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See detailDetection of copy number variants in the horse genome and examination of their association with recurrent laryngeal neuropathy
Dupuis, Marie-Capucine; Zhang, Zhiyan ULg; Durkin, Keith ULg et al

in Animal Genetics (2013)

We used the data from a recently performed genome-wide association study using the Illumina Equine SNP50 beadchip for the detection of copy number variants (CNVs) and examined their association with ... [more ▼]

We used the data from a recently performed genome-wide association study using the Illumina Equine SNP50 beadchip for the detection of copy number variants (CNVs) and examined their association with recurrent laryngeal neuropathy (RLN), an important equine upper airway disease compromising performance. A total of 2797 CNVs were detected for 477 horses, covering 229 kb and seven SNPs on average. Overlapping CNVs were merged to define 478 CNV regions (CNVRs). CNVRs, particularly deletions, were shown to be significantly depleted in genes. Fifty-two of the 67 common CNVRs (frequency ! 1%) were validated by association mapping, Mendelian inheritance, and/or Mendelian inconsistencies. None of the 67 common CNVRs were significantly associated with RLN when accounting for multiple testing. However, a duplication on chromosome 10 was detected in 10 cases (representing three breeds) and two unphenotyped parents but in none of the controls. The duplication was embedded in an 8-Mb haplotype shared across breeds. [less ▲]

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See detailIdentification of large selective sweeps associated with major genes in cattle.
Druet, Tom ULg; Perez-Pardal, L.; Charlier, Carole ULg et al

in Animal Genetics (2013), 44(6), 758-62

Selection for new favorable variants can lead to selective sweeps. However, such sweeps might be rare in the evolution of different species for which polygenic adaptation or selection on standing ... [more ▼]

Selection for new favorable variants can lead to selective sweeps. However, such sweeps might be rare in the evolution of different species for which polygenic adaptation or selection on standing variation might be more common. Still, strong selective sweeps have been described in domestic species such as chicken lines or dog breeds. The goal of our study was to use a panel of individuals from 12 different cattle breeds genotyped at high density (800K SNPs) to perform a whole-genome scan for selective sweeps defined as unexpectedly long stretches of reduced heterozygosity. To that end, we developed a hidden Markov model in which one of the hidden states corresponds to regions of reduced heterozygosity. Some unexpectedly long regions were identified. Among those, six contained genes known to affect traits with simple genetic architecture such as coat color or horn development. However, there was little evidence for sweeps associated with genes underlying production traits. [less ▲]

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See detailAllelic heterogeneity of Crooked Tail Syndrome: result of balancing selection?
Sartelet, Arnaud ULg; Klingbeil, Pamela; Franklin, Chris et al

in Animal Genetics (2012), 43(5), 604-607

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See detailGenetic variation in PLAG1 associates with early life body weight and peripubertal weight and growth in Bos taurus.
Littlejohn, M.; Grala, T.; Sanders, K. et al

in Animal Genetics (2012), 43(5), 591-4

Variation at the pleiomorphic adenoma gene 1 (PLAG1) locus has recently been implicated in the regulation of stature and weight in Bos taurus. Using a population of 942 outbred Holstein-Friesian dairy ... [more ▼]

Variation at the pleiomorphic adenoma gene 1 (PLAG1) locus has recently been implicated in the regulation of stature and weight in Bos taurus. Using a population of 942 outbred Holstein-Friesian dairy calves, we report confirmation of this effect, demonstrating strong association of early life body weight with PLAG1 genotype. Peripubertal body weight and growth rate were also significantly associated with PLAG1 genotype. Growth rate per kilogram of body weight, daily feed intake, gross feed efficiency and residual feed intake were not significantly associated with PLAG1 genotype. This study supports the status of PLAG1 as a key regulator of mammalian growth. Further, the data indicate the utility of PLAG1 polymorphisms for the selection of animals to achieve enhanced weight gain or conversely to aid the selection of animals with lower mature body weight and thus lower maintenance energy requirements. [less ▲]

