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See detailA specific inorganic triphosphatase from Nitrosomonas europaea: structure and catalytic mechanism
Delvaux, David ULg; Murty, Mamidana R.V.S; Gabelica, Valérie ULg et al

in Journal of Biological Chemistry (2011), 286

The CYTH superfamily of proteins is named after its two founding members, the CyaB adenylyl cyclase from Aeromonas hydrophila and the human 25-kDa thiamine triphosphatase. Because these proteins often ... [more ▼]

The CYTH superfamily of proteins is named after its two founding members, the CyaB adenylyl cyclase from Aeromonas hydrophila and the human 25-kDa thiamine triphosphatase. Because these proteins often form a closed β-barrel, they are also referred to as “Triphosphate Tunnel Metalloenzymes” (TTM). Functionally, they are characterized by their ability to bind triphosphorylated substrates and divalent metal ions. These proteins exist in most organisms and catalyze different reactions, depending on their origin. Here we investigate structural and catalytic properties of the recombinant TTM protein from Nitrosomonas europaea (NeuTTM), a 19-kDa protein. Crystallographic data show that it crystallizes as a dimer and that, in contrast to other TTM proteins, it has an open β-barrel structure. We demonstrate that NeuTTM is a highly specific inorganic triphosphatase, hydrolyzing tripolyphosphate (PPPi) with high catalytic efficiency in the presence of Mg2+. These data are supported by native mass spectrometry analysis showing that the enzyme binds PPPi (and Mg-PPPi) with high affinity (Kd < 1.5 μM), while it has a low affinity for ATP or thiamine triphosphate. In contrast to Aeromonas and Yersinia CyaB proteins, NeuTTM has no adenylyl cyclase activity, but it shares several properties with other enzymes of the CYTH superfamily, e.g. heat-stability, alkaline pH optimum and inhibition by Ca2+ and Zn2+ ions. We suggest a catalytic mechanism involving a catalytic dyad formed by K52 and Y28. The present data provide the first characterization of a new type of phosphohydrolase (unrelated to pyrophosphatases or exopolyphosphatases), able to hydrolyze inorganic triphosphate with high specificity. [less ▲]

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See detailAMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation and glycogen synthase kinase-3beta (GSK-3beta) inhibition induce Ca2+-independent deposition of tight junction components at the plasma membrane.
Zhang, Lihong ULg; JOURET, François ULg; Rinehart, Jesse et al

in Journal of Biological Chemistry (2011), 286(19), 16879-90

Extracellular Ca(2+) is essential for the development of stable epithelial tight junctions. We find that in the absence of extracellular Ca(2+), AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation and glycogen ... [more ▼]

Extracellular Ca(2+) is essential for the development of stable epithelial tight junctions. We find that in the absence of extracellular Ca(2+), AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation and glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3beta inhibition independently induce the localization of epithelial tight junction components to the plasma membrane. The Ca(2+)-independent deposition of junctional proteins induced by AMPK activation and GSK-3beta inhibition is independent of E-cadherin. Furthermore, the nectin-afadin system is required for the deposition of tight junction components induced by AMPK activation, but it is not required for that induced by GSK-3beta inhibition. Phosphorylation studies demonstrate that afadin is a substrate for AMPK. These data demonstrate that two kinases involved in regulating cell growth and metabolism act through distinct pathways to influence the deposition of the components of epithelial tight junctions. [less ▲]

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See detailThe multi-zinc finger protein ZNF217 contacts DNA through a two-finger domain.
Nunez, N.; Clifton, M.M.; Funnell, A.P. et al

in Journal of Biological Chemistry (2011)

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See detailRole of the netrin-like domain of procollagen C-proteinase enhancer-1 in the control of metalloproteinase activity.
Bekhouche, M.; Kronenberg; Colige, Alain ULg et al

in Journal of Biological Chemistry (2010), 285(21), 15950-9

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See detailThe Pax6b homeodomain is dispensable for pancreatic endocrine cell differentiation in zebrafish.
Verbruggen, Vincianne; Ek, Olivier; Georlette, Daphne et al

in Journal of Biological Chemistry (2010), 285(18), 13863-73

Pax6 is a well conserved transcription factor that contains two DNA-binding domains, a paired domain and a homeodomain, and plays a key role in the development of eye, brain, and pancreas in vertebrates ... [more ▼]

