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See detailCrucial role of the amino-terminal tyrosine residue 42 and the carboxy-terminal PEST domain of IkappaBalpha in NF-kappaB activation by an oxidative stress
Schoonbroodt, Sonia; Ferreira, V.; Best-Belpomme, Martin et al

in Journal of Immunology (2000)

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See detailDistinct Signal Transduction Pathways Mediate Nuclear Factor-Kappab Induction by Il-1beta in Epithelial and Lymphoid Cells
Bonizzi, Giuseppina; Piette, Jacques ULg; Merville, Marie-Paule ULg et al

in Journal of Immunology (1997), 159(11), 5264-72

We previously demonstrated that IL-1beta-mediated induction of the nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) transcription factor proceeds through the production of reactive oxygen intermediates in lymphoid cells ... [more ▼]

We previously demonstrated that IL-1beta-mediated induction of the nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) transcription factor proceeds through the production of reactive oxygen intermediates in lymphoid cells, while it occurs independently of any oxidative stress in epithelial transformed cells. Indeed, inhibition of receptor internalization as well as NH4Cl and chloroquine blocked IL-1beta-mediated induction of NF-kappaB in OVCAR-3 and in other epithelial cell lines but not in lymphoid cells, indicating that distinct pathways are involved. Conversely, while we observed phospholipase A2 activity in both cell types following IL-1beta stimulation, specific inhibitors of this enzyme inhibited NF-kappaB induction only in lymphoid cells. Moreover, expression of the 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) enzyme was not detected in epithelial cells, and inhibition of this enzyme blocked NF-kappaB induction by IL-1beta only in lymphoid cells. This study thus indicates that the activation of NF-kappaB following IL-1beta treatment involves the activation of phospholipase A2 and 5-LOX and the production of reactive oxygen intermediates (ROIs) in lymphoid cells, while in epithelial cells, another pathway predominates and could involve the acid sphingomyelinase. Moreover, arachidonic acid could induce NF-kappaB in epithelial and lymphoid cells, but this activation involved the 5-LOX enzyme and the production of ROIs only in lymphoid cells. The inefficiency of the ROI pathway in epithelial cells is probably the consequence of both low ROI production due to undetectable expression of 5-LOX and rapid degradation of hydrogen peroxide due to high catalase activity. [less ▲]

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See detailRecognition of the latency-associated immediate early protein IE63 of varicella-zoster virus by human memory T-lymphocytes
Sadzot-Delvaux, Catherine ULg; Kinchington, Paul R.; Debrus, Serge et al

in Journal of Immunology (1997), 159(6), 2802-2806

Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is a human alpha herpesvirus that establishes latency in sensory ganglia. Latency is characterized by the abundant expression of the immediate early protein 63 (IE63), whereas ... [more ▼]

Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is a human alpha herpesvirus that establishes latency in sensory ganglia. Latency is characterized by the abundant expression of the immediate early protein 63 (IE63), whereas other viral proteins have not yet been detected during the quiescent phase of VZV infection. The IE63 protein is a component of the virion and is expressed very early in the infectious cycle. The IE63 protein is also expressed in skin during episodes of varicella and herpes zoster. We have evaluated the cell-mediated immune response against IE63 in naturally immune adults with a history of chickenpox, by T lymphoproliferation and cytotoxicity assays. Among donors who had T cell proliferation to unfractionated VZV Ags from infected cell extract, 59% had T cell recognition of purified IE63. The CTL response to IE63 was equivalent to CTL recognition of IE62, the major tegument component of VZV whose immunogenicity has been previously described. IgG Abs against IE63 were detected in serum from healthy immune adults. These results indicate that IE63 is an important target of immunity to VZV. T cell recognition of IE63 is likely to be involved in controlling VZV reactivation from latency. [less ▲]

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See detailChemically selected subclones of the CEM cell line demonstrate resistance to HIV-1 infection resulting from a selective loss of NF-kappa B DNA binding proteins.
Qian, J.; Bours, Vincent ULg; Manischewitz, J. et al

in Journal of Immunology (1994), 152(8), 4183-91

To delineate cellular genes that are required for optimal HIV-1 infection, CEM cells were subjected to treatment with the chemical mutagen ethylmethanesulfonate (EMS) and subclones were selected based on ... [more ▼]