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See detailIndirect effect of IGF2 intron3 g.3072G>A mutation on prolificacy in sows.
Stinckens, A.; Mathur, P.; Janssens, S. et al

in Animal Genetics (2010), 41(5), 493-8

A QTL located in the paternally expressed insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2) gene is known to increase muscle growth and reduce fat deposition in pigs. This makes the QTL in IGF2 a good marker for use in ... [more ▼]

A QTL located in the paternally expressed insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2) gene is known to increase muscle growth and reduce fat deposition in pigs. This makes the QTL in IGF2 a good marker for use in pig breeding programmes. However, care has to be taken as it is postulated that increased leanness and lowered fat deposition may have a negative effect on the prolificacy and longevity of sows. Selection of sire and dam lines for different alleles of the mutation in the paternally imprinted IGF2 gene could actually provide a solution to this problem. Therefore, in this study, the effect of the IGF2 QTL on prolificacy-related traits in sows was investigated. It was found that the paternal IGF2 wild-type allele was associated with higher reproduction performance in the sow. Moreover, it was also examined whether the difference in prolificacy in sows could be a consequence of differential IGF2 expression in the ovarian follicles of the sow or whether it is mainly a secondary effect caused by differences in fatness traits. Therefore, IGF2 expression was measured in follicles of different sizes from sows with different genotypes for the paternal IGF2 allele. It was observed that, however, while the size of the follicles was associated with follicular IGF2 expression level, the IGF2 genotype was not. It could be concluded that the difference in prolificacy of sows with a different paternal IGF2 genotype could be a secondary effect, resulting from differences in fat deposition. [less ▲]

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See detailMolecular heterogeneity of XY sex reversal in horses
Raudsepp, T; Durkin, Keith ULg; Lear, T.L. et al

in Animal Genetics (2010), 41

Male-to-female 64,XY sex reversal is a frequently reported chromosome abnormality in horses. Despite this, the molecular causes of the condition are as yet poorly understood. This is partially because ... [more ▼]

Male-to-female 64,XY sex reversal is a frequently reported chromosome abnormality in horses. Despite this, the molecular causes of the condition are as yet poorly understood. This is partially because only limited molecular information is available for the horse Y chro- mosome (ECAY). Here, we used the recently developed ECAY map and carried out the first comprehensive study of the Y chromosome in XY mares (n = 18). The integrity of the ECAY in XY females was studied by FISH and PCR using markers evenly distributed along the euchromatic region. The results showed that the XY sex reversal condition in horses has two molecularly distinct forms: (i) a Y-linked form that is characterized by Y chromosome deletions and (ii) a non-Y-linked form where the Y chromosome of affected females is molecularly the same as in normal males. Further analysis of the Y-linked form (13 cases) showed that the condition is molecularly heterogeneous: the smallest deletions spanned about 21 kb, while the largest involved the entire euchromatic region. Regardless of the size, all deletions included the SRY gene. We show that the deletions were likely caused by inter-chromatid recombination events between repeated sequences in ECAY. Further, we hypothesize that the occurrence of SRY-negative XY females in some species (horse, human) but not in others (pig, dog) is because of differences in the organization of the Y chromosome. Finally, in contrast to the Y-linked SRY-negative form of equine XY sex reversal, the molecular causes of SRY-positive XY mares (5 cases) remain as yet undefined. [less ▲]

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See detailA Generalized Caprine-like Hypoplasia Syndrome is localized within a 6-cM interval on bovine chromosome 13 in the Montbeliarde breed.
Duchesne, A.; Manciaux, L.; Gautier, M. et al

in Animal Genetics (2008), 39(2), 112-20

Caprine-like Generalized Hypoplasia Syndrome (or SHGC) is a new hereditary disorder described in the Montbeliarde breed. We report here the characterization of this new disease, based on the visual ... [more ▼]

Caprine-like Generalized Hypoplasia Syndrome (or SHGC) is a new hereditary disorder described in the Montbeliarde breed. We report here the characterization of this new disease, based on the visual examination of animals affected by SHGC, and on physiological and biochemical studies undertaken on samples of both SHGC and normal animals. Biological samples for more than 150 affected calves and their parents have been collected over the past 4 years within the framework of the Bovine Genetic Disease Observatory. First, pedigree analyses showed that the mode of inheritance is most probably autosomal recessive. Then, a genome scan with 113 animals and 140 microsatellite markers revealed a single locus within a 35-cM region on bovine chromosome 13. Genotypes of 261 animals for 18 new microsatellite markers from the region confirmed the localization of the disorder to a 6-cM interval. Finally, based on the analysis of haplotypes in 463 Montbeliarde sires, we estimated the frequency of the SHGC mutated allele in the population and could propose a strategy for the systematic eradication of this disorder in the near future. [less ▲]

