References of "Alcohol & Alcoholism"
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See detailPerformance on an everyday life activity in persons diagnosed with alcohol dependency compared to healthy controls: Relations between a computerized shopping task and cognitive and clinical variables.
Laloyaux, Julien ULg; Michel, Céline; Mourad, Haitham et al

in Alcohol & Alcoholism (2012), 47(3), 240-247

Aim: Persons diagnosed with alcohol dependency often suffer from cognitive impairments. Little is known, however, concerning how these cognitive deficits impact complex, everyday life activities. By this ... [more ▼]

Aim: Persons diagnosed with alcohol dependency often suffer from cognitive impairments. Little is known, however, concerning how these cognitive deficits impact complex, everyday life activities. By this experiment, we wished to contribute to a better characterization of the nature of everyday life difficulties in patients with alcohol dependency using a computerized shopping task. Methods: We developed a computerized real-life activity task (shopping task), where participants are required to shop for a list of 8 grocery store items. Twenty individuals diagnosed with alcohol dependency and 20 healthy controls were administered a battery of cognitive tests, clinical scales and the computerized shopping task. Results: Performance on the computerized shopping task significantly differentiated patients and healthy controls for several variables and in particular for Total time. Moreover, Total time to complete the task correlated significantly with several cognitive measures. In particular, poor performance on measures of processing speed, verbal episodic memory, cognitive flexibility and inhibition were significantly correlated with longer Total time. Finally, longer Total time was significantly correlated with poorer everyday life functioning and longer duration of illness. Conclusions: These findings suggest that the computerized task used in the present study is a good proxy measure of the level of everyday life and cognitive functioning of persons diagnosed with alcohol dependency. [less ▲]

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See detailStimulant effects of ethanol in adolescent Swiss mice: development of sensitization and consequences in adulthood
Quoilin, Caroline ULg; Didone, Vincent ULg; Quertemont, Etienne ULg

in Alcohol & Alcoholism (2011), 46(Supplément 1), 40

The adolescent period is characterized by behavioral and neurobiological changes, which might predispose adolescents to the long-term negative consequences of alcohol. For example, enhanced risks of ... [more ▼]

The adolescent period is characterized by behavioral and neurobiological changes, which might predispose adolescents to the long-term negative consequences of alcohol. For example, enhanced risks of alcohol dependence are reported when drinking is initiated early. In the present studies, we used Swiss female mice to test whether chronic ethanol injections during adolescence durably affect the sensitivity to the stimulant effects of ethanol in adulthood. In a first set of experiments, several groups of young (28 day-old) mice were daily injected with various ethanol doses (1.5 – 4 g/kg) to test for ethanol sensitization during adolescence in comparison to adult mice exposed to the same schedule of ethanol injections. The results show that young mice express much higher stimulant effects after acute ethanol injections. However, they also require higher ethanol doses than adult mice to develop a sensitization to the stimulant effects of ethanol. In a second set of experiments, 28 day-old mice were sensitized to ethanol for 14 days with high ethanol doses (2.5 or 4 g/kg) and then tested for the stimulant effects of ethanol and the development of ethanol sensitization in adulthood. The results of this second set of experiments show that mice sensitized to ethanol during their adolescence remain more sensitive to the acute stimulant effects of ethanol in adulthood, especially when high ethanol doses were administered. However, the rate of the development of a sensitization to this effect was only slightly affected relative to adult mice exposed to a chronic ethanol regimen for the first time. Together, these results indicate that adolescent mice are more sensitive to the stimulant effects of ethanol but require higher ethanol doses to develop a sensitization. However, when a sensitization develops during adolescence, these mice still experience higher ethanol stimulant effects when tested in adulthood. [less ▲]

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See detailThe short allele of the serotonin transporter promoter polymorphism influences relapse in alcohol dependence.
Pinto, Emmanuel ULg; Reggers, Jean ULg; Gorwood, Philip et al

in Alcohol & Alcoholism (2008), 43

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See detailAcute and chronic effects of acetaldehyde on learning and memory in mice
Quertemont, Etienne ULg; Tambour, Sophie ULg; Didone, Vincent ULg

in Alcohol & Alcoholism (2007), 42 Suppl. 1

Acetaldehyde has been postulated to mediate several of the behavioral effects of ethanol, including its reinforcing properties. At the highest doses, alcohol disrupts the acquisition and performance of ... [more ▼]