To delineate cellular genes that are required for optimal HIV-1 infection, CEM cells were subjected to treatment with the chemical mutagen ethylmethanesulfonate (EMS) and subclones were selected based on their increased resistance to HIV-1 infection and reduced syncytium formation, despite relatively normal CD4 expression (20,000 to 25,000 receptors/cell). Two subclones with this phenotype demonstrated a diminished capacity of HIV-1 long terminal repeat-chloramphenicol acetyl transferase expression either after treatment with the protein kinase C activator PMA, or through Tat-mediated transactivation. In this study, we show that the cellular levels of the NF-kappa B DNA binding proteins (but not AP1 or SP1) are markedly reduced in these cell mutants both at the mRNA and protein levels, resulting in reduced nuclear localization of p50/p65 after PMA induction or treatment with the lymphokine TNF-alpha. Transient reconstitution with a plasmid expressing p50 resulted in partial recovery of PMA-inducible LTR-chloramphenicol acetyl transferase expression. These data suggest that, at least in the CEM T cell line, a selective reduction in the NF-kappa B DNA binding proteins is sufficient to curtail HIV-1 infection. [less ▲]

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See detailEvidence for the association between human thymic MHC class I molecules and a dominant neurohypophysial thymic peptide
Geenen, Vincent ULg; Vandersmissen, Eric; Martens, Henri ULg et al

in Journal of Immunology (1993), 150

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See detailTransient T and B cell activation after neonatal induction of tolerance to MHC class II and Mls alloantigens
Schurmans, Stéphane ULg; Brighouse, G.; Kramar, G. et al

in Journal of Immunology (1991), 146

The neonatal injection of semiallogeneic F1 spleen cells into newborn parental mice results in the induction of tolerance to the corresponding alloantigen (alloAg) and chimerism. In these F1 cell-injected ... [more ▼]

The neonatal injection of semiallogeneic F1 spleen cells into newborn parental mice results in the induction of tolerance to the corresponding alloantigen (alloAg) and chimerism. In these F1 cell-injected mice, we have previously observed that this state of specific tolerance is associated with the development of a transient lupus-like autoimmune syndrome. In this study, we show that neonatal injection of mice with spleen cells differing from the host at major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I, class II, class (I + II), or minor lymphocyte stimulating (Mls) alloAg induced a state of specific tolerance characterized by the absence of alloreactive CTL and/or Th cell responses in the spleen and the thymus of 6- to 12-week-old injected mice. However, in mice rendered tolerant to MHC class II or class (I + II) alloAg, the presence of high levels of IgG1 antibodies, of circulating immune complexes, of anti-ssDNA autoantibodies, and of tissue lesions were transiently observed. In these mice, an increased Ia Ag expression on lymphoid spleen cells was also detected at 1 wk. The elevated production of IgG1 and the overexpression of Ia Ag were almost completely prevented by treatment with an anti-IL-4 mAb. Such manifestations of B cell activation and autoimmunity were not observed in mice neonatally injected with F1 cells differing from the host only at MHC class I Ag. In mice neonatally tolerized to Mls Ag, a transient increase in IgG2a production and an overexpression of Ia Ag were detected without features of autoimmunity, and were prevented by anti-INF-gamma mAb treatment. In mice rendered tolerant to MHC class II, class (I + II), or Mls alloAg at birth, the manifestations of B cell activation were associated with the presence of in vivo-activated alloreactive CD4+ T cells in the spleen--but not the thymus--of 1-wk-old injected mice. Together, these results suggest that in mice neonatally injected with semiallogeneic F1 cells, the process of tolerance induction is not efficient during the early postnatal period, and could allow the maturation and peripheralization of some alloreactive CD4+ T cells, leading to transient B cell activation and, depending on the alloAg, to autoimmunity [less ▲]

