References of "Veterinary Parasitology"
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See detailImmunisation against East Coast fever by the infection and treatment method: evaluation of the use of ice baths for field delivery and appraisal of an acid formulation of long-acting tetracycline.
Marcotty, T.; Billiouw, M.; Chaka, G. et al

in Veterinary Parasitology (2001), 99(3), 175-87

Immunisation by the infection and treatment method using the Katete strain is currently the most efficient prophylactic technique to control East Coast fever (ECF) in the endemic areas of the Eastern ... [more ▼]

Immunisation by the infection and treatment method using the Katete strain is currently the most efficient prophylactic technique to control East Coast fever (ECF) in the endemic areas of the Eastern Province of Zambia. The maintenance of the cold chain in liquid nitrogen up to the time of inoculation and the cost of the reference long-acting oxytetracycline (Terramycin LA, Pfizer) are the main drawbacks of the method. The work presented in this paper aims at reducing the cost of immunisation against ECF by using an ice bath for the field delivery and a cheaper long-acting oxytetracycline formulation as chemotherapeutic agent. In experimental conditions, the results from 40 calves immunised after various periods of storage on ice ranging from 4 to 32 h indicate that deferred immunisation performed with a stabilate kept on ice for up to 6h after thawing has an efficiency of 90%. Moreover, sporozoites kept on ice were still surviving 32 h after thawing. In a field trial, 91 calves were inoculated with a stabilate kept for 3.5-5.5 h after thawing and dilution whereas 86 calves were immunised using the standard method. Clinical and parasitological reactions to immunisation were monitored as well as the seroconversion. In the field trial, the deferred immunisation was more efficient than the standard method. The acid formulation of oxytetracycline that was tested was found as suitable as the reference alkaline formulation for the chemotherapeutic control of the Katete strain in ECF immunisation. One indoor trial was carried out on 10 animals and a field trial involved 93 calves. [less ▲]

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See detailDiagnosis of psoroptic sheep scab with an improved enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.
Ochs, H.; Lonneux, J.; Losson, Bertrand ULg et al

in Veterinary Parasitology (2001), 96(3), 233-42

An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed for the detection of specific antibodies against crude Psoroptes antigen. The diagnostic sensitivity was 93.7% in 191 sheep with clinical signs ... [more ▼]

An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed for the detection of specific antibodies against crude Psoroptes antigen. The diagnostic sensitivity was 93.7% in 191 sheep with clinical signs associated with mange. These animals originated from 29 flocks in which psoroptic mites were detected. All of 59 sheep infested with Psoroptes ovis were seropositive. Additionally, in 49% of 70 clinically unaffected sheep originating from P. ovis-infested flocks, specific antibodies could be detected, suggesting that asymptomatic infestations can be diagnosed by serology. The specificity of the ELISA was 96.5% as determined with 254 sheep originating from 44 flocks without clinical mange. Cross-reactivity in a low range was detected with selected sera of sheep with clinical chorioptic or forage mite infestations. Four sheep seroconverted 2 weeks after experimental P. ovis infestation, i.e. 2 weeks before clinical signs became obvious. After successful doramectin treatment of 14 sheep with naturally acquired P. ovis infestation, the ELISA values declined slowly but remained positive in seven cases beyond 17 weeks. [less ▲]

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See detailCell-Mediated Immune Response in Calves to Single-Dose, Trickle, and Challenge Infections with Fasciola Hepatica
Bossaert, K.; Jacquinet, E.; Saunders, J. et al

in Veterinary Parasitology (2000), 88(1-2), 17-34

A peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) proliferation assay was used to study the cell-mediated immune response in eight calves experimentally infected with Fasciola hepatica. Hypersensitivity-related ... [more ▼]

A peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) proliferation assay was used to study the cell-mediated immune response in eight calves experimentally infected with Fasciola hepatica. Hypersensitivity-related eosinophil and mast-cell responses were also assessed. The primary infection of 500 metacercariae was administered either as a single-dose or as a trickle infection over a 4-week period. Calves were challenge-infected 4 months later with 100 metacercariae and slaughtered 24 weeks postprimary infection. Skin eosinophil counts (SEC) were determined prior to infection on the basis of the intradermal reaction (IDR) to phytohaemagglutinin (PHA). These counts correlated negatively with the mean fluke length but not with the fluke burden found at necropsy. At the end of the experiment, non-specific (PHA) and specific (excretory-secretory parasite, products, FhESAg, and whole-worm extract, FhSomAg) immediate type hypersensitivity IDR were elicited in contrast to delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) responses. The SEC correlated with blood eosinophilia but not with parasite parameters. These findings suggest that the eosinophil response does not correlate clearly with the development of resistance to F. hepatica infection in cattle. A specific mononuclear cell response to FhSomAg was detectable as early as 7 days after infection in both infected groups, being significantly higher during the very early migratory phase of the juveniles in the single-dose infected calves than in the trickle infected calves. This response remained significantly higher in infected groups than in the control group throughout the experiment. Challenge elicited a significant proliferative response, less pronounced than after primary infection. No production of gamma-interferon (INF-gamma) was recorded 3 weeks after challenge. At necropsy, the mean number of flukes recovered was similar in both infected groups, suggesting that the rate at which the infection is administrated has no effect on protective immunity. Hepatic lesions, similar in both infected groups, were characterised by marked eosinophil and mast-cell infiltration. Liver biopsies were performed and their diagnostic value is discussed. All results suggest that F. hepatica infection predominantly induces a Type-2 response in cattle, and that this response has little protective effect. [less ▲]

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See detailHumoral Immune Response in Calves to Single-Dose, Trickle and Challenge Infections with Fasciola Hepatica
Bossaert, K.; Farnir, Frédéric ULg; Leclipteux, Thierry ULg et al

in Veterinary Parasitology (2000), 87(2-3), 103-23

In cattle experimentally infected with Fasciola hepatica, parasite specific IgG1 and IgG2 responses were studied. Additionally parasite specific IgE production was assessed by the Passive Cutaneous ... [more ▼]

In cattle experimentally infected with Fasciola hepatica, parasite specific IgG1 and IgG2 responses were studied. Additionally parasite specific IgE production was assessed by the Passive Cutaneous Anaphylaxis reaction. The primary infection was administered either as a single-dose or as a trickle infection over a 4-week period. Animals were challenged 4 months later. Titres of IgG1 and IgG2 against excretory-secretory parasite products (FhESAg), and against a whole-worm extract (FhSomAg) were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in relation to weight gain, serum hepatic enzyme levels, and fluke infection rate. At necropsy, the mean number of flukes recovered was similar in both infected groups. The two ELISAs specific for bovine IgG1 showed analogous sensitivity and specificity (92% and 94%). Cross-reactivity was observed towards Echinococcus granulosus, Cysticercus tenuicollis, and C. ovis but not towards C. bovis, Cooperia spp., and Ostertagia spp. FhESAg gave rise to apparently more stable specific IgG1 titres as compared to FhSomAg. Mean IgG1 titres were significantly higher in the single-dose-infected group than in the trickle-infected group during the early migratory phase of the infection (week 2 to week 4 (FhSomAg) or week 6 (FhESAg)). IgG2 values were consistently lower than IgG1 levels. The kinetic response of both isotypes yielded a similar pattern. Specific IgE antibodies were detected in cattle of both infected groups from week 2 post-primary infection (PPI) onwards. The mean serum glutamate dehydrogenase (GLDH) and gamma-glutamyl transferase (gammaGT) activities were significantly higher in the single-dose-infected group for 3 weeks around peak levels (12-14 weeks PPI and 14-16 weeks PPI for GLDH and gammaGT respectively). Western blotting revealed a major antigenic fraction in FhESAg (26-30 kDa) recognized specifically by sera from F. hepatica infected calves as early as 6-8 weeks PPI. Experimental challenge caused no statistically significant modification of any parameter (IgG1 and IgG2 titres, enzymatic activities, immunoblotting) used to monitor the course of the infection. No correlation was found between fluke size and number, and antibody titres, suggesting that IgG1 production has little protective effect against F. hepatica infection. [less ▲]

