (2008), 93(2),

We present evidence of magnetically controlled vortex motion in an Al film on top of a periodic array of Permalloy square rings. The resulting magnetic template generates a strongly anisotropic pinning ... [more ▼]

We present evidence of magnetically controlled vortex motion in an Al film on top of a periodic array of Permalloy square rings. The resulting magnetic template generates a strongly anisotropic pinning potential landscape for vortices in the superconducting layer. Transport measurements show that this anisotropy is able to confine the flux motion along the high symmetry axes of the square lattice of dipoles. This guided vortex motion can be rerouted by 90 degrees simply changing the dipole orientation or even suppressed by inducing a flux-closure magnetic state with very low stray fields in the rings. (C) 2008 American Institute of Physics. [less ▲]

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See detailUnusual resistivity hysteresis in a bulk magnetoresistive ferromagnetic/ferrimagnetic composite (La0.7Ca0.3MnO3/Mn3O4): Role of demagnetization effects
Vertruyen, Bénédicte ULg; Cloots, Rudi ULg; Ausloos, Marcel ULg et al

in Applied Physics Letters (2007), 91(6), 062514

The authors report an intriguing resistivity versus magnetic field dependence in polycrystalline composite samples containing a magnetoresistive manganite (ferromagnetic/conducting La0.7Ca0.3MnO3) and a ... [more ▼]

The authors report an intriguing resistivity versus magnetic field dependence in polycrystalline composite samples containing a magnetoresistive manganite (ferromagnetic/conducting La0.7Ca0.3MnO3) and a magnetic manganese oxide (ferrimagnetic/insulating Mn3O4). At 10 K, when the magnetic field is scanned from positive to negative values, the resistance peak occurs at positive magnetic field, instead of zero or negative field as usually observed in polycrystalline manganite samples. The position of the resistance peak agrees well with the cancellation of the internal magnetic field, suggesting that the demagnetization effects are responsible for this behavior. (c) 2007 American Institute of Physics. [less ▲]

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See detailFoamability and structure analysis of foams in Hele-Shaw cell
Caps, Hervé ULg; Vandewalle, Nicolas ULg; Broze, Guy ULg et al

in Applied Physics Letters (2007), 90(21),

The authors have generated two-dimensional foams by imposing an intermittent drainage in a Hele-Shaw cell partially filled with a detergent/water mixture. The foam generation associated with this process ... [more ▼]

The authors have generated two-dimensional foams by imposing an intermittent drainage in a Hele-Shaw cell partially filled with a detergent/water mixture. The foam generation associated with this process is reproducible and depends on the surfactant molecules composing the solution. A kinetic model can be proposed for the foam evolution. The structure of the foam is also investigated: the average bubble side number and correlation functions are measured. Distinguishable behaviors are observed for different surfactant molecules. This way of producing a foam is thus adequate for applied foam structure characterizations and fundamental studies. (c) 2007 American Institute of Physics. [less ▲]

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