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See detailCharacterization of the complete porcine MSTN gene and expression levels in pig breeds differing in muscularity.
Stinckens, A.; Luyten, T.; Bijttebier, J. et al

in Animal Genetics (2008), 39(6), 586-96

Myostatin (MSTN), a transforming growth factor beta superfamily member, is an essential factor for the growth and development of muscle mass. The protein functions as a negative regulator of muscle growth ... [more ▼]

Myostatin (MSTN), a transforming growth factor beta superfamily member, is an essential factor for the growth and development of muscle mass. The protein functions as a negative regulator of muscle growth and is related to the so-called double-muscling phenotype in cattle, where a series of mutations renders the gene inactive. One particular breed of pigs, the Belgian Pietrain, also shows a heavily muscled phenotype. The similarity of muscular phenotypes between the double-muscled cattle and Pietrain pigs indicated that MSTN may be a candidate gene for muscular hypertrophy in pigs. In this study, we sequenced and analysed the complete MSTN gene from 45 pigs of five different breeds, including the heavily muscled Pietrain breed at one extreme and the Meishan and Wild boar breeds at the other extreme. In total, 7626 bp of the porcine MSTN gene were sequenced, including the 5' and 3' UTR. Fifteen polymorphic loci were found, three of which were located in the promoter region, five in intron 1 and seven in intron 2. Most mutations were found when comparing the obtained MSTN sequence with porcine MSTN sequences already published. However, one polymorphism located at position 447 of the porcine MSTN promoter had a very high allele frequency in the Pietrain pig breed and disrupted a putative myocyte enhancer factor 3 binding site. Real-time PCR using Sybr Green showed that this mutation was associated with expression levels of the MSTN gene in m. longissimus dorsi at an age of 4 weeks. [less ▲]

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See detailRefinement of two female fertility QTL using alternative phenotypes in French Holstein dairy cattle.
Guillaume, F.; Gautier, M.; Ben Jemaa, S. et al

in Animal Genetics (2007), 38(1), 72-4

Two quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting female fertility were mapped in French dairy cattle. Phenotypes were non-return rates at 28, 56, 90 and 282 days after insemination. On chromosome 3, a QTL was ... [more ▼]

Two quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting female fertility were mapped in French dairy cattle. Phenotypes were non-return rates at 28, 56, 90 and 282 days after insemination. On chromosome 3, a QTL was significant at 1% for non-return rate at 90 days, suggesting that it affects early fertility events. An analysis of SLC35A3, which causes complex vertebral malformation, excluded this gene from the QTL interval. On chromosome 7, a QTL was almost significant (P = 0.05) for non-return rate at 282 days. This QTL was associated with abortion and stillbirth problems. Use of appropriate phenotypes appeared important for fine-mapping QTL associated with fertility. [less ▲]

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See detailThe RYR1 g.1843C>T mutation is associated with the effect of the IGF2 intron3-g.3072G>A mutation on muscle hypertrophy.
Stinckens, A.; Van den Maagdenberg, K.; Luyten, T. et al

in Animal Genetics (2007), 38(1), 67-71

Muscle growth is a complex phenomenon regulated by many factors, whereby net growth results from the combined action of synthesis and turnover. In pigs, two quantitative trait nucleotides (QTN) are known ... [more ▼]

