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See detailSupplementation, optimal status, and analytical determination of vitamin D: Where are we standing in 2012?
Souberbielle, Jean-Claude; CAVALIER, Etienne ULg

in Anti-Cancer Agents in Medicinal Chemistry (2013), 1

There is a growing interest for vitamin D in the medical and scientific community as well as in the public medias as illustrated by a huge number of publications. Most experts claim that vitamin D ... [more ▼]

There is a growing interest for vitamin D in the medical and scientific community as well as in the public medias as illustrated by a huge number of publications. Most experts claim that vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency is widespread with potential important public health consequences. It may seem surprising for many persons that a deficiency in a vitamin may be so frequent in countries where food is so diversified and easily available. In fact, vitamin D is not a vitamin stricto sensu as it is mainly synthesized in the skin under the action of UVB rays, while its food sources are scarce. Furthermore, UVB rays are absent during a marked part of the year at latitudes greater than 35-40°, while pollution and cloud cover reduce the number of UVB reaching the earth, and many factors such as age, skin pigmentation, covering clothes, sun creams reduce the capacity of the skin to synthesize vitamin D3. Vitamin D must be hydroxylated to form 1,25dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25OH2D), the active metabolite. As 1,25OH2D is released into the bloodstream and binds to a receptor present in several distant tissues, it may be considered as a hormone, vitamin D being thus a pre-prohormone. In the present article, we review briefly the metabolism and various effects of vitamin D as well as the vitamin D assays and vitamin D treatments. We define vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency considering [less ▲]

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See detailTumour Hypoxia Affects the Responsiveness of Cancer Cells to Chemotherapy and Promotes Cancer Progression
Cosse, Jean-Philippe ULg; Michiels, Carine

in Anti-Cancer Agents in Medicinal Chemistry (2008), 8

A solid tumour forms an organ-like structure that is comprised of cancer cells as well as stroma cells (fibroblasts, inflammatory cells) that are embedded in an extracellular matrix and are nourished by ... [more ▼]

A solid tumour forms an organ-like structure that is comprised of cancer cells as well as stroma cells (fibroblasts, inflammatory cells) that are embedded in an extracellular matrix and are nourished by vascular network. However, tumoral microenvironment is heterogeneous due to the abnormal vasculature network and high proliferation rate of cancer cells. Because of these features, some regions are starved from oxygen, a phenomenon called hypoxia. Transient hypoxia is associated with inadequate blood flow while chronic hypoxia is the consequence of the increased oxygen diffusion distance due to tumour expansion. Both types of hypoxia are correlated with poor outcome for patients. Moreover, hypoxia also enhances chemoresistance of cancer cells. Firstly, the delivery of drugs in hypoxic area and cellular uptake of it are affected by hypoxia or associated acidity. Secondly, some chemotherapeutic drugs require oxygen to generate free radicals that contribute to cytotoxicity. Last, hypoxia induces cellular adaptations that compromise the effectiveness of chemotherapy. In response to nutrient deprivation due to hypoxia, the rate of proliferation of cancer cells decreases but chemotherapeutic drugs are more effective against proliferating cells. On the other hand, hypoxia induces adaptation by post-translational and transcriptional changes that promote cell survival and resistance to chemotherapy. Through these changes, hypoxia promotes angiogenesis, shift to glycolytic metabolism, expression of ABC transporters, cell survival by inducing the expression of genes encoding growth factors and the modulation of apoptotic process. The aim of this review is to provide a description of known hypoxia-induced mechanisms of chemoresistance at a cellular level. [less ▲]

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See detailThe use of nimesulide and its analogues in cancer chemoprevention
Renard, Jean-François ULg; Julémont, F.; De Leval, X. et al

in Anti-Cancer Agents in Medicinal Chemistry (2006), 6

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