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See detailX-ray emission from interacting wind massive binaries: A review of 15 years of progress
Rauw, Grégor ULg; Nazé, Yaël ULg

in Advances in Space Research (2016), 58

Previous generations of X-ray observatories revealed a group of massive binaries that were relatively bright X-ray emitters. This was attributed to emission of shock-heated plasma in the wind-wind ... [more ▼]

Previous generations of X-ray observatories revealed a group of massive binaries that were relatively bright X-ray emitters. This was attributed to emission of shock-heated plasma in the wind-wind interaction zone located between the stars. With the advent of the current generation of X-ray observatories, the phenomenon could be studied in much more detail. In this review, we highlight the progress that has been achieved in our understanding of the phenomenon over the last 15 years, both on theoretical and observational grounds. All these studies have paved the way for future investigations using the next generation of X-ray satellites that will provide crucial information on the X-ray emission formed in the innermost part of the wind-wind interaction. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Solar Sail Materials (SSM) project – Status of activities
Della Vedova, Florio; Henrion, Didier; Leipold, Manfred et al

in Advances in Space Research (2011), 48(11), 1922-1926

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See detailInfluence of nuclear de-excitation on observables relevant for space exploration
Mancusi, Davide ULg; Boudard, Alain; Cugnon, Joseph ULg et al

in Advances in Space Research (2011), 47(7), 1194-1199

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See detailLocal ionospheric electron density profile reconstruction in real time from simultaneous ground-based GNSS and ionosonde measurements
Stankov, Stanimir; Stegen, Koen; Muhtarov, Plamen et al

in Advances in Space Research (2011), 47(7), 1172-1180

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See detailIonosphere modelling for Galileo single frequency users: illustration of the combination of the NeQuick model and GNSS data ingestion
Bidaine, Benoît ULg; Warnant, René ULg

in Advances in Space Research (2011), 47(2), 312-322

The ionospheric effect remains one of the main factors limiting the accuracy of Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) including Galileo. For single frequency users, this contribution to the error ... [more ▼]

The ionospheric effect remains one of the main factors limiting the accuracy of Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) including Galileo. For single frequency users, this contribution to the error budget will be mitigated by an algorithm based on the NeQuick global ionospheric model. This quick-run empirical model provides flexible solutions for combining ionospheric information obtained from various sources, from GNSS to ionosondes and topside sounders. Hence it constitutes an interesting simulation tool not only serving Galileo needs for mitigation of the ionospheric effect but also widening the use of new data. In this study, we perform slant TEC data ingestion - the optimisation procedure underlying the Galileo single frequency ionospheric correction algorithm - into NeQuick for a dozen locations around the world where both an ionosonde and a GPS receiver are installed. These co-located instruments allow us to compare measured and modelled vertical TEC showing for example global statistics or dependence towards latitude. We analyse measurements for the year 2002 (high solar activity level) giving an insight into the situation we could observe when Galileo reaches its Full Operation Capability, during the next solar maximum. At last we compare Galileo and GPS ionospheric corrections. For Galileo, we end up with an underestimation of 11% and 4% depending on the version of NeQuick embedded in the algorithm, as well as a 22% standard deviation. This means respectively twice, five and 1.5 times better than GPS. [less ▲]

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See detailThe extension of the INCL model for simulation of shielding in space
Pedoux, Sophie ULg; Cugnon, Joseph ULg; Mancusi, Davide ULg et al

in Advances in Space Research (2011), 48(2), 383-389

Radiation hazard for space missions is mainly due to cosmic ray protons, helium nuclei and light ions, whose energy spectrum is maximum around 1 GeV per nucleon but remains non-negligible for energies up ... [more ▼]

Radiation hazard for space missions is mainly due to cosmic ray protons, helium nuclei and light ions, whose energy spectrum is maximum around 1 GeV per nucleon but remains non-negligible for energies up to 15 GeV per nucleon. Nuclear reactions induced by high energy protons are often described by intranuclear cascade plus evaporation models. The attention is focused here on the Liège Intranuclear Cascade model (INCL), which has been shown to reproduce fairly well a great deal of experimental data for nucleon-induced reactions in the 200 MeV to 2 GeV range, when coupled with the ABLA evaporation-fission code. In order to extend the model to other conditions relevant for space radiation, three improvements of INCL are under development. They are reported on here. First, the reaction model has been extended to nucleon-nucleus reactions at incident energies up to 15 GeV, mainly by the inclusion of additional pion production channels in nucleon-nucleon collisions during the cascade. Second, a coalescence mechanism for the emission of light charged particles has been implemented recently. Finally, the model has been modified in order to accommodate light ions as projectiles. First results are shown and compared with illustrative experimental data. Implications for issues concerning radiation protection in space are discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailTotal Electron Content Monitoring using triple frequency GNSS: results with Giove-A/-B data
Spits, Justine; Warnant, René ULg

in Advances in Space Research (2011), 47

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See detailPHITS simulations of the Matroshka experiment
Gustafsson, K.; Sihver, L.; Mancusi, Davide ULg et al

in Advances in Space Research (2010), 40(10), 1266-1272

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See detailAssessment of the NeQuick model at mid-latitudes using GNSS TEC and ionosonde data
Bidaine, Benoît ULg; Warnant, René

in Advances in Space Research (2010), 45(9), 1122-1128

The modelling of the Total Electron Content (TEC) plays an important role in global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) accuracy, especially for single-frequency receivers, the most common ones ... [more ▼]