Muscle growth is a complex phenomenon regulated by many factors, whereby net growth results from the combined action of synthesis and turnover. In pigs, two quantitative trait nucleotides (QTN) are known to have an important influence on muscle growth and fat deposition: one QTN is located in the ryanodine receptor 1 (RYR1) gene (RYR1 g.1843C>T) and the other, a paternally expressed QTN, is in the insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2) gene (IGF2 intron3-g.3072G>A). The mutation in IGF2 abrogates in vitro interaction with a repressor, which leads to a threefold increase of IGF2 expression in post-natal muscle. The family of the calpains, a family of Ca(2+)-sensitive muscle endopeptidases, and their specific inhibitor calpastatin play an important role in post-natal protein degradation, also influencing muscle and carcass traits. This study investigated the possible interactions between the genotypes of the RYR1 and IGF2 QTN on IGF2 expression. Samples were taken from several muscles and from pigs at several ages, and messenger RNA expression levels were measured using a real-time quantification assay. IGF2 expression in m. longissimus dorsi of animals with mutations in both IGF2 and RYR1 was significantly lower than in animals that inherited the IGF2 mutation but were homozygous wildtype for RYR1. [less ▲]

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See detailA 2.5-Mb contig constructed from Angus, Longhorn and horned Hereford DNA spanning the polled interval on bovine chromosome 1
Wunderlich, K. R.; Abbey, C. A.; Clayton, D. R. et al

in Animal Genetics (2006), 37(6), 592-594

The polled locus has been mapped by genetic linkage analysis to the proximal region of bovine chromosome 1. As an intermediate step in our efforts to identify the polled locus and the underlying causative ... [more ▼]

The polled locus has been mapped by genetic linkage analysis to the proximal region of bovine chromosome 1. As an intermediate step in our efforts to identify the polled locus and the underlying causative mutation for the polled phenotype, we have constructed a BAC-based physical map of the interval containing the polled locus. Clones containing genes and markers in the critical interval were isolated from the TAMBT (constructed from Angus and Longhorn genomic DNA) and CHORI-240 (constructed from horned Hereford genomic DNA) BAC libraries and ordered based on fingerprinting and the presence or absence of 80 STS markers. A single contig spanning 2.5 Mb was assembled. Comparison of the physical order of STSs to the corresponding region of human chromosome 21 revealed the same order of genes within the polled critical interval. This contig of overlapping BAC clones from horned and polled breeds is a useful resource for SNP discovery and characterization of positional candidate genes. [less ▲]

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See detailMeasuring the extent of linkage disequilibrium in commercial pig populations
Harmegnies, N.; Farnir, Frédéric ULg; DAVIN, Fabienne ULg et al

in Animal Genetics (2006), 37(3), 225-231

To evaluate the extent of linkage disequilibrium in domestic pigs, we genotyped 33 and 44 unrelated individuals from two commercial populations for 29 and five microsatellite markers located on ... [more ▼]

To evaluate the extent of linkage disequilibrium in domestic pigs, we genotyped 33 and 44 unrelated individuals from two commercial populations for 29 and five microsatellite markers located on chromosomes 15 and 2 respectively. A high proportion of marker pairs up to 40 cM apart exhibited significant linkage disequilibrium in both populations. Pair-wise r(2) values averaged between 0.15 and 0.50 (depending on chromosome and population) for markers < 1 cM apart and declined to values of 0.05 for more distant syntenic markers. Our results suggest that both populations underwent a bottleneck approximately 20 generations ago, which reduced the effective population size from thousands to < 200 animals. [less ▲]

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See detailConstruction of a medium-density horse gene map
Perrocheau, M; Chadi, S; Mata, X et al

in Animal Genetics (2006)

A medium-density map of the horse genome (Equus caballus) was constructed using genes evenly distributed over the human genome. Three hundred and twenty-three exonic primer pairs were used to screen the ... [more ▼]

A medium-density map of the horse genome (Equus caballus) was constructed using genes evenly distributed over the human genome. Three hundred and twenty-three exonic primer pairs were used to screen the INRA and the CHORI-241 equine BAC libraries by polymerase chain reaction and by filter hybridization respectively. Two hundred and thirty-seven BACs containing equine gene orthologues, confirmed by sequencing, were isolated. The BACs were localized to horse chromosomes by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). Overall, 165 genes were assigned to the equine genomic map by radiation hybrid (RH) (using an equine RH5000 panel) and/or by FISH mapping. A comparison of localizations of 713 genes mapped on the horse genome and on the human genome revealed 59 homologous seg- ments and 131 conserved segments. Two of these homologies (ECA27/HSA8 and ECA12p/ HSA11p) had not been previously identified. An enhanced resolution of conserved and rearranged chromosomal segments presented in this study provides clarification of chromosome evolution history. [less ▲]