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See detailThe pathology of Psoroptes ovis infestation in cattle with a special emphasis on breed difference
Losson, Bertrand ULg; Lonneux, J. F.; Lekimme, Mireille ULg

in Veterinary Parasitology (1999), 83

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See detailUse of Excretory/Secretory Antigens in a Competition Test to Follow the Kinetics of Infection by Fasciola Hepatica in Cattle
Leclipteux, Thierry ULg; Torgerson, P. R.; Doherty, M. L. et al

in Veterinary Parasitology (1998), 77(2-3), 103-14

Eight 16-18-month-old Charolais heifers were experimentally infected with Fasciola hepatica. An antigen competition assay was used to follow the kinetics of the infection and was compared to antibody ... [more ▼]

Eight 16-18-month-old Charolais heifers were experimentally infected with Fasciola hepatica. An antigen competition assay was used to follow the kinetics of the infection and was compared to antibody tires and serum liver enzymes. The antigen competition assay was able to detect the presence of infection as soon as 6 days after the start of the experimental infection which is considerably sooner than other methods. Consequently, this assay would be useful in diagnosing fasciolosis early in the prepatent period. The animals were slaughtered at the end of the experiment, the livers recovered and post-mortem fluke burdens determined. However, only serum liver enzyme levels gave any indication of the intensity of infection in the different animals. [less ▲]

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See detailField Efficacy of Moxidectin 0.5% Pour-on against Chorioptes Bovis, Damalinia Bovis, Linognathus Vituli and Psoroptes Ovis in Naturally Infected Cattle
Losson, Bertrand ULg; Lonneux, J. F.

in Veterinary Parasitology (1996), 63(1-2), 119-30

Field efficacy of a pour-on formulation of moxidectin, a macrocyclic lactone endectocide, was evaluated in cattle naturally infested with Chorioptes bovis, Damalinia bovis, Linognathus vituli and ... [more ▼]

Field efficacy of a pour-on formulation of moxidectin, a macrocyclic lactone endectocide, was evaluated in cattle naturally infested with Chorioptes bovis, Damalinia bovis, Linognathus vituli and Psoroptes ovis. In trial 1, two experimental groups of cattle naturally infested with P. ovis were formed. Group 1 animals remained as untreated controls whereas Group 2 animals were treated on day 0 with 0.5% moxidectin cattle pour-on at a dose of 0.5 mg kg-1 bw. Efficacy was assessed by (a) taking skin samples from each animal on days -4, 7, 14, 21, 28, 42 and 56 post treatment (PT) and observing the numbers of viable P. ovis mites and (b) clinical examination of animals on days 7, 14, 21, 28, 42 and 56 with the percentage of affected body surface calculated and live body weights recorded for each animal on days 4, 28 and 42. The pour-on formulation of moxidectin yielded excellent efficacy as no live mites were found in treated animals at 14, 21, 28, 42 and 56 days PT, except in one animal from which one adult mite was collected on day 42. Clinical indices showed a regular decrease in the affected body surface area. All untreated animals but one remained positive until day 28 and their clinical condition worsened rapidly. In trial 2, two experimental groups of cattle naturally infested with D. bovis and L. vituli were selected. Group 1 remained as untreated controls whereas Group 2 individuals were treated on day 0 with 0.5% moxidectin cattle pour-on at a dose of 0.5 mg kg-1 bw. Efficacy was assessed by identifying and counting lice on eight 15 cm hair partings at predefined anatomical sites on days 0, 14, 28 and 42. On the basis of animals cured and lice count reduction, efficacies were 100% on day 14 and from then onwards for both species. In trial 3, 24 animals naturally infested with C. bovis were divided into three experimental groups comprising eight (Group I), seven (Group 2) and nine animals (Group 3). Group 1 was the untreated control group whereas Groups 2 and 3 animals were treated on day 0 with 0.5% moxidectin cattle pour-on at a dose of 0.25 mg and 0.5 mg kg-1 bw, respectively. Efficacy was assessed as in trial 1. Skin scrapings were collected on days -3, 7, 14, 28, 42 and 56 PT. A clinical index was calculated for each animal on days 0, 28 and 56 whereas body weights were recorded on days 0 and 56. At 0.25 mg kg-1 bw, the efficacy of moxidectin cattle pour-on against C. bovis was incomplete. In contrast, at a dose of 0.5 mg kg-1 bw, moxidectin cattle pour-on was fully effective and by day 14 PT all animals were negative for C. bovis and remained so until the end of the trial. No side effects were observed during these three trials. These results indicate that at a dose of 0.5 mg kg-1 bw, the pour-on formulation of moxidectin is highly effective against C. bovis, D. bovis, L. vituli and P. ovis. [less ▲]

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See detailField Efficacy of Injectable Moxidectin in Cattle Naturally Infested with Chorioptes Bovis and Sarcoptes Scabiei
Losson, Bertrand ULg; Lonneux, J. F.

in Veterinary Parasitology (1993), 51(1-2), 113-21

Field efficacy of moxidectin, a macrocyclic lactone endectocide, was evaluated in cattle naturally infested with Chorioptes bovis and Sarcoptes scabiei. Eight animals were allocated to two groups of four ... [more ▼]

Field efficacy of moxidectin, a macrocyclic lactone endectocide, was evaluated in cattle naturally infested with Chorioptes bovis and Sarcoptes scabiei. Eight animals were allocated to two groups of four animals each, based on parasitological and clinical status. Animals of the treated group received one subcutaneous injection of injectable moxidectin at 0.2 mg kg-1 body weight on Day 0. Individuals of the control group received emergency treatment of a single injection of moxidectin at 0.2 mg kg-1 body weight on Day 28. Efficacy was assessed by (a) taking skin samples from each animal on Days 0, 7, 14, 21, 28, 42 and 56 and observing the numbers of viable mite stages and species and (b) clinical examination of animals on Days 7, 14, 21, 28, 42 and 56 with the percentage of affected body surface calculated for each animal on Days 0, 28 and 56. On the basis of the geometric means from treated and control animals, the percentage reductions in the total numbers of living C. bovis mites on Days 7, 14, 21 and 28 were 69, 87, more than 99 and 98, respectively. However, at the end of the trial, only two animals were negative for C. bovis. The percentage reductions in the total numbers of S. scabiei on Days 7, 14, 21 and 28 were 93, 100, 100 and 100, respectively. Clinical indices of the treated animals showed a sharp decrease in the affected body surface area from a mean of 43.6% on Day 0 to 0.9% and 0% on Days 28 and 56, respectively.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) [less ▲]

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See detailField Efficacy of Injectable and Pour-on Moxidectin in Cattle Naturally Infested with Psoroptes Ovis (Acarina: Psoroptidae)
Lonneux, J. F.; Losson, Bertrand ULg

in Veterinary Parasitology (1992), 45(1-2), 147-52

Field efficacy of moxidectin, a macrocyclic lactone endectocide, was evaluated in cattle naturally infested with Psoroptes ovis. Three groups of six animals were used based on parasitological and clinical ... [more ▼]

Field efficacy of moxidectin, a macrocyclic lactone endectocide, was evaluated in cattle naturally infested with Psoroptes ovis. Three groups of six animals were used based on parasitological and clinical status. Group 1 animals received one subcutaneous injection of injectable moxidectin at 0.2 mg kg-1 body weight; Group 2 animals received topically one dose of 0.5 mg kg-1 body weight of pour-on moxidectin; Group 3 individuals remained untreated as controls. Efficacy was assessed by (a) taking skin samples from each animal on Days -4, 14, 28, 42 and 56 post-treatment (PT) and observing numbers of viable mite stages and species and (b) clinical examination of animals on Days 14, 28, 42 and 56 with the percentage of affected body surface calculated for each animal on Days -4, 28 and 56. Both formulations gave 100% efficacy as no live mites were found in Groups 1 or 2, 14, 28 and 56 days after treatment. Clinical indices showed a sharp decrease in the affected body surface area from a mean of 5.48% and 6.1% on Day -4 in Groups 1 and 2, respectively, to 0% in both groups on Days 28 and 56 PT. All untreated animals remained positive until Day 28. The clinical condition of the controls worsened rapidly during the experiment (mean clinical index: 2.87% and 13.05% on Days -4 and 28, respectively) and they were given an emergency treatment on Day 28. No side-effects were observed with either formulation.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) [less ▲]

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