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See detailA pulsating auroral X-ray hot spot on Jupiter
Gladstone, G. R.; Waite, J. H.; Grodent, Denis ULg et al

in Nature (2002), 415(6875), 1000-1003

Jupiter's X-ray aurora has been thought to be excited by energetic sulphur and oxygen ions precipitating from the inner magnetosphere into the planet's polar regions(1-3). Here we report high-spatial ... [more ▼]

Jupiter's X-ray aurora has been thought to be excited by energetic sulphur and oxygen ions precipitating from the inner magnetosphere into the planet's polar regions(1-3). Here we report high-spatial-resolution observations that demonstrate that most of Jupiter's northern auroral X-rays come from a 'hot spot' located significantly poleward of the latitudes connected to the inner magnetosphere. The hot spot seems to be fixed in magnetic latitude and longitude and occurs in a region where anomalous infrared(4-7) and ultraviolet(8) emissions have also been observed. We infer from the data that the particles that excite the aurora originate in the outer magnetosphere. The hot spot X-rays pulsate with an approximately 45-min period, a period similar to that reported for high-latitude radio and energetic electron bursts observed by near-Jupiter spacecraft(9,10). These results invalidate the idea that jovian auroral X-ray emissions are mainly excited by steady precipitation of energetic heavy ions from the inner magnetosphere. Instead, the X-rays seem to result from currently unexplained processes in the outer magnetosphere that produce highly localized and highly variable emissions over an extremely wide range of wavelengths. [less ▲]

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See detailMorphological and ecological complexity in early eukaryotic ecosystems
Javaux, Emmanuelle ULg; Knoll, A. H.; Walter, M. R.

in Nature (2001), 412(6842), 66-69

Molecular phylogeny and biogeochemistry indicate that eukaryotes differentiated early in Earth history. Sequence comparisons of small-subunit ribosomal RNA genes suggest a deep evolutionary divergence of ... [more ▼]

Molecular phylogeny and biogeochemistry indicate that eukaryotes differentiated early in Earth history. Sequence comparisons of small-subunit ribosomal RNA genes suggest a deep evolutionary divergence of Eukarya and Archaea(1); C-27-C-29 steranes (derived from sterols synthesized by eukaryotes) and strong depletion of C-13 (a biogeochemical signature of methanogenic Archaea) in 2,700 Myr old kerogens independently place a minimum age on this split(2,3). Steranes, large spheroidal microfossils, and rare macrofossils of possible eukaryotic origin occur in Palaeoproterozoic rocks(4-6). Until now, however, evidence for morphological and taxonomic diversification within the domain has generally been restricted to very late Mesoproterozoic and Neoproterozoic successions(7). Here we show that the cytoskeletal and ecological prerequisites for eukaryotic diversification were already established in eukaryotic microorganisms fossilized nearly 1,500 Myr ago in shales of the early Mesoproterozoic Roper Group in northern Australia. [less ▲]

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See detailThe lipid phosphatase SHIP2 controls insulin sensitivity
Clément, S.; Krause, U.; Desmedt, F. et al

in Nature (2001), 409

Insulin is the primary hormone involved in glucose homeostasis, and impairment of insulin action and/or secretion has a critical role in the pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus. Type-II SH2-domain ... [more ▼]

Insulin is the primary hormone involved in glucose homeostasis, and impairment of insulin action and/or secretion has a critical role in the pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus. Type-II SH2-domain-containing inositol 5-phosphatase, or 'SHIP2', is a member of the inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatase family. In vitro studies have shown that SHIP2, in response to stimulation by numerous growth factors and insulin, is closely linked to signalling events mediated by both phosphoinositide-3-OH kinase and Ras/mitogen-activated protein kinase. Here we report the generation of mice lacking the SHIP2 gene. Loss of SHIP2 leads to increased sensitivity to insulin, which is characterized by severe neonatal hypoglycaemia, deregulated expression of the genes involved in gluconeogenesis, and perinatal death. Adult mice that are heterozygous for the SHIP2 mutation have increased glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity associated with an increased recruitment of the GLUT4 glucose transporter and increased glycogen synthesis in skeletal muscles. Our results show that SHIP2 is a potent negative regulator of insulin signalling and insulin sensitivity in vivo [less ▲]