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See detailResults of a whole-genome quantitative trait locus scan for growth, carcass composition and meat quality in a porcine four-way cross.
Harmegnies, N.; DAVIN, Fabienne ULg; DE SMET, Samantha ULg et al

in Animal Genetics (2006), 37(6), 543-53

A whole-genome quantitative trait locus (QTL) scan for 31 phenotypes related to growth, carcass composition and meat quality was conducted using 1187 progeny of a commercial four-way cross. Animals were ... [more ▼]

A whole-genome quantitative trait locus (QTL) scan for 31 phenotypes related to growth, carcass composition and meat quality was conducted using 1187 progeny of a commercial four-way cross. Animals were genotyped for 198 microsatellite markers that spanned the entire porcine genome. QTL analysis was conducted to extract information from paternal and maternal meioses separately using a rank-based nonparametric approach for half-sib designs. Nine QTL exceeded genome-wide significance: one QTL affecting growth (average daily gain on SSC1), two QTL influencing carcass composition (fatness on SSC3 and muscle mass on SSC15) and six QTL influencing meat quality (tenderness on SSC4 and SSC14; colour on SSC5, SSC6 and SSCX; and conductivity on SSC16). All but one of these coincided with previously reported QTL. In addition, we present evidence for 78 suggestive QTL with a combined false discovery rate of 40%. [less ▲]

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See detailDetection and characterization of SNPs useful for identity control and parentage testing in major European dairy breeds
Werner, F. A. O.; Durstewitz, G.; Habermann, F. A. et al

in Animal Genetics (2004), 35(1), 44-49

We propose the use of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) instead of polymorphic microsatellite markers for individual identification and parentage control in cattle. To this end, we present an initial ... [more ▼]

We propose the use of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) instead of polymorphic microsatellite markers for individual identification and parentage control in cattle. To this end, we present an initial set of 37 SNP markers together with a gender-specific SNP for identity control and parentage testing in the Holstein, Fleckvieh and Braunvieh breeds. To obtain suitable SNPs, a total of 91.13 kb of random genomic DNA was screened yielding 531 SNPs. These, and 43 previously identified SNPs, were subjected to the following selection criteria: (1) the frequency of the minor allele must be larger than 0.1 in at least two of the three examined breeds, and (2) markers should not be linked closely. Allele frequencies were estimated by analysing sequencing traces of pooled DNA or by genotyping individual DNA samples. The selected SNP loci were physically mapped by radiation hybrid mapping or by fluorescence in situ hybridization, and tested against the neutral mutation hypothesis. The presented marker set theoretically allows probabilities of identity less than 10(-13) for individual verification and exclusion powers exceeding 99.99% for parentage testing. [less ▲]

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See detailDifferential expression of the GTL2 gene within the callipyge region of ovine chromosome 18.
Bidwell, C. A.; Shay, T. L.; Georges, Michel ULg et al

in Animal Genetics (2001), 32(5), 248-56

The inheritance pattern of the skeletal muscle hypertrophy phenotype caused by the callipyge gene has been characterized as polar overdominance. We hypothesized that this trait may be caused by a gain or ... [more ▼]

The inheritance pattern of the skeletal muscle hypertrophy phenotype caused by the callipyge gene has been characterized as polar overdominance. We hypothesized that this trait may be caused by a gain or loss of gene expression because of the reversible nature of the phenotype in paternal vs. maternal inheritance. Suppression subtraction cDNA probes were made from skeletal muscle mRNA of normal (NN) and callipyge (C(Pat)N(Mat)) animals and hybridized to Southern blots containing bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) that comprise a physical contig of the callipyge region. The CN-NN probes hybridized to two ovine and seven bovine BACs. Sequence analysis of fragments within those BACs indicated short regions of similarity to mouse gene trap locus (gtl2). Northern blots analysis of RNA from hypertrophy-responsive muscles show a population of GTL2 mRNA centred around 2.4 kb that were abundantly expressed in 14-day prenatal NN and C(Pat)N(Mat) lambs but were down-regulated in day 14 and day 56 postnatal NN lambs. The expression of GTL2 remained elevated in 14- and 56-day-old C(Pat)N(Mat) lambs as well as in 56-day-old N(Pat)C(Mat) and CC lambs. Expression of GTL2 in the supraspinatus, which does not undergo hypertrophy, was very low for all genotypes and ages. Isolation of cDNA sequences show extensive alternative splicing and a lack of codon bias suggesting that GTL2 does not encode a protein. The mutation of the callipyge allele has altered postnatal expression of GTL2 in muscles that undergo hypertrophy and will help identify mechanisms involved in growth, genomic imprinting and polar overdominance. [less ▲]

