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See detailMolecular requirements for ethanol differential allosteric modulation of glycine receptors based on selective Gbetagamma modulation.
Yevenes, Gonzalo E; Moraga-Cid, Gustavo; Avila, Ariel et al

in Journal of Biological Chemistry (2010), 285(39), 30203-13

It is now believed that the allosteric modulation produced by ethanol in glycine receptors (GlyRs) depends on alcohol binding to discrete sites within the protein structure. Thus, the differential ethanol ... [more ▼]

It is now believed that the allosteric modulation produced by ethanol in glycine receptors (GlyRs) depends on alcohol binding to discrete sites within the protein structure. Thus, the differential ethanol sensitivity of diverse GlyR isoforms and mutants was explained by the presence of specific residues in putative alcohol pockets. Here, we demonstrate that ethanol sensitivity in two ligand-gated ion receptor members, the GlyR adult alpha(1) and embryonic alpha(2) subunits, can be modified through selective mutations that rescued or impaired Gbetagamma modulation. Even though both isoforms were able to physically interact with Gbetagamma, only the alpha(1) GlyR was functionally modulated by Gbetagamma and pharmacological ethanol concentrations. Remarkably, the simultaneous switching of two transmembrane and a single extracellular residue in alpha(2) GlyRs was enough to generate GlyRs modulated by Gbetagamma and low ethanol concentrations. Interestingly, although we found that these TM residues were different to those in the alcohol binding site, the extracellular residue was recently implicated in conformational changes important to generate a pre-open-activated state that precedes ion channel gating. Thus, these results support the idea that the differential ethanol sensitivity of these two GlyR isoforms rests on conformational changes in transmembrane and extracellular residues within the ion channel structure rather than in differences in alcohol binding pockets. Our results describe the molecular basis for the differential ethanol sensitivity of two ligand-gated ion receptor members based on selective Gbetagamma modulation and provide a new mechanistic framework for allosteric modulations of abuse drugs. [less ▲]

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See detailBCL-3 degradation involves its polyubiquitination through a FBW7-independent pathway and its binding to the proteasome subunit PSMB1.
Keutgens, Aurore ULg; Zhang-Shao, Xin ULg; Shostak, Kateryna ULg et al

in Journal of Biological Chemistry (2010), 285(33), 2583125840

The oncogenic protein BCL-3 activates or represses gene transcription through binding with the NF-kappaB proteins p50 and p52 and is degraded through a phospho- and GSK3-dependent pathway. However, the ... [more ▼]

The oncogenic protein BCL-3 activates or represses gene transcription through binding with the NF-kappaB proteins p50 and p52 and is degraded through a phospho- and GSK3-dependent pathway. However, the mechanisms underlying its degradation remain poorly understood. Yeast-two-hybrid analysis led to the identification of the proteasome subunit PSMB1 as a BCL-3-associated protein. The binding of BCL-3 to PSMB1 is required for its degradation through the proteasome. Indeed, PSMB1-depleted cells are defective in degrading polyubiquitinated BCL-3. The N-terminal part of BCL-3 includes lysines 13 and 26 required for the K48-linked polyubiquitination of BCL-3. Moreover, the E3 ligase FBW7 known to polyubiquitinate a variety of substrates phosphorylated by GSK3 is dispensable for BCL-3 degradation. Thus, our data defined an unique motif of BCL-3 that is needed for its recruitment to the proteasome and identified PSMB1 as a key protein required for the proteasome-mediated degradation of a nuclear and oncogenic IkappaB protein. [less ▲]

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See detailDeorphanization of GPR109B as a receptor for the beta-oxidation intermediate 3-OH-octanoic acid and its role in the regulation of lipolysis
Ahmed, Kashan; Tunaru, Sorin; Langhans, C. D. et al

in Journal of Biological Chemistry (2009), 284(33), 21928-33

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See detailThe dexamethasone-induced inhibition of proliferation, migration and invasion in glioma cell lines is antagonized by macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) and can be enhanced by specific MIF inhibitors.
Piette, Caroline ULg; Deprez, Manuel ULg; Roger, Th et al

in Journal of Biological Chemistry (2009), 284(47), 32483-92

Glioblastomas (GBMs) are the most frequent and malignant brain tumors in adults. Glucocorticoids (GCs) are routinely used in the treatment of GBMs for their capacity to reduce the tumor-associated edema ... [more ▼]