The modelling of the Total Electron Content (TEC) plays an important role in global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) accuracy, especially for single-frequency receivers, the most common ones constituting the mass market. For the latter and in the framework of Galileo, the NeQuick model has been chosen for correcting the ionospheric error contribution and will be integrated into a global algorithm providing the users with daily updated information. In order to reach the ionosphere error correction level objective, the model itself as well as its use for Galileo are investigated. In our comparison process, we take advantage of various ionosphere data from several European stations (Dourbes in Belgium, El Arenosillo and Roquetes in Spain) where ionosonde and GPS TEC data are available for different solar activity levels. These data allow us to study NeQuick representation of the ionosphere at mid-latitudes. Constraining the model with ionosonde measurements, we investigate the difference between GPS-derived vertical TEC and corresponding values from NeQuick for a high solar activity level (year 2002). With this approach, we reach residual errors of less than 20% in standard deviation. We especially highlight the improvements from the latest (second) version of NeQuick and show the critical importance of the topside formulation. [less ▲]

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See detailSeasonal variations of storm-time TEC at European middle latitudes
Stankov, Stanimir; Stegen, Koen; Warnant, René ULg

in Advances in Space Research (2010), 46(10), 1318-1325

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See detailThe distributions of the OH Meinel and O[SUB][/SUB](a[SUP]1[/SUP]Δ-X[SUP]3[/SUP]Σ) nightglow emissions in the Venus mesosphere based on VIRTIS observations
Gérard, Jean-Claude ULg; Soret, Lauriane ULg; Saglam, Adem ULg et al

in Advances in Space Research (2010), 45

O[SUB][/SUB](a[SUP]1[/SUP]Δ) and recently discovered OH Meinel nightglow emissions have been observed at the limb with the Visible and Infrared Thermal Imaging Spectrometer (VIRTIS-M) instrument on board ... [more ▼]

O[SUB][/SUB](a[SUP]1[/SUP]Δ) and recently discovered OH Meinel nightglow emissions have been observed at the limb with the Visible and Infrared Thermal Imaging Spectrometer (VIRTIS-M) instrument on board the Venus Express satellite. Hydroxyl bands belonging to Δv=1 sequence between 2.60and3.14μm and to Δv=2 sequence at 1.40-1.46μm have been unambiguously identified. In this study, we analyze the statistical distribution of the Δv=1 OH Meinel band sequence and the a[SUP]1[/SUP]Δ[SUB]g[/SUB]-X[SUP]3[/SUP]Σ (0-0) band of the O[SUB][/SUB] Infrared Atmospheric bands at 1.27 μm. We also present an analysis of the correlation between the two emissions. From a statistical point of view, we find that the limb intensity of both emissions reach their maximum value near the antisolar point, while they are significantly dimmer in the vicinity of the terminator. The average altitude of the limb emissions peaks are 95.3 ± 3 km and 96 ± 2.7 km, respectively for the OH Δv=1 sequence and O[SUB][/SUB](a[SUP]1[/SUP]Δ) emissions. The average intensities are 0.41 ± 0.37 MR and 28 ± 22 MR, respectively, corresponding to a mean ratio of about 70. The altitude of the OH nightglow layer is closely related to that of the O[SUB][/SUB](a[SUP]1[/SUP]Δ) emission and some level of co-variation of the maximum intensity along the line of sight is observed. It is suggested that the global subsolar to antisolar circulation plays a key in the control of both airglows by carrying oxygen atoms from the day to the night side of the planet. The O atoms recombine to produce O[SUB][/SUB](a[SUP]1[/SUP]Δ) molecules and they also act as precursors of ozone whose reaction with H produces excited hydroxyl. [less ▲]

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See detailExtension of INCL4 between 2 and 15 GeV
Pedoux, Sophie ULg; Cugnon, Joseph ULg; Boudard, Alain et al

in Advances in Space Research (2009), 44(8),

The intranuclear cascade model INCL4 has been shown to be very successful for describing, without adjustable parameters, a whole set of data for p-induced reactions in the 40 MeV–2 GeV energy range. In ... [more ▼]

The intranuclear cascade model INCL4 has been shown to be very successful for describing, without adjustable parameters, a whole set of data for p-induced reactions in the 40 MeV–2 GeV energy range. In view of its possible application to cosmic ray interactions, the INCL4 code has been extended to the 2–15 GeV energy range, so covering a large part of the spectrum of the incident energy of the cosmic rays. In this paper, the changes brought into the INCL4 code are discussed and some illustrative comparisons between the results given by the modified version of the code and experimental data are presented. [less ▲]