Pax6 is a well conserved transcription factor that contains two DNA-binding domains, a paired domain and a homeodomain, and plays a key role in the development of eye, brain, and pancreas in vertebrates. The recent identification of the zebrafish sunrise mutant, harboring a mutation in the pax6b homeobox and presenting eye abnormalities but no obvious pancreatic defects, raised a question about the role of pax6b in zebrafish pancreas. We show here that pax6b does play an essential role in pancreatic endocrine cell differentiation, as revealed by the phenotype of a novel zebrafish pax6b null mutant and of embryos injected with pax6b morpholinos. Pax6b-depleted embryos have almost no beta cells, a strongly reduced number of delta cells, and a significant increase of epsilon cells. Through the use of various morpholinos targeting intron-exon junctions, pax6b RNA splicing was perturbed at several sites, leading either to retention of intronic sequences or to deletion of exonic sequences in the pax6b transcript. By this strategy, we show that deletion of the Pax6b homeodomain in zebrafish embryos does not disturb pancreas development, whereas lens formation is strongly affected. These data thus provide the explanation for the lack of pancreatic defects in the sunrise pax6b mutants. In addition, partial reduction of Pax6b function in zebrafish embryos performed by injection of small amounts of pax6b morpholinos caused a clear rise in alpha cell number and in glucagon expression, emphasizing the importance of the fine tuning of the Pax6b level to its biological activity. [less ▲]

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See detailA phosphorylation switch regulates the transcriptional activation of cell cycle regulator p21 by histone deacetylase inhibitors.
Simboeck, E.; Sawicka, A.; Zupkovitz, G. et al

in Journal of Biological Chemistry (2010)

Histone deacetylase inhibitors induce cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in tumor cells and are therefore promising anti-cancer drugs. The CDK inhibitor p21 is activated in HDAC inhibitor treated tumor cells ... [more ▼]

Histone deacetylase inhibitors induce cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in tumor cells and are therefore promising anti-cancer drugs. The CDK inhibitor p21 is activated in HDAC inhibitor treated tumor cells and its growth-inhibitory function contributes to the anti-tumorigenic effect of HDAC inhibitors. We show here that induction of p21 by trichostatin A involves MAP kinase signaling. Activation of the MAP kinase signaling pathway by growth factors or stress signals results in histone H3 serine 10 phosphorylation at the p21 promoter and is crucial for acetylation of the neighboring lysine 14 and recruitment of activated RNA polymerase II in response to trichostatin A treatment. In non-induced cells, the protein phosphatase PP2A is associated with the p21 gene and counteracts its activation. Induction of p21 is linked to simultaneous acetylation and phosphorylation of histone H3. The dual modification mark H3S10phK14ac at the activated p21 promoter is recognized by the phospho-binding protein 14-3-3 zeta, which protects the phosphoacetylation mark from being processed by PP2A. Taken together we have revealed a crosstalk of reversible phosphorylation and acetylation signals that controls the activation of p21 by HDAC inhibitors and identify the phosphatase PP2A as chromatin-associated transcriptional repressor in mammalian cells. [less ▲]

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See detailThiamine triphosphate synthesis in rat brain occurs in mitochondria and is coupled to the respiratory chain
Gangolf, Marjorie ULg; Wins, Pierre; Thiry, Marc ULg et al

in Journal of Biological Chemistry (2010), 285

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See detailMolecular requirements for ethanol differential allosteric modulation of glycine receptors based on selective Gbetagamma modulation.
Yevenes, Gonzalo E; Moraga-Cid, Gustavo; Avila, Ariel et al

in Journal of Biological Chemistry (2010), 285(39), 30203-13

It is now believed that the allosteric modulation produced by ethanol in glycine receptors (GlyRs) depends on alcohol binding to discrete sites within the protein structure. Thus, the differential ethanol ... [more ▼]

It is now believed that the allosteric modulation produced by ethanol in glycine receptors (GlyRs) depends on alcohol binding to discrete sites within the protein structure. Thus, the differential ethanol sensitivity of diverse GlyR isoforms and mutants was explained by the presence of specific residues in putative alcohol pockets. Here, we demonstrate that ethanol sensitivity in two ligand-gated ion receptor members, the GlyR adult alpha(1) and embryonic alpha(2) subunits, can be modified through selective mutations that rescued or impaired Gbetagamma modulation. Even though both isoforms were able to physically interact with Gbetagamma, only the alpha(1) GlyR was functionally modulated by Gbetagamma and pharmacological ethanol concentrations. Remarkably, the simultaneous switching of two transmembrane and a single extracellular residue in alpha(2) GlyRs was enough to generate GlyRs modulated by Gbetagamma and low ethanol concentrations. Interestingly, although we found that these TM residues were different to those in the alcohol binding site, the extracellular residue was recently implicated in conformational changes important to generate a pre-open-activated state that precedes ion channel gating. Thus, these results support the idea that the differential ethanol sensitivity of these two GlyR isoforms rests on conformational changes in transmembrane and extracellular residues within the ion channel structure rather than in differences in alcohol binding pockets. Our results describe the molecular basis for the differential ethanol sensitivity of two ligand-gated ion receptor members based on selective Gbetagamma modulation and provide a new mechanistic framework for allosteric modulations of abuse drugs. [less ▲]