Acetaldehyde has been postulated to mediate several of the behavioral effects of ethanol, including its reinforcing properties. At the highest doses, alcohol disrupts the acquisition and performance of memory tasks, culminating with the blackout experience at high blood alcohol concentrations. However, it remains unknown whether acetaldehyde is involved in such memory impairments induced by acute ethanol. Additionally, chronic alcohol consumption in humans sometimes leads to persistent memory impairments partly due to serious brain damages. The Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome, characterized by severe anterograde amnesia, is the most serious memory disorder induced by chronic alcohol. The aim of the present study was to show whether acute and chronic treatments with acetaldehyde, the first metabolite of ethanol, lead to similar memory impairments as ethanol in mice. Memory performances of Swiss and C57BL/6J mice were tested in both the passive avoidance task and the fear conditioning procedure. In the first part of the experiments mice were injected with acute acetaldehyde (50 to 300 mg/kg) immediately after the training phase. In the second part of the experiment, mice were tested for memory performance after 10 daily acetaldehyde injections. The first part of the experiments shows that acute acetaldehyde administrations produce a strong amnesic effect in both experimental paradigms. Additionally, the amnesic effects of acetaldehyde were more consistent than those observed after ethanol administration. In the second part of the studies, we show that 10 daily acetaldehyde injections to mice led to a severe and persistent anterograde amnesia in both the pavlovian and the operant learning tasks. In conclusion, acute acetaldehyde produces strong amnesic effects trough yet unknown pharmacological mechanisms. In addition, chronic acetaldehyde administration leads to persistent memory impairments. These results suggest that acetaldehyde might be involved in both the acute amnesic effects of high ethanol doses and the neurotoxic effects of chronic alcohol consumption. [less ▲]

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See detailAcetaldehyde and the central effects of alcohol: Beyond the discrepancies between animal and human studies
Quertemont, Etienne ULg

in Alcohol & Alcoholism (2005), 40(Suppl.1), 23

Whereas human studies keep reporting evidence that acetaldehyde accumulation prevents alcohol drinking and alcoholism, animal studies support a rewarding rather than aversive role for acetaldehyde. In ... [more ▼]

Whereas human studies keep reporting evidence that acetaldehyde accumulation prevents alcohol drinking and alcoholism, animal studies support a rewarding rather than aversive role for acetaldehyde. In recent years, the reinforcing properties of acetaldehyde were demonstrated in various rodent strains and using different experimental methods. These results led to the hypothesis that acetaldehyde might be involved in the addictive properties of alcohol. The most recent experimental studies suggest that the apparent discrepancies between animal and human studies might be due to the localization of acetaldehyde accumulation. Whereas peripheral acetaldehyde accumulation leads to adverse reactions and prevents alcohol drinking, brain acetaldehyde is believed to be primarily reinforcing in both rodents and humans. In addition to its possible role in the reinforcing properties of alcohol, there is also evidence that acetaldehyde is involved in many other behavioral effects of ethanol. This presentation reviews the latest results about the behavioral properties of acetaldehyde. In both CD1 and C57BL/6J mice, acetaldehyde induces locomotor depressant, sedative and amnesic effects. These effects are observed when acetaldehyde is administered either in the periphery or directly into the brain. In contrast to previous studies in rats, we found no evidence of the stimulant effects of acetaldehyde over a wide range of doses, whether injected in the periphery or administered intracerebroventricularly. Additional studies with cyanamide, an aldehyde dehydrogenase inhibitor leading to peripheral and central acetaldehyde accumulations after ethanol administration, also confirm the role of acetaldehyde in the locomotor depressant, sedative and amnesic effects of ethanol. However, a key issue remains to be addressed in order to demonstrate the role of acetaldehyde in alcohol abuse. To date, it remains uncertain whether pharmacologically relevant acetaldehyde concentrations are formed in the brain after alcohol consumption in vivo. [less ▲]

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See detailImpaired emotional facial expression recognition is associated with interpersonal problems in alcoholism
Kornreich, C; Philippot, P; Foisy, ML et al

in Alcohol & Alcoholism (2002), 37(4), 394-400

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See detailEthanol-induced brain extracellular taurine release: an osmoregulatory mechanism?
Quertemont, Etienne ULg; Devitgh, Audrey; De witte, Philippe

in Alcohol & Alcoholism (2001), 36

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See detailImplications of acetaldehyde in ethanol reinforcing and discriminative effects
Quertemont, Etienne ULg; Rios, Ananda; Macias, Enrique et al

in Alcohol & Alcoholism (2001), 36

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See detailEthanol-induced taurine release in rats genetically selected for ethanol preference and sensitivity
Quertemont, Etienne ULg; Colombo, Giancarlo; De Witte, Philippe

in Alcohol & Alcoholism (2001), 36

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See detailAlcohol-non-preferring Sardinian rats exhibit a higher ethanol-induced taurine increase compared to alcohol-preferring Sardinian rats: a microdialysis study
Quertemont, Etienne ULg; Lallemand, Frédéric; Colombo, Giancarlo et al

in Alcohol & Alcoholism (1999), 34

It is well known that ethanol injections induce increases in the extracellular taurine concentration from various rat brain regions. Furthermore, recent studies have shown that taurine supplementation ... [more ▼]

