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See detailThe Complete Genome Sequence Of The Gram-Positive Bacterium Bacillus Subtilis
Kunst, F.; Ogasawara, N.; Moszer, I. et al

in Nature (1997), 390(6657), 249-256

Bacillus subtilis is the best-characterized member of the Gram-positive bacteria. Its genome of 4,214,810 base pairs comprises 4,100 protein-coding genes. Of these protein-coding genes, 53% are ... [more ▼]

Bacillus subtilis is the best-characterized member of the Gram-positive bacteria. Its genome of 4,214,810 base pairs comprises 4,100 protein-coding genes. Of these protein-coding genes, 53% are represented once, while a quarter of the genome corresponds to several gene families that have been greatly expanded by gene duplication, the largest family containing 77 putative ATP-binding transport proteins. In addition, a large proportion of the genetic capacity is devoted to the utilization of a variety of carbon sources, including many plant-derived molecules. The identification of five signal peptidase genes, as well as several genes for components of the secretion apparatus, is important given the capacity of Bacillus strains to secrete large amounts of industrially important enzymes. Many of the genes are involved in the synthesis of secondary metabolites, including antibiotics, that are more typically associated with Streptomyces species. The genome contains at least ten prophages or remnants of prophages, indicating that bacteriophage infection has played an important evolutionary role in horizontal gene transfer, in particular in the propagation of bacterial pathogenesis. [less ▲]

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See detailThe yeast genome directory.
Goffeau, A.; Hilger, F.; Portetelle, Daniel ULg et al

in Nature (1997), 387(5),

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See detailThe Nucleotide Sequence Of Saccharomyces Cerevisiae Chromosome XII
Johnston, M.; Hillier, L.; Riles, L. et al

in Nature (1997), 387(6632),

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See detailThe Nucleotide Sequence Of Saccharomyces Cerevisiae Chromosome Vii
Tettelin, H.; Carbone, Mla.; Albermann, K. et al

in Nature (1997), 387(6632),

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See detailHolliday junction cleavage by yeast Rad1 protein
Habraken, Yvette ULg; Sung, Patrick; Prakash, Louise et al

in Nature (1994), 371

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See detailComplete Dna-Sequence Of Yeast Chromosome-Xi
Dujon, Bernard; Esteban, Pf.; Fernandes, L. et al

in Nature (1994), 369(6479),

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See detailSTRUCTURAL AND KINETIC CHARACTERIZATION OF A BETA-LACTAMASE-INHIBITOR PROTEIN
STRYNADKA, N. C. J.; JENSEN, S. E.; JOHNS, K. et al

in Nature (1994), 368(6472), 657-660

THE past decade has seen an alarming worldwide increase in resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics among many pathogenic bacteria1, which is due mainly to plasmid- or chromosomally encoded beta-lactamases ... [more ▼]

THE past decade has seen an alarming worldwide increase in resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics among many pathogenic bacteria1, which is due mainly to plasmid- or chromosomally encoded beta-lactamases that specifically cleave penicillin and cephalosporins, rendering them inactive. There is therefore a need to develop new strategies in the design of effective inhibitors of beta-lactamase. All the small-molecule inhibitors in clinical use are not very effective and are rapidly degraded2,3. Furthermore, newly characterized mutants of the plasmid-mediated beta-lactamase TEM-1 are highly resistant to these small-molecule inhibitors, including clavulanic acid and tazobactam4. It has been shown that Streptomyces clavuligerus produces an exocellular beta-lactamase inhibitory protein (BLIP; M(r) 17.5 K)5. Here we present data defining BLIP as the most effective known inhibitor of a variety of beta-lactamases, with K(i) values in the subnanomolar to picomolar range. To identify those features in BLIP that make it such a potent inhibitor, we have determined its molecular structure at 2.1 angstrom resolution. BLIP is a relatively flat molecule with a unique fold, comprising a tandem repeat of a 76-amino-acid domain. Each domain consists of a helix-loop-helix motif that packs against a four-stranded antiparallel beta-sheet (Fig. 1a). To our knowledge, BLIP is the first example of a protein inhibitor having two similarly folded domains that interact with and inhibit a single target enzyme. [less ▲]