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See detailRespiration As The Main Determinant Of Carbon Balance In European Forests
Valentini, R.; Matteucci, G.; Dolman, Aj. et al

in Nature (2000), 404(6780),

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See detailEvidence for decoupling of atmospheric CO2 and global climate during the Phanerozoic eon
Veizer, J.; Godderis, Y.; François, Louis ULg

in Nature (2000), 408(6813), 698-701

Atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations are believed to drive climate changes from glacial to interglacial modes', although geological(1-3) and astronomical(4-6) mechanisms have been invoked as ultimate ... [more ▼]

Atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations are believed to drive climate changes from glacial to interglacial modes', although geological(1-3) and astronomical(4-6) mechanisms have been invoked as ultimate causes. Additionally, it is unclear(7,8) whether the changes between cold and warm modes should be regarded as a global phenomenon, affecting tropical and high-latitude temperatures alike(9-13), or if they are better described as an expansion and contraction of the latitudinal climate zones, keeping equatorial temperatures approximately constant(14-16). Here we present a reconstruction of tropical sea surface temperatures throughout the phanerozoic eon (the past similar to 550 Myr) from our database(17) of oxygen isotopes in calcite and aragonite shells. The data indicate large oscillations of tropical sea surface temperatures in phase with the cold-warm cycles, thus favouring the idea of climate variability as a global phenomenon. But our data conflict with a temperature reconstruction using an energy balance model that is forced by reconstructed atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations(18). The results can be reconciled if atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations were not the principal driver of climate variability on geological timescales for at least one-third of the Phanerozoic eon, or if the reconstructed carbon dioxide concentrations are not reliable. [less ▲]

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See detailSeismic hazard in the Sea of Marmara following the Izmit Earthquake
Hubert, Aurelia ULg; Barka, Aykut; Jacques, Eric et al

in Nature (2000), 404

On 17 August 1999, a destructive magnitude 7.4 earthquake occurred 100 km east of Istanbul, near the city of Izmit, on the North Anatolian fault. This 1,600-km-long plate boundary1,2 slips at an average ... [more ▼]

On 17 August 1999, a destructive magnitude 7.4 earthquake occurred 100 km east of Istanbul, near the city of Izmit, on the North Anatolian fault. This 1,600-km-long plate boundary1,2 slips at an average rate of 2–3 cm yr−1 (refs 3–5), and historically has been the site of many devastating earthquakes6,7. This century alone it has ruptured over 900 km of its length6. Models of earthquake-induced stress change8 combined with active fault maps9 had been used to forecast that the epicentral area of the 1999 Izmit event was indeed a likely location for the occurrence of a large earthquake9,10. Here we show that the 1999 event itself significantly modifies the stress distribution resulting from pre- vious fault interactions9,10. Our new stress models take into account all events in the region with magnitudes greater than 6 having occurred since 1700 (ref. 7) as well as secular interseismic stress change, constrained by GPS data11. These models provide a consistent picture of the long term spatio–temporal behaviour of the North Anatolian fault and indicate that two events of magnitude equal to, or greater than, the Izmit earthquake are likely to occur within the next decades beneath the Marmara Sea, south of Istanbul. [less ▲]

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See detailSequence and analysis of chromosome 4 of the plant Arabidopsis thaliana.
Mayer, K.; Portetelle, Daniel ULg; Vandenbol, Micheline ULg et al

in Nature (1999), 402

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See detailThe Nucleotide Sequence Of Saccharomyces Cerevisiae Chromosome Xv
Dujon, B.; Albermann, K.; Aldea, M. et al

in Nature (1997), 387(6632),

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See detailThe Complete Genome Sequence Of The Gram-Positive Bacterium Bacillus Subtilis
Kunst, F.; Ogasawara, N.; Moszer, I. et al

in Nature (1997), 390(6657), 249-256

Bacillus subtilis is the best-characterized member of the Gram-positive bacteria. Its genome of 4,214,810 base pairs comprises 4,100 protein-coding genes. Of these protein-coding genes, 53% are ... [more ▼]