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See detailIn vivo effects of anti-IL-4 monoclonal antibody on neonatal induction of tolerance and on an associated-autoimmune syndrome
Schurmans, Stéphane ULg; Heusser, C.; Qin, H. et al

in Journal of Immunology (1990), 145

he role of IL-4 in the cellular interactions leading to the induction of CTL tolerance to H-2b alloantigens and to the development of a lupus-like autoimmune disease in BALB/c mice after neonatal ... [more ▼]

he role of IL-4 in the cellular interactions leading to the induction of CTL tolerance to H-2b alloantigens and to the development of a lupus-like autoimmune disease in BALB/c mice after neonatal injection with (C57BL/6 x BALB/c)F1 cells was investigated in vivo by using an anti-IL-4 mAb. Treatment of F1 cell-injected BALB/c mice with 15 mg of anti-IL-4 mAb was shown to interfere with tolerance induction, as assessed by the high percentages of H-2b target cell lysis and the very low or undetectable levels of B cell chimerism markers observed in these mice. Treatment with 4.5 mg of anti-IL-4 mAb interfered with tolerance induction only in one-third of F1 cell-injected BALB/c mice, but that dose induces specific modulations of the autoimmune manifestations in all mice, leading to the nearly complete prevention of the disease. In particular, the production of anti-ssDNA IgG1 and of total IgG1 and IgE antibodies was seriously affected by the treatment, as well as the proliferation and membrane Ia and K expression of F1 donor splenic cells and thymic APC. Treatment of F1 cell-injected BALB/c mice between 24 and 48 h of life with 0.5 mg of anti-IL-4 mAb did not interfere with tolerance induction, but had similar effects on the autoimmune syndrome as treatment with 4.5 mg. These results suggest that, after F1 cell injection of newborn mice, IL-4 plays an important role in the cellular interactions leading to the induction of tolerance to the corresponding alloantigens and to the development of the associated autoimmune syndrome. [less ▲]

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See detailAutoimmune syndrome after induction of neonatal tolerance to alloantigens: CD4+ T cells from the tolerant host activate autoreactive F1 B cells
Merino, J.; Schurmans, Stéphane ULg; Duchosal, M. et al

in Journal of Immunology (1989), 143

The induction of transplantation tolerance to H-2b alloantigens in BALB/c (H-2d) mice by neonatal injection of (C57BL/6 x BALB/c)F1 spleen cells, produces an autoimmune lupus-like syndrome due to an ... [more ▼]

The induction of transplantation tolerance to H-2b alloantigens in BALB/c (H-2d) mice by neonatal injection of (C57BL/6 x BALB/c)F1 spleen cells, produces an autoimmune lupus-like syndrome due to an activation of persisting F1 donor B cells. This syndrome is characterized by hypergammaglobulinaemia, high levels of anti-DNA antibodies, as well as by circulating immune complexes and glomerular deposits of Ig. The role of host T cells in this model was investigated by using athymic BALB/c nu/nu mice as recipients of normal (C57BL/6 x BALB.Igb)F1 spleen cells. In these "tolerized" BALB/c nu/nu mice, there was a persistence of F1 donor B cells but none of the autoimmune features were expressed, conversely to tolerized BALB/c nu/+ littermates. The injection of CD4+CD8- T lymphocytes from adult normal BALB/c mice in 3-wk-old tolerized BALB/c nu/nu mice triggered the appearance of all the autoimmune findings observed in euthymic tolerant mice. The autoantibodies were produced by persisting F1 donor B cells as shown by allotype analysis. More strikingly, a similar triggering of the autoimmune syndrome, including high titers of anti-DNA IgG antibodies and circulating immune complexes, was observed after injection of CD4+CD8- T cells from 2-wk-old tolerant BALB/c mice into "tolerized" BALB/c nu/nu mice. The anti-ssDNA antibodies were shown to bear only the Ighb allotype, indicating their exclusive origin from F1 donor B cells. These results imply that CD4+ T cells from the tolerant mice are necessary for the activation of autoreactive F1 B cells and for the development of the autoimmune syndrome occurring in this model. They also suggest that, although there is a marked depletion of H-2b- specific alloreactive CTL precursors in those neonatally tolerized mice, this state of tolerance can be associated with the persistence of H-2b-specific alloreactive CD4+ cells [less ▲]