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See detailBCL-3 degradation involves its polyubiquitination through a FBW7-independent pathway and its binding to the proteasome subunit PSMB1.
Keutgens, Aurore ULg; Zhang-Shao, Xin ULg; Shostak, Kateryna ULg et al

in Journal of Biological Chemistry (2010), 285(33), 2583125840

The oncogenic protein BCL-3 activates or represses gene transcription through binding with the NF-kappaB proteins p50 and p52 and is degraded through a phospho- and GSK3-dependent pathway. However, the ... [more ▼]

The oncogenic protein BCL-3 activates or represses gene transcription through binding with the NF-kappaB proteins p50 and p52 and is degraded through a phospho- and GSK3-dependent pathway. However, the mechanisms underlying its degradation remain poorly understood. Yeast-two-hybrid analysis led to the identification of the proteasome subunit PSMB1 as a BCL-3-associated protein. The binding of BCL-3 to PSMB1 is required for its degradation through the proteasome. Indeed, PSMB1-depleted cells are defective in degrading polyubiquitinated BCL-3. The N-terminal part of BCL-3 includes lysines 13 and 26 required for the K48-linked polyubiquitination of BCL-3. Moreover, the E3 ligase FBW7 known to polyubiquitinate a variety of substrates phosphorylated by GSK3 is dispensable for BCL-3 degradation. Thus, our data defined an unique motif of BCL-3 that is needed for its recruitment to the proteasome and identified PSMB1 as a key protein required for the proteasome-mediated degradation of a nuclear and oncogenic IkappaB protein. [less ▲]

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See detailAllosteric block of KCa2 channels by apamin
Lamy, Cédric ULg; Goodchild, Samuel J; Weatherall, Kate L et al

in Journal of Biological Chemistry (2010)

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See detailDeorphanization of GPR109B as a receptor for the beta-oxidation intermediate 3-OH-octanoic acid and its role in the regulation of lipolysis
Ahmed, Kashan; Tunaru, Sorin; Langhans, C. D. et al

in Journal of Biological Chemistry (2009), 284(33), 21928-33

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See detailThe dexamethasone-induced inhibition of proliferation, migration and invasion in glioma cell lines is antagonized by macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) and can be enhanced by specific MIF inhibitors.
Piette, Caroline ULg; Deprez, Manuel ULg; Roger, Th et al

in Journal of Biological Chemistry (2009), 284(47), 32483-92

Glioblastomas (GBMs) are the most frequent and malignant brain tumors in adults. Glucocorticoids (GCs) are routinely used in the treatment of GBMs for their capacity to reduce the tumor-associated edema ... [more ▼]

Glioblastomas (GBMs) are the most frequent and malignant brain tumors in adults. Glucocorticoids (GCs) are routinely used in the treatment of GBMs for their capacity to reduce the tumor-associated edema. Few in vitro studies have suggested that GCs inhibit the migration and invasion of GBM cells through the induction of MAPK phosphatase 1 (MKP-1). Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), an endogenous GC antagonist is up-regulated in GBMs. Recently, MIF has been involved in tumor growth and migration/invasion and specific MIF inhibitors have been developed on their capacity to block its enzymatic tautomerase activity site. In this study, we characterized several glioma cell lines for their MIF production. U373 MG cells were selected for their very low endogenous levels of MIF. We showed that dexamethasone inhibits the migration and invasion of U373 MG cells, through a glucocorticoid receptor (GR)- dependent inhibition of the ERK1/2 MAPK pathway. Oppositely, we found that exogenous MIF increases U373 MG migration and invasion through the stimulation of the ERK1/2 MAP kinase pathway and that this activation is CD74 independent. Finally, we used the Hs 683 glioma cells that are resistant to GCs and produce high levels of endogenous MIF, and showed that the specific MIF inhibitor ISO-1 could restore dexamethasone sensitivity in these cells. Collectively, our results indicate an intricate pathway between MIF expression and GC resistance. They suggest that MIF inhibitors could increase the response of GBMs to corticotherapy. [less ▲]