Bacillus subtilis is the best-characterized member of the Gram-positive bacteria. Its genome of 4,214,810 base pairs comprises 4,100 protein-coding genes. Of these protein-coding genes, 53% are represented once, while a quarter of the genome corresponds to several gene families that have been greatly expanded by gene duplication, the largest family containing 77 putative ATP-binding transport proteins. In addition, a large proportion of the genetic capacity is devoted to the utilization of a variety of carbon sources, including many plant-derived molecules. The identification of five signal peptidase genes, as well as several genes for components of the secretion apparatus, is important given the capacity of Bacillus strains to secrete large amounts of industrially important enzymes. Many of the genes are involved in the synthesis of secondary metabolites, including antibiotics, that are more typically associated with Streptomyces species. The genome contains at least ten prophages or remnants of prophages, indicating that bacteriophage infection has played an important evolutionary role in horizontal gene transfer, in particular in the propagation of bacterial pathogenesis. [less ▲]

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See detailThe yeast genome directory.
Goffeau, A.; Hilger, F.; Portetelle, Daniel ULg et al

in Nature (1997), 387(5),

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See detailThe Nucleotide Sequence Of Saccharomyces Cerevisiae Chromosome XII
Johnston, M.; Hillier, L.; Riles, L. et al

in Nature (1997), 387(6632),

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See detailThe Nucleotide Sequence Of Saccharomyces Cerevisiae Chromosome Vii
Tettelin, H.; Carbone, Mla.; Albermann, K. et al

in Nature (1997), 387(6632),

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See detailHolliday junction cleavage by yeast Rad1 protein
Habraken, Yvette ULg; Sung, Patrick; Prakash, Louise et al

in Nature (1994), 371

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See detailComplete Dna-Sequence Of Yeast Chromosome-Xi
Dujon, Bernard; Esteban, Pf.; Fernandes, L. et al

in Nature (1994), 369(6479),

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See detailSTRUCTURAL AND KINETIC CHARACTERIZATION OF A BETA-LACTAMASE-INHIBITOR PROTEIN
STRYNADKA, N. C. J.; JENSEN, S. E.; JOHNS, K. et al

in Nature (1994), 368(6472), 657-660

THE past decade has seen an alarming worldwide increase in resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics among many pathogenic bacteria1, which is due mainly to plasmid- or chromosomally encoded beta-lactamases ... [more ▼]

THE past decade has seen an alarming worldwide increase in resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics among many pathogenic bacteria1, which is due mainly to plasmid- or chromosomally encoded beta-lactamases that specifically cleave penicillin and cephalosporins, rendering them inactive. There is therefore a need to develop new strategies in the design of effective inhibitors of beta-lactamase. All the small-molecule inhibitors in clinical use are not very effective and are rapidly degraded2,3. Furthermore, newly characterized mutants of the plasmid-mediated beta-lactamase TEM-1 are highly resistant to these small-molecule inhibitors, including clavulanic acid and tazobactam4. It has been shown that Streptomyces clavuligerus produces an exocellular beta-lactamase inhibitory protein (BLIP; M(r) 17.5 K)5. Here we present data defining BLIP as the most effective known inhibitor of a variety of beta-lactamases, with K(i) values in the subnanomolar to picomolar range. To identify those features in BLIP that make it such a potent inhibitor, we have determined its molecular structure at 2.1 angstrom resolution. BLIP is a relatively flat molecule with a unique fold, comprising a tandem repeat of a 76-amino-acid domain. Each domain consists of a helix-loop-helix motif that packs against a four-stranded antiparallel beta-sheet (Fig. 1a). To our knowledge, BLIP is the first example of a protein inhibitor having two similarly folded domains that interact with and inhibit a single target enzyme. [less ▲]