It is well known that ethanol injections induce increases in the extracellular taurine concentration from various rat brain regions. Furthermore, recent studies have shown that taurine supplementation modulates the ethanol reinforcing effects in a place conditioning experiment. However, it is unknown whether there is a relationship between this taurine increase and the ethanol drinking behaviors. In the present microdialysis experiments, we compared the effects of ethanol injections (1.0 and 2.0 g/kg) on the extracellular taurine concentration from the nucleus accumbens of either Sardinian alcohol-preferring or Sardinian alcohol-non-preferring rats which have been selectively bred for their differential ethanol preference. The results show that acute ethanol produces an immediate increase in the taurine microdialysate content from both rat lines. However, this increase in taurine microdialysate content was more potent in the alcohol-non-preferring rats. Since taurine has been postulated to be released by brain cells to modulate some of the adverse effects of ethanol, the higher increase in taurine microdialysate content in the alcohol-non-preferring rats is probably related to their higher vulnerability to ethanol aversive effects. [less ▲]

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See detailChanges in the amygdala amino acid microdialysate after conditioning with a cue associated with ethanol
Quertemont, Etienne ULg; de Neuville, Jessica; De Witte, Philippe

in Alcohol & Alcoholism (1999), 34

The excitatory amino acid neurotransmission within the amygdala has been implicated in learning associations between external stimuli and intrinsic reward values such that it may play a key role in ... [more ▼]

The excitatory amino acid neurotransmission within the amygdala has been implicated in learning associations between external stimuli and intrinsic reward values such that it may play a key role in conditioned drug effects. In the present studies, the responses of the excitatory amino acids, aspartate and glutamate together with the neuromodulatory sulphonated amino acid taurine, within the basolateral amygdala, to an odor cue repeatedly associated with acute ethanol injections (2g/kg, IP) have been investigated by a microdialysis technique combined with HPLC-EC analysis. After presentation of the ethanol-conditioned stimulus, a single IP saline injection induced an immediate and significant increase in the taurine microdialysate content which could be related to the neuromodulatory action of taurine. Furthermore, when the conditioned stimulus was combined with the ethanol injection (2g/kg, IP), significant increases in both taurine and glutamate microdialysate content were observed and indicated a learned compensatory response to counteract the acute effects of ethanol. These results demonstrate that changes in amygdala extracellular glutamate and taurine concentrations can be conditioned to ethanol-associated stimuli and are therefore probably implicated in the phenomenon of environmental-dependent tolerance to ethanol. [less ▲]

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See detailEthanol neurotoxicity: from basic science to clinical reality
De Witte, Philippe; Ward, Roberta; Dahchour, Abdelkhader et al

in Alcohol & Alcoholism (1999), 34

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See detailRole of associative learning in the development of ethanol tolerance
Quertemont, Etienne ULg; Lebout, Gregory; De Witte, Philippe

in Alcohol & Alcoholism (1997), 32

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See detailTaurine supplementation modifies ethanol reinforcing effects in a place conditioning design
Quertemont, Etienne ULg; Goffaux, Valérie; Wolf, Charlotte et al

in Alcohol & Alcoholism (1997), 32

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See detailExtracellular amygdala excitatory and inhibitory amino acids change after acute ethanol administration
Quertemont, Etienne ULg; De Witte, Philippe

in Alcohol & Alcoholism (1995), 30

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See detailAcute acetaldehyde toxicity: an in vivo microdialysis study of neurotransmitters in the nucleus accumbens
Ward, Roberta J.; Dahchour, Abdelkhader; Quertemont, Etienne ULg et al

in Alcohol & Alcoholism (1995), 30

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See detailAcute ethanol increases taurine but neither glutamate nor GABA in the nucleus accumbens of male rats: a microdialysis study.
Dahchour, Abdelkhader; Quertemont, Etienne ULg; De Witte, Philippe

in Alcohol & Alcoholism (1994), 29(5), 485-7

The effects of acute intraperitoneal administration of ethanol (1-3 g/kg body wt) on the extracellular concentrations of glutamate (GLU), taurine (TAU) and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in rat brain ... [more ▼]

The effects of acute intraperitoneal administration of ethanol (1-3 g/kg body wt) on the extracellular concentrations of glutamate (GLU), taurine (TAU) and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in rat brain nucleus accumbens were studied by the microdialysis technique coupled to HPLC-EC detection. Levels of GLU and GABA were not affected by ethanol, whereas those of TAU were increased by doses of the drug of 2-3 g/kg. [less ▲]

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