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See detailEpigenetic control of the invasion-promoting MT1-MMP/MMP-2/TIMP-2 axis in cancer cells
Chernov, Andrei V.; Sounni, Nor Eddine ULg; Remacle, Albert G. et al

in Journal of Biological Chemistry (2009), 284(19), 12727-34

Membrane type-1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP) is an activator of soluble MMP-2. The activity of both MMPs is regulated by their physiological inhibitor TIMP-2. An MT1-MMP/MMP-2/TIMP-2 axis plays a ... [more ▼]

Membrane type-1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP) is an activator of soluble MMP-2. The activity of both MMPs is regulated by their physiological inhibitor TIMP-2. An MT1-MMP/MMP-2/TIMP-2 axis plays a key role in the invasive behavior of many cell types. Despite its importance, epigenetic control of this pro-invasive axis is insufficiently studied, and, as a result, its modification in a rational and clinically beneficial manner is exceedingly difficult. Therefore, we performed an epigenetic analysis of the MT1-MMP, MMP-2, and TIMP-2 gene promoters in highly migratory glioblastoma cells and in low migratory breast carcinoma MCF-7 cells. We determined, for the first time, that the epigenetic control leading to the transcriptional silencing of both MMPs includes hypermethylation of the corresponding CpG regions and histone H3 lysine-27 trimethylation (H3K27me3). In turn, undermethylation of the CpG islands and low levels of histone H3 lysine-27 trimethylation are features of transcriptionally active MT1-MMP and MMP-2 genes in invasive cancer cells. Additional histone modifications we have analyzed, including H3ac and H3K4me2, are present in both transcriptionally active and inactive promoters of both MMPs. Histone H3 lysine-4 trimethylation is likely to play no significant role in regulating MT1-MMP and MMP-2. The pattern of epigenetic regulation of TIMP-2 was clearly distinct from that of MMPs and included the coordinated methylation and demethylation of the two CpG regions in the promoter. Our results suggest that the epigenetic control plays an important role in both the balanced regulation of the MT1-MMP/MMP-2/TIMP-2 axis and the invasive behavior in cancer cells. [less ▲]

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See detailCrystal structure of the cold-active aminopeptidase from Colwellia psychrerythraea, a close structural homologue of the human bifunctional leukotriene A4 hydrolase
Bauvois, Cédric; Jacquamet, Lilian; Huston, Adrienne L. et al

in Journal of Biological Chemistry (2008), 283(34), 23315-25

The crystal structure of a cold-active aminopeptidase (ColAP) from Colwellia psychrerythraea strain 34H has been determined, extending the number of crystal structures of the M1 metallopeptidase family to ... [more ▼]

The crystal structure of a cold-active aminopeptidase (ColAP) from Colwellia psychrerythraea strain 34H has been determined, extending the number of crystal structures of the M1 metallopeptidase family to four among the 436 members currently identified. In agreement with their sequence similarity, the overall structure of ColAP displayed a high correspondence with leukotriene A4 hydrolase (LTA4H), a human bifunctional enzyme that converts leukotriene A4 (LTA4) in the potent chemoattractant leukotriene B4. Indeed, both enzymes are composed of three domains, an N-terminal saddle-like domain, a catalytic thermolysin-like domain, and a less conserved C-terminal alpha-helical flat spiral domain. Together, these domains form a deep cavity harboring the zinc binding site formed by residues included in the conserved HEXXHX(18)H motif. A detailed structural comparison of these enzymes revealed several plausible determinants of ColAP cold adaptation. The main differences involve specific amino acid substitutions, loop content and solvent exposure, complexity and distribution of ion pairs, and differential domain flexibilities. Such elements may act synergistically to allow conformational flexibility needed for an efficient catalysis in cold environments. Furthermore, the region of ColAP corresponding to the aminopeptidase active site of LTA4H is much more conserved than the suggested LTA4 substrate binding region. This observation supports the hypothesis that this region of the LTA4H active site has evolved in order to fit the lipidic substrate. [less ▲]

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See detailCaspase-8 Cleaves Histone Deacetylase 7 And Abolishes Its Transcription Repressor Function
Scott, Fl.; Fuchs, Gj.; Boyd, Se. et al

in Journal of Biological Chemistry (2008), 283(28),

Caspase-8 is the initiator caspase of the extrinsic apoptosis pathway and also has a role in non-apoptotic physiologies. Identifying endogenous substrates for caspase-8 by using integrated bioinformatics ... [more ▼]