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See detailTrans-ionospheric GPS signal delay gradients observed over mid-latitude Europe during the geomagnetic storms of October-November 2003
Stankov, Stanimir; Warnant, René ULg; Stegen, Koen

in Advances in Space Research (2009), 43(9), 1314-1324

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See detailIonospheric slab thickness - Analysis, modelling and monitoring
Stankov, Stanimir; Warnant, René ULg

in Advances in Space Research (2009), 44(10), 1295-1303

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See detailModeling medium-scale TEC structures observed by Belgian GPS receivers network
Kutiev, Ivan; Marinov, Pencho; Fidanova, Stefka et al

in Advances in Space Research (2009), 43

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See detailThe INCL model for spallation reactions below 10 GeV
Pedoux, Sophie ULg; Cugnon, Joseph ULg; Aoust, Thierry et al

in Advances in Space Research (2007), 40(9), 1332-1338

The Liège intranuclear cascade (INCL) model is shortly presented. The predictive power of its standard version concerning the description of nucleon-induced spallation reactions in the 200 MeV to ~2 GeV ... [more ▼]

The Liège intranuclear cascade (INCL) model is shortly presented. The predictive power of its standard version concerning the description of nucleon-induced spallation reactions in the 200 MeV to ~2 GeV range of incident energy is indicated. Current improvements of the model, in particular its extension to higher energies, are emphasized. The capabilities of the model for possible applications in astrophysics, space research and protontherapy are pointed out. [less ▲]

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See detailIonospheric and geomagnetic conditions during periods of degraded GPS position accuracy : 2. RTK events during disturbed and quiet geomagnetic conditions
Warnant, René ULg; Kutiev, Ivan; Marinov, Pencho et al

in Advances in Space Research (2007), 39(5), 881-888

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See detailSpectroscopic anatomy of a meteor with the very large telescope (ESO)
Jehin, Emmanuel ULg; Jenniskens, P.; Cabanac, R. A. et al

in Advances in Space Research (2007), 39

A meteor spectrum was recorded serendipitously with the ESO Very Large Telescope during a long exposure in long-slit spectroscopic mode with the instrument FORS1. The -8 magnitude fireball crossed the ... [more ▼]

A meteor spectrum was recorded serendipitously with the ESO Very Large Telescope during a long exposure in long-slit spectroscopic mode with the instrument FORS1. The -8 magnitude fireball crossed the narrow (1 arcsec × 7 arcmin) slit during the observation of a high z supernova in normal service mode operation on May 12, 2002. The spectrum covers the range of 637 1050 nm, where the meteor’s air plasma emissions from N[SUB]2[/SUB], N and O dominate. The meteor trail appears moreover resolved along the slit but we conclude that this is because the meteor at 100 km altitude was out of focus for the VLT. The plasma excitation temperature varies only from about 4300 to 4365 K across the trail, based on the ratio of atomic and molecular nitrogen emissions. This is in agreement with the fact that the trail is not actually spatially resolved. Finally, carbon atom emission is not detected in the relatively unexplored range above 900 nm. [less ▲]

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See detailLYRA, a solar UV radiometer on PROBA2
Hochedez; Schmutz, W.; Stockman, Yvan ULg et al

in Advances in Space Research (2006), 37

LYRA is the solar UV radiometer that will embark in 2006 onboard Proba2, a technologically oriented ESA micro-mission. LYRA is designed and manufactured by a Belgian–Swiss–German consortium (ROB, PMOD/WRC ... [more ▼]

LYRA is the solar UV radiometer that will embark in 2006 onboard Proba2, a technologically oriented ESA micro-mission. LYRA is designed and manufactured by a Belgian–Swiss–German consortium (ROB, PMOD/WRC, IMOMEC, CSL, MPS and BISA) with additional international collaborations. It will monitor the solar irradiance in four UV passbands. They have been chosen for their relevance to Solar Physics, Aeronomy and Space Weather: (1) the 115–125 nm Lyman-a channel, (2) the 200–220 nm Herzberg continuum range, (3) the Aluminium filter channel (17–70 nm) including He II at 30.4 nm and (4) the Zirconium filter channel (1–20 nm). The radiometric calibration will be traceable to synchrotron source standards (PTB and NIST). The stability will be monitored by onboard calibration sources (LEDs), which allow to distinguish between potential degradations of the detectors and filters. Additionally, a redundancy strategy maximizes the accuracy and the stability of the measurements. LYRA will benefit from wide bandgap detectors based on diamond: it will be the first space assessment of a pioneering UV detectors program. Diamond sensors make the instruments radiation-hard and solar-blind: their high bandgap energy makes them insensitive to visible light and, therefore, make dispensable visible light blocking filters, which seriously attenuate the desired ultraviolet signal. Their elimination augments the effective area and hence the signal-to-noise, therefore increasing the precision and the cadence. The SWAP EUV imaging telescope will operate next to LYRA on Proba2. Together, they will establish a high performance solar monitor for operational space weather nowcasting and research. LYRA demonstrates technologies important for future missions such as the ESA Solar Orbiter [less ▲]

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