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See detailYeast excision repair RAD2 encodes a single-stranded DNA endonuclease
Habraken, Yvette ULg; Sung, Partick; Prakash, Louise et al

in Nature (1993), 366

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See detailThe candidate oncoprotein Bcl-3 is an antagonist of p50/NF-kappa B-mediated inhibition.
Franzoso, G.; Bours, Vincent ULg; Park, S. et al

in Nature (1992), 359(6393), 339-42

The candidate oncogene bcl-3 was discovered as a translocation into the immunoglobulin alpha-locus in some cases of B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukaemias. The protein Bcl-3 contains seven so-called ... [more ▼]

The candidate oncogene bcl-3 was discovered as a translocation into the immunoglobulin alpha-locus in some cases of B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukaemias. The protein Bcl-3 contains seven so-called ankyrin repeats. Similar repeat motifs are found in a number of diverse regulatory proteins but the motifs of Bcl-3 are most closely related to those found in I kappa B proteins in which the ankyrin repeat domain is thought to be directly involved in inhibition of NF-kappa B activity. No biological function has yet been described for Bcl-3, but it was noted recently that Bcl-3 interferes with DNA-binding of the p50 subunit of NF-kappa B in vitro. Here we demonstrate that Bcl-3 can aid kappa B site-dependent transcription in vivo by counteracting the inhibitory effects of p50/NF-kappa B homodimers. Bcl-3 may therefore aid activation of select NF-kappa B-regulated genes, including those of the human immunodeficiency virus. [less ▲]

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See detailExpression of members of the putative olfactory receptor gene family in mammalian germ cells.
Parmentier, M.; Libert, F.; Schurmans, Stéphane ULg et al

in Nature (1992), 355

A series of genomic and complementary DNA clones encoding new putative members of G protein-coupled receptors were isolated using homology cloning and low-stringency polymerase chain reaction. Among the ... [more ▼]

A series of genomic and complementary DNA clones encoding new putative members of G protein-coupled receptors were isolated using homology cloning and low-stringency polymerase chain reaction. Among the unidentified receptors ('orphan receptors'), a human genomic clone (HGMP07) was characterized by the presence of its transcripts in the testis and by its belonging to a large subfamily of genes sharing extensive sequence similarities. Sequence comparison demonstrated that this gene subfamily is the human counterpart of the putative rat olfactory receptors cloned recently. Another 48 members of the family were cloned. Northern blotting further demonstrated the presence of olfactory receptor transcripts in germ cells. Our finding suggests that a common receptor gene family encodes olfactory receptors and sperm cell receptors that could be involved in chemotaxis during fertilization [less ▲]

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See detailLarge-scale eradication of rabies using recombinant vaccinia-rabies vaccine
Brochier, Bernard; Kieny, M. P.; Costy, F. et al

in Nature (1991), 354(19/26 December), 520-521

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See detailCloning of a mitogen-inducible gene encoding a kappa B DNA-binding protein with homology to the rel oncogene and to cell-cycle motifs.
Bours, Vincent ULg; Villalobos, J.; Burd, P. R. et al

in Nature (1990), 348(6296), 76-80

We have cloned and characterized a mitogen-inducible gene isolated from human T cells that predicts a protein of 968 amino acids. The amino-terminal domain has regions homologous to the oncogene rel and ... [more ▼]

We have cloned and characterized a mitogen-inducible gene isolated from human T cells that predicts a protein of 968 amino acids. The amino-terminal domain has regions homologous to the oncogene rel and to the developmentally important gene dorsal of Drosophila. The carboxy-terminal domain contains repeat structures found in a variety of proteins that are involved in cell-cycle control of yeast and in tissue differentiation in Drosophila and Ceanorhabditis elegans, as well as in the putative human oncogene bcl-3 and in the ankyrin protein. A truncated form of the product of this gene translated in vitro is a DNA-binding protein which interacts specifically with the kappa B binding site found in many inducible genes, including the enhancer in human immunodeficiency virus. This gene is yet another in a growing list of important regulatory molecules whose expression is transcriptionally induced upon cellular activation. [less ▲]

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See detailDiscovery of a quadruply lensed quasar - The 'clover leaf' H1413 + 117
Magain, Pierre ULg; Surdej, Jean ULg; Swings, J.-P. et al

in Nature (1988), 334

The authors report the discovery of a second gravitational lens system in the broad absorption line quasar H1413+117. Four images of comparable brightness are seen, separated by â ¡1 arcsec. The unique ... [more ▼]

The authors report the discovery of a second gravitational lens system in the broad absorption line quasar H1413+117. Four images of comparable brightness are seen, separated by â ¡1 arcsec. The unique configuration of the images, together with the fairly rare occurrence of this type of quasar, makes it incontrovertible that this is a lensed system, not a cluster of quasars. (See also 159.062). [less ▲]

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See detailThe Neurotrophic Factor Neuroleukin Is 90-Percent Homologous With Phosphohexose Isomerase
Chaput, M.; Claes, V.; Portetelle, Daniel ULg et al

in Nature (1988), 332(6163),

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See detailCooperativity of the glucocorticoid receptor and the CACCC-box binding factor.
Schule, Roland; Muller, Marc ULg; Otsuka-Murakami, Hidetsuka et al

in Nature (1988), 332(6159), 87-90

Glucocorticoid receptor binding sites (GRE) are often tightly clustered with other transcription factor binding sequences. Examples of this occur upstream of the genes for chicken lysozyme and human ... [more ▼]

Glucocorticoid receptor binding sites (GRE) are often tightly clustered with other transcription factor binding sequences. Examples of this occur upstream of the genes for chicken lysozyme and human metallothionein IIA (ref. 3), in several retroviral LTRs and upstream of the rat tryptophan oxygenase (TO) gene. In the TO gene, sequences immediately upstream of a glucocorticoid receptor binding site are required for steroid induction and contain a CACCC-box identical to that found in the beta globin gene. Here we demonstrate specific binding to this TO-CACCC element and show that it will also act cooperatively with a MMTV glucocorticoid receptor binding site. The response to dexamethasone is independent of the order and relative orientation of these elements but does depend on their precise spacing. Optimal induction occurs at a periodicity of approximately 10 base pairs (bp) indicating a requirement for stereospecific alignment. Binding to the CACCC box, however, is not affected by its distance from the glucocorticoid receptor site. We conclude that the observed cooperativity is mediated by protein:protein interactions and does not depend on cooperative DNA binding. [less ▲]

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See detailInterstellar calcium towards supernova 1987A in the Large Magellanic Cloud
Magain, Pierre ULg

in Nature (1987), 329

High-resolution and high SNR spectra of interstellar calcium towards SN1987A in the LMC are presented. They provide completely new results for the Ca I spectrum, in which 11 components are detected, not ... [more ▼]

High-resolution and high SNR spectra of interstellar calcium towards SN1987A in the LMC are presented. They provide completely new results for the Ca I spectrum, in which 11 components are detected, not only at velocities corresponding to the Galaxy and the LMC, but also at intermediate velocities. The spectra, which allow the ionization balance in these interstellar clouds to be estimated, provide some clues about their physical state and location. In particular, the components between 150 and 200 km/s show a much lower ionization degree than other components. This may be due to recent compressions of the gas by a shock, possibly associated with a former supernova explosion. This interpretation would require the corresponding clouds to be located inside the LMC, indicating that at least some intermediate velocity components are not of halo origin. [less ▲]

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See detailA new case of gravitational lensing
Surdej, Jean ULg; Magain, Pierre ULg; Swings, J.-P. et al

in Nature (1987), 329

The authors have begun a systematic search from ESO for gravitational lens systems in a selected sample of highly luminous quasars; M[SUB]V[/SUB] < -29.0. They give a brief description of their first ... [more ▼]

The authors have begun a systematic search from ESO for gravitational lens systems in a selected sample of highly luminous quasars; M[SUB]V[/SUB] < -29.0. They give a brief description of their first identified gravitational lens system UM673 = Q0142-100 = PHL3703. It consists of two images, A (m[SUB]R[/SUB] = 16.9) and B (m[SUB]R[/SUB] = 19.1), separated by 2.2 arc s at a redshift z[SUB]q[/SUB] = 2.719. The lensing galaxy (m[SUB]R[/SUB] â 19, Z[SUB]L[/SUB] â 0.49) has also been found. It lies very near the line connecting the two QSO images, â ¡0.8 arc s from the fainter one. A value M[SUB]0[/SUB] â 2.4×10[SUP]11[/SUP]M_sun; for the mass of the lensing galaxy and Deltat â 7 weeks for most likely travel-time difference between the two light paths to the QSO are found (assuming H[SUB]0[/SUB] = 75 km s[SUP]-1[/SUP]Mpc[SUP]-1[/SUP], q[SUB]0[/SUB] = 0). [less ▲]

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See detailPlasminogen activator-plasmin system and neuronal migration.
Moonen, Gustave ULg; Grau-Wagemans, M. P.; Selak, Ivan ULg

in Nature (1982), 298(5876), 753-5

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