Caspase-8 is the initiator caspase of the extrinsic apoptosis pathway and also has a role in non-apoptotic physiologies. Identifying endogenous substrates for caspase-8 by using integrated bioinformatics and biological approaches is required to delineate the diverse roles of this caspase. We describe a number of novel putative caspase-8 substrates using the Prediction of Protease Specificity (PoPS) program, one of which is histone deacetylase 7 (HDAC7). HDAC7 is cleaved faster than any other caspase-8 substrate described to date. It is also cleaved in primary CD4+CD8+ thymocytes undergoing extrinsic apoptosis. By using naturally occurring caspase inhibitors that have evolved exquisite specificity at concentrations found within the cell, we could unequivocally assign the cleavage activity to caspase-8. Importantly, cleavage of HDAC7 alters its subcellular localization and abrogates its Nur77 repressor function. Thus we demonstrate a direct role for initiator caspase-mediated proteolysis in promoting gene transcription. [less ▲]

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See detailStructural basis for the catalytic mechanism of mammalian 25 kDa thiamine triphosphatase
Song, J.; Bettendorff, Lucien ULg; Tonelli, Marco et al

in Journal of Biological Chemistry (2008), 283

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See detailImportance of the conserved residues in the peptidoglycan glycosyltransferase module of the class A penicillin-binding protein 1b of Escherichia coli.
Terrak, Mohammed ULg; Sauvage, Eric ULg; Derouaux, Adeline ULg et al

in Journal of Biological Chemistry (2008), 283(42), 28464-70

The peptidoglycan glycosyltransferase (GT) module of class A penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) and monofunctional GTs catalyze glycan chain elongation of the bacterial cell wall. These enzymes belong to ... [more ▼]

The peptidoglycan glycosyltransferase (GT) module of class A penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) and monofunctional GTs catalyze glycan chain elongation of the bacterial cell wall. These enzymes belong to the GT51 family, are characterized by five conserved motifs, and have some fold similarity with the phage lambda lysozyme. In this work, we have systematically modified all the conserved amino acid residues of the GT module of Escherichia coli class A PBP1b by site-directed mutagenesis and determined their importance for the in vivo and in vitro activity and the thermostability of the protein. To get an insight into the GT active site of this paradigm enzyme, a model of PBP1b GT domain was constructed based on the available crystal structures (PDB codes 2OLV and 2OLU). The data show that in addition to the essential glutamate residues Glu233 of motif 1 and Glu290 of motif 3, the residues Phe237 and His240 of motif 1 and Gly264, Thr267, Gln271, and Lys274 of motif 2, all located in the catalytic cavity of the GT domain, are essential for the in vitro enzymatic activity of the PBP1b and for its in vivo functioning. Thus, the first three conserved motifs contain most of the residues that are required for the GT activity of the PBP1b. The residues Asp234, Phe237, His240, Thr267, and Gln271 are proposed to maintain the structure of the active site and the positioning of the catalytic Glu233. [less ▲]

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See detailActivation mechanism of recombinant Der p 3 allergen zymogen - Contribution of cysteine protease Der p 1 and effect of propeptide glycosylation
Dumez, Marie-Eve ULg; Teller, Nathalie; Mercier, Frédéric ULg et al

in Journal of Biological Chemistry (2008), 283(45), 30606-30617

The trypsin-like protease Der p 3, a major allergen of the house dust mite Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, is synthesized as a zymogen, termed proDer p 3. No recombinant source of Der p 3 has been ... [more ▼]

The trypsin-like protease Der p 3, a major allergen of the house dust mite Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, is synthesized as a zymogen, termed proDer p 3. No recombinant source of Der p 3 has been described yet, and the zymogen maturation mechanism remains to be elucidated. The Der p 3 zymogen was produced in Pichia pastoris. We demonstrated that the recombinant zymogen is glycosylated at the level of its propeptide. We showed that the activation mechanism of proDer p 3 is intermolecular and is mediated by the house dust mite cysteine protease Der p 1. The primary structure of the proDer p 3 propeptide is associated with a unique zymogen activation mechanism, which is different from those described for the trypsin-like family and relies on the house dust mite papain-like protease Der p 1. This is the first report of a recombinant source of Der p 3, with the same enzymatic activity as the natural enzyme and trypsin. Glycosylation of the propeptide was found to decrease the rate of maturation. Finally, we showed that recombinant Der p 3 is inhibited by the free modified prosequence TP1R. [less ▲]

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