Glioblastomas (GBMs) are the most frequent and malignant brain tumors in adults. Glucocorticoids (GCs) are routinely used in the treatment of GBMs for their capacity to reduce the tumor-associated edema. Few in vitro studies have suggested that GCs inhibit the migration and invasion of GBM cells through the induction of MAPK phosphatase 1 (MKP-1). Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), an endogenous GC antagonist is up-regulated in GBMs. Recently, MIF has been involved in tumor growth and migration/invasion and specific MIF inhibitors have been developed on their capacity to block its enzymatic tautomerase activity site. In this study, we characterized several glioma cell lines for their MIF production. U373 MG cells were selected for their very low endogenous levels of MIF. We showed that dexamethasone inhibits the migration and invasion of U373 MG cells, through a glucocorticoid receptor (GR)- dependent inhibition of the ERK1/2 MAPK pathway. Oppositely, we found that exogenous MIF increases U373 MG migration and invasion through the stimulation of the ERK1/2 MAP kinase pathway and that this activation is CD74 independent. Finally, we used the Hs 683 glioma cells that are resistant to GCs and produce high levels of endogenous MIF, and showed that the specific MIF inhibitor ISO-1 could restore dexamethasone sensitivity in these cells. Collectively, our results indicate an intricate pathway between MIF expression and GC resistance. They suggest that MIF inhibitors could increase the response of GBMs to corticotherapy. [less ▲]

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See detailEpigenetic control of the invasion-promoting MT1-MMP/MMP-2/TIMP-2 axis in cancer cells
Chernov, Andrei V.; Sounni, Nor Eddine ULg; Remacle, Albert G. et al

in Journal of Biological Chemistry (2009), 284(19), 12727-34

Membrane type-1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP) is an activator of soluble MMP-2. The activity of both MMPs is regulated by their physiological inhibitor TIMP-2. An MT1-MMP/MMP-2/TIMP-2 axis plays a ... [more ▼]

Membrane type-1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP) is an activator of soluble MMP-2. The activity of both MMPs is regulated by their physiological inhibitor TIMP-2. An MT1-MMP/MMP-2/TIMP-2 axis plays a key role in the invasive behavior of many cell types. Despite its importance, epigenetic control of this pro-invasive axis is insufficiently studied, and, as a result, its modification in a rational and clinically beneficial manner is exceedingly difficult. Therefore, we performed an epigenetic analysis of the MT1-MMP, MMP-2, and TIMP-2 gene promoters in highly migratory glioblastoma cells and in low migratory breast carcinoma MCF-7 cells. We determined, for the first time, that the epigenetic control leading to the transcriptional silencing of both MMPs includes hypermethylation of the corresponding CpG regions and histone H3 lysine-27 trimethylation (H3K27me3). In turn, undermethylation of the CpG islands and low levels of histone H3 lysine-27 trimethylation are features of transcriptionally active MT1-MMP and MMP-2 genes in invasive cancer cells. Additional histone modifications we have analyzed, including H3ac and H3K4me2, are present in both transcriptionally active and inactive promoters of both MMPs. Histone H3 lysine-4 trimethylation is likely to play no significant role in regulating MT1-MMP and MMP-2. The pattern of epigenetic regulation of TIMP-2 was clearly distinct from that of MMPs and included the coordinated methylation and demethylation of the two CpG regions in the promoter. Our results suggest that the epigenetic control plays an important role in both the balanced regulation of the MT1-MMP/MMP-2/TIMP-2 axis and the invasive behavior in cancer cells. [less ▲]