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See detailYeast excision repair RAD2 encodes a single-stranded DNA endonuclease
Habraken, Yvette ULg; Sung, Partick; Prakash, Louise et al

in Nature (1993), 366

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See detailThe candidate oncoprotein Bcl-3 is an antagonist of p50/NF-kappa B-mediated inhibition.
Franzoso, G.; Bours, Vincent ULg; Park, S. et al

in Nature (1992), 359(6393), 339-42

The candidate oncogene bcl-3 was discovered as a translocation into the immunoglobulin alpha-locus in some cases of B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukaemias. The protein Bcl-3 contains seven so-called ... [more ▼]

The candidate oncogene bcl-3 was discovered as a translocation into the immunoglobulin alpha-locus in some cases of B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukaemias. The protein Bcl-3 contains seven so-called ankyrin repeats. Similar repeat motifs are found in a number of diverse regulatory proteins but the motifs of Bcl-3 are most closely related to those found in I kappa B proteins in which the ankyrin repeat domain is thought to be directly involved in inhibition of NF-kappa B activity. No biological function has yet been described for Bcl-3, but it was noted recently that Bcl-3 interferes with DNA-binding of the p50 subunit of NF-kappa B in vitro. Here we demonstrate that Bcl-3 can aid kappa B site-dependent transcription in vivo by counteracting the inhibitory effects of p50/NF-kappa B homodimers. Bcl-3 may therefore aid activation of select NF-kappa B-regulated genes, including those of the human immunodeficiency virus. [less ▲]

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See detailExpression of members of the putative olfactory receptor gene family in mammalian germ cells.
Parmentier, M.; Libert, F.; Schurmans, Stéphane ULg et al

in Nature (1992), 355

A series of genomic and complementary DNA clones encoding new putative members of G protein-coupled receptors were isolated using homology cloning and low-stringency polymerase chain reaction. Among the ... [more ▼]

A series of genomic and complementary DNA clones encoding new putative members of G protein-coupled receptors were isolated using homology cloning and low-stringency polymerase chain reaction. Among the unidentified receptors ('orphan receptors'), a human genomic clone (HGMP07) was characterized by the presence of its transcripts in the testis and by its belonging to a large subfamily of genes sharing extensive sequence similarities. Sequence comparison demonstrated that this gene subfamily is the human counterpart of the putative rat olfactory receptors cloned recently. Another 48 members of the family were cloned. Northern blotting further demonstrated the presence of olfactory receptor transcripts in germ cells. Our finding suggests that a common receptor gene family encodes olfactory receptors and sperm cell receptors that could be involved in chemotaxis during fertilization [less ▲]

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See detailLarge-scale eradication of rabies using recombinant vaccinia-rabies vaccine
Brochier, Bernard; Kieny, M. P.; Costy, F. et al

in Nature (1991), 354(19/26 December), 520-521

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See detailCloning of a mitogen-inducible gene encoding a kappa B DNA-binding protein with homology to the rel oncogene and to cell-cycle motifs.
Bours, Vincent ULg; Villalobos, J.; Burd, P. R. et al

in Nature (1990), 348(6296), 76-80

We have cloned and characterized a mitogen-inducible gene isolated from human T cells that predicts a protein of 968 amino acids. The amino-terminal domain has regions homologous to the oncogene rel and ... [more ▼]

We have cloned and characterized a mitogen-inducible gene isolated from human T cells that predicts a protein of 968 amino acids. The amino-terminal domain has regions homologous to the oncogene rel and to the developmentally important gene dorsal of Drosophila. The carboxy-terminal domain contains repeat structures found in a variety of proteins that are involved in cell-cycle control of yeast and in tissue differentiation in Drosophila and Ceanorhabditis elegans, as well as in the putative human oncogene bcl-3 and in the ankyrin protein. A truncated form of the product of this gene translated in vitro is a DNA-binding protein which interacts specifically with the kappa B binding site found in many inducible genes, including the enhancer in human immunodeficiency virus. This gene is yet another in a growing list of important regulatory molecules whose expression is transcriptionally induced upon cellular activation. [less ▲]

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