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See detailAnti-basement membrane glomerulopathy in experimental trypanosomiasis.
Bruijn, J. A.; Oemar, B. S.; Ehrich, J. H. et al

in Journal of Immunology (1987), 139(7), 2482-8

The nature of kidney lesions in BD IX rats infected with Trypanosoma brucei was investigated. Proteinuria developed and increased up to 236 +/- 35 mg/24 hr at 7 wk after the infection. Antibodies were ... [more ▼]

The nature of kidney lesions in BD IX rats infected with Trypanosoma brucei was investigated. Proteinuria developed and increased up to 236 +/- 35 mg/24 hr at 7 wk after the infection. Antibodies were found to be deposited along the glomerular basement membrane (GBM) predominantly in a linear fashion, which changed to a more granular pattern 7 wk after the infection. At this stage of the disease, electron-dense deposits were found subendothelially along the GBM. In the sera and kidney eluates of diseased rats, anti-GBM antibodies were present. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) studies showed antibodies which reacted with GBM components laminin and type IV collagen and not with fibronectin. The antibody specificity was confirmed by using competitive and cross-absorption ELISA techniques, as well as immunoblotting. With the use of indirect immunofluorescence, no common antigenic sites were found on trypanosomes and GBM components. The observed linear immunofluorescence pattern seems to be caused by glomerular binding of antibodies directed against laminin and type IV collagen, which are known to be able to induce renal disease. Subendothelial complex formation in later stages of the disease might result from a molecular rearrangement of GBM components after in situ binding of the antibodies. The formation of auto-antibodies directed against laminin and type IV collagen is probably caused by restricted polyclonal B cell stimulation, a well known feature of trypanosomiasis. [less ▲]

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See detailAutoimmune syndrome after induction of neonatal tolerance to alloantigens: effects of in vivo treatment with anti-T cell subset monoclonal antibodies
Merino, J.; Schurmans, Stéphane ULg; Luzuy, S. et al

in Journal of Immunology (1987), 139

BALB/c (H-2d) mice rendered tolerant to h-2b alloantigens by neonatal injection of semiallogeneic (C57BL/6 X BALB/c)F1 spleen cells develop autoimmune features due to an abnormal activation of persisting ... [more ▼]

BALB/c (H-2d) mice rendered tolerant to h-2b alloantigens by neonatal injection of semiallogeneic (C57BL/6 X BALB/c)F1 spleen cells develop autoimmune features due to an abnormal activation of persisting F1 donor B cells. The role of T cells in this autoimmune syndrome was studied by in vivo treatment of tolerant mice with anti-L3T4(GK-1.5) or anti-Ly-2 (H-35-17.2) monoclonal antibodies. The treatment of tolerant mice from day 2 to day 21 of life with anti-L3T4 MAb completely prevented the occurrence of circulating immune complexes of anti-ssDNA anti-Sm and anti-hapten (FITC) IgG antibodies as well as the glomerular deposition of Ig that were usually seen in untreated tolerant mice. This effect persisted for at least 6 wk after stopping this treatment. When the injections of anti-L3T4 MAb were delayed until day 15 of life, a very significant decrease of the autoimmune manifestations was still observed. Treatment of tolerant mice with anti-Ly-2 MAb during the same period had no effects on the autoimmune disease as compared with untreated tolerant mice. No effects on the maintenance of tolerance vs H-2b alloantigens were observed after treatment with anti-L3T4 MAb, as followed by the decrease of CTL and CTL-p alloreactivity and by the persistence of F1 donor B cells, indicated by the presence of Ig bearing the Ighb donor allotype. These results suggest the existence of interactions between L3T4+ T cells and persisting autoreactive B cells from F1 donor origin in the development of the autoimmune syndrome after neonatal induction of transplantation tolerance [less ▲]

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