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See detailCrystal structure of the cold-active aminopeptidase from Colwellia psychrerythraea, a close structural homologue of the human bifunctional leukotriene A4 hydrolase
Bauvois, Cédric; Jacquamet, Lilian; Huston, Adrienne L. et al

in Journal of Biological Chemistry (2008), 283(34), 23315-25

The crystal structure of a cold-active aminopeptidase (ColAP) from Colwellia psychrerythraea strain 34H has been determined, extending the number of crystal structures of the M1 metallopeptidase family to ... [more ▼]

The crystal structure of a cold-active aminopeptidase (ColAP) from Colwellia psychrerythraea strain 34H has been determined, extending the number of crystal structures of the M1 metallopeptidase family to four among the 436 members currently identified. In agreement with their sequence similarity, the overall structure of ColAP displayed a high correspondence with leukotriene A4 hydrolase (LTA4H), a human bifunctional enzyme that converts leukotriene A4 (LTA4) in the potent chemoattractant leukotriene B4. Indeed, both enzymes are composed of three domains, an N-terminal saddle-like domain, a catalytic thermolysin-like domain, and a less conserved C-terminal alpha-helical flat spiral domain. Together, these domains form a deep cavity harboring the zinc binding site formed by residues included in the conserved HEXXHX(18)H motif. A detailed structural comparison of these enzymes revealed several plausible determinants of ColAP cold adaptation. The main differences involve specific amino acid substitutions, loop content and solvent exposure, complexity and distribution of ion pairs, and differential domain flexibilities. Such elements may act synergistically to allow conformational flexibility needed for an efficient catalysis in cold environments. Furthermore, the region of ColAP corresponding to the aminopeptidase active site of LTA4H is much more conserved than the suggested LTA4 substrate binding region. This observation supports the hypothesis that this region of the LTA4H active site has evolved in order to fit the lipidic substrate. [less ▲]

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See detailCaspase-8 Cleaves Histone Deacetylase 7 And Abolishes Its Transcription Repressor Function
Scott, Fl.; Fuchs, Gj.; Boyd, Se. et al

in Journal of Biological Chemistry (2008), 283(28),

Caspase-8 is the initiator caspase of the extrinsic apoptosis pathway and also has a role in non-apoptotic physiologies. Identifying endogenous substrates for caspase-8 by using integrated bioinformatics ... [more ▼]

Caspase-8 is the initiator caspase of the extrinsic apoptosis pathway and also has a role in non-apoptotic physiologies. Identifying endogenous substrates for caspase-8 by using integrated bioinformatics and biological approaches is required to delineate the diverse roles of this caspase. We describe a number of novel putative caspase-8 substrates using the Prediction of Protease Specificity (PoPS) program, one of which is histone deacetylase 7 (HDAC7). HDAC7 is cleaved faster than any other caspase-8 substrate described to date. It is also cleaved in primary CD4+CD8+ thymocytes undergoing extrinsic apoptosis. By using naturally occurring caspase inhibitors that have evolved exquisite specificity at concentrations found within the cell, we could unequivocally assign the cleavage activity to caspase-8. Importantly, cleavage of HDAC7 alters its subcellular localization and abrogates its Nur77 repressor function. Thus we demonstrate a direct role for initiator caspase-mediated proteolysis in promoting gene transcription. [less ▲]

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See detailStructural basis for the catalytic mechanism of mammalian 25 kDa thiamine triphosphatase
Song, J.; Bettendorff, Lucien ULg; Tonelli, Marco et al

in Journal of Biological Chemistry (2008), 283

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See detailImportance of the conserved residues in the peptidoglycan glycosyltransferase module of the class A penicillin-binding protein 1b of Escherichia coli.
Terrak, Mohammed ULg; Sauvage, Eric ULg; Derouaux, Adeline ULg et al

in Journal of Biological Chemistry (2008), 283(42), 28464-70

The peptidoglycan glycosyltransferase (GT) module of class A penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) and monofunctional GTs catalyze glycan chain elongation of the bacterial cell wall. These enzymes belong to ... [more ▼]