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See detailConstruction and characterization of an ovine BAC contig spanning the callipyge locus.
SEGERS, Karin ULg; Vaiman, D.; Berghmans, S. et al

in Animal Genetics (2000), 31(6), 352-9

We describe the construction of an ovine BAC contig spanning a 4.6 centimorgan (cM) chromosome segment known to contain the callipyge (CLPG) locus. The contig comprises 21 ovine BAC clones jointly ... [more ▼]

We describe the construction of an ovine BAC contig spanning a 4.6 centimorgan (cM) chromosome segment known to contain the callipyge (CLPG) locus. The contig comprises 21 ovine BAC clones jointly covering approximately 900 kilobases (Kb). Two gaps in the BAC contig, spanning 10 and 7.5 Kb, respectively, were bridged by long range PCR. The corresponding chromosome region was shown to be characterized by an unusually low Kb to cM ratio (164 Kb/cM) and a high density of Not1 sites (1:126 Kb) possibly reflecting a high gene density in the corresponding chromosome region. Equivalent amplification of 64 sequence tagged sites spanning the corresponding region from homozygous +/+ and CLPG/CLPG individuals disproves the hypothesis of a major deletion causing the CLPG mutation. [less ▲]

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See detailConvenient Genotyping of Six Myostatin Mutations Causing Double-Muscling in Cattle Using a Multiplex Oligonucleotide Ligation Assay
Karim, Latifa ULg; Coppieters, Wouter ULg; Grobet, Luc ULg et al

in Animal Genetics (2000), 31(6), 396-9

We herein describe a procedure that allows for simultaneous genotyping of six loss-of-function mutations in the bovine myostatin gene associated with the double-muscling phenotype. The proposed method ... [more ▼]

We herein describe a procedure that allows for simultaneous genotyping of six loss-of-function mutations in the bovine myostatin gene associated with the double-muscling phenotype. The proposed method relies on a multiplex oligonucleotide ligation assay and detection of the fluorescently labelled products using automatic sequencers. [less ▲]

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See detailEvaluation Of The Genetic Variability Of 23 Bovine Microsatellite Markers In Four Belgian Cattle Breeds
Peelman, Lj.; Mortiaux, F.; Van Zeveren, A. et al

in Animal Genetics (1998), 29(3),

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See detailA Qtl Affecting Milk Yield and Composition Maps to Bovine Chromosome 20: A Confirmation
Arranz, J. J.; Coppieters, Wouter ULg; Berzi, P. et al

in Animal Genetics (1998), 29(2), 107-15

As part of a whole genome scan undertaken to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting milk yield and composition, we have genotyped a granddaughter design comprising 1152 sons for six microsatellite ... [more ▼]

As part of a whole genome scan undertaken to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting milk yield and composition, we have genotyped a granddaughter design comprising 1152 sons for six microsatellite markers spanning bovine chromosome 20. An analysis performed across families provided strong evidence (experiment-wise P-values < 0.01) for the presence of a QTL affecting primarily protein percentage towards the telomeric end of the chromosome. A founder sire, shown in a previous study to segregate for a similar QTL in the corresponding chromosome region, was characterized by 29 and 57 sons and maternal grandsons, respectively, in the present design. Sorting corresponding sons and grandsons by paternal or grandpaternal allele provided significant evidence for the segregation of a QTL on chromosome 20. Altogether these results confirm the location of a QTL affecting milk production on bovine chromosome 20. [less ▲]

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