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See detailGreenland high-elevation mass balance: inference and implication of reference period (1961–90) imbalance
Colgan, W.; Box, J.; Andersen, M. et al

in Annals of Glaciology (2015), 56(70), 105117

We revisit the input–output mass budget of the high-elevation region of the Greenland ice sheet evaluated by the Program for Arctic Regional Climate Assessment (PARCA). Our revised reference period ... [more ▼]

We revisit the input–output mass budget of the high-elevation region of the Greenland ice sheet evaluated by the Program for Arctic Regional Climate Assessment (PARCA). Our revised reference period (1961–90) mass balance of 54 48 Gt a–1 is substantially greater than the 0 21 Gt a–1 assessed by PARCA, but consistent with a recent, fully independent, input–output estimate of high-elevation mass balance (41 61 Gt a–1). Together these estimates infer a reference period high-elevation specific mass balance of 4.8 5.4 cm w.e. a–1. The probability density function (PDF) associated with this combined input–output estimate infers an 81% likelihood of high-elevation specific mass balance being positive (>0 cm w.e. a–1) during the reference period, and a 70% likelihood that specific balance was >2 cm w.e. a–1. Given that reference period accumulation is characteristic of centurial and millennial means, and that in situ mass-balance observations exhibit a dependence on surface slope rather than surface mass balance, we suggest that millennial-scale ice dynamics are the primary driver of subtle reference period high-elevation mass gain. Failure to acknowledge subtle reference period dynamic mass gain can result in underestimating recent dynamic mass loss by 17%, and recent total Greenland mass loss by 7%. [less ▲]

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See detailBiogeography of terrestrial cyanobacteria from Antarctic ice-free areas
Namsaraev, Zorigto ULg; Mano, Marie-José ULg; Fernandez Carazo, Rafael ULg et al

in Annals of Glaciology (2010), 51(56), 171-177

Cyanobacteria inhabit the Antarctic continent and have even been observed in the most southerly ice-free areas of Antarctica (86–878 S). The highest molecular diversity of cyanobacterial communities was ... [more ▼]

Cyanobacteria inhabit the Antarctic continent and have even been observed in the most southerly ice-free areas of Antarctica (86–878 S). The highest molecular diversity of cyanobacterial communities was found in the areas located between 708 S and 808 S. Further south and further north from this zone, the diversity abruptly decreased. Seventy-nine per cent (33 of 42 operational taxonomic units) of Antarctic terrestrial cyanobacteria have a cosmopolitan distribution. Analysis of the sampling efforts shows that only three regions (southern Victoria Land, the Sør Rondane Mountains and Alexander Island) have been particularly well studied, while other areas did not receive enough attention. Although cyanobacteria possess a capacity for long-range transport, regional populations in Antarctic ice-free areas seem to exist. The cyanobacterial communities of the three most intensively studied regions, separated from each other by a distance of 3000–3400 km, had a low degree of similarity with each other. Further development of microbial biogeography demands a standardized approach. For this purpose, as a minimal standard, we suggest using the sequence of cyanobacterial 16S rRNA gene between Escherichia coli positions 405–780. [less ▲]

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