The peptidoglycan glycosyltransferase (GT) module of class A penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) and monofunctional GTs catalyze glycan chain elongation of the bacterial cell wall. These enzymes belong to the GT51 family, are characterized by five conserved motifs, and have some fold similarity with the phage lambda lysozyme. In this work, we have systematically modified all the conserved amino acid residues of the GT module of Escherichia coli class A PBP1b by site-directed mutagenesis and determined their importance for the in vivo and in vitro activity and the thermostability of the protein. To get an insight into the GT active site of this paradigm enzyme, a model of PBP1b GT domain was constructed based on the available crystal structures (PDB codes 2OLV and 2OLU). The data show that in addition to the essential glutamate residues Glu233 of motif 1 and Glu290 of motif 3, the residues Phe237 and His240 of motif 1 and Gly264, Thr267, Gln271, and Lys274 of motif 2, all located in the catalytic cavity of the GT domain, are essential for the in vitro enzymatic activity of the PBP1b and for its in vivo functioning. Thus, the first three conserved motifs contain most of the residues that are required for the GT activity of the PBP1b. The residues Asp234, Phe237, His240, Thr267, and Gln271 are proposed to maintain the structure of the active site and the positioning of the catalytic Glu233. [less ▲]

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See detailActivation mechanism of recombinant Der p 3 allergen zymogen - Contribution of cysteine protease Der p 1 and effect of propeptide glycosylation
Dumez, Marie-Eve ULg; Teller, Nathalie; Mercier, Frédéric ULg et al

in Journal of Biological Chemistry (2008), 283(45), 30606-30617

The trypsin-like protease Der p 3, a major allergen of the house dust mite Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, is synthesized as a zymogen, termed proDer p 3. No recombinant source of Der p 3 has been ... [more ▼]

The trypsin-like protease Der p 3, a major allergen of the house dust mite Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, is synthesized as a zymogen, termed proDer p 3. No recombinant source of Der p 3 has been described yet, and the zymogen maturation mechanism remains to be elucidated. The Der p 3 zymogen was produced in Pichia pastoris. We demonstrated that the recombinant zymogen is glycosylated at the level of its propeptide. We showed that the activation mechanism of proDer p 3 is intermolecular and is mediated by the house dust mite cysteine protease Der p 1. The primary structure of the proDer p 3 propeptide is associated with a unique zymogen activation mechanism, which is different from those described for the trypsin-like family and relies on the house dust mite papain-like protease Der p 1. This is the first report of a recombinant source of Der p 3, with the same enzymatic activity as the natural enzyme and trypsin. Glycosylation of the propeptide was found to decrease the rate of maturation. Finally, we showed that recombinant Der p 3 is inhibited by the free modified prosequence TP1R. [less ▲]

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See detailA Temperature-sensitive mutation in the Arabidopsis thaliana phosphomannomutase gene disrupts protein glycosylation and triggers cell death.
Hoeberichts, Frank A; Vaeck, Elke; Kiddle, Guy et al

in Journal of Biological Chemistry (2008), 283(9), 5708-18

Eukaryotic phosphomannomutases (PMMs) catalyze the interconversion of mannose 6-phosphate to mannose 1-phosphate and are essential to the biosynthesis of GDP-mannose. As such, plant PMMs are involved in ... [more ▼]

Eukaryotic phosphomannomutases (PMMs) catalyze the interconversion of mannose 6-phosphate to mannose 1-phosphate and are essential to the biosynthesis of GDP-mannose. As such, plant PMMs are involved in ascorbic acid (AsA) biosynthesis and N-glycosylation. We report on the conditional phenotype of the temperature-sensitive Arabidopsis thaliana pmm-12 mutant. Mutant seedlings were phenotypically similar to wild type seedlings when grown at 16-18 degrees C but died within several days after transfer to 28 degrees C. This phenotype was observed throughout both vegetative and reproductive development. Protein extracts derived from pmm-12 plants had lower PMM protein and enzyme activity levels. In vitro biochemical analysis of recombinant proteins showed that the mutant PMM protein was compromised in its catalytic efficiency (K cat/K m). Despite significantly decreased AsA levels in pmm-12 plants, AsA deficiency could not account for the observed phenotype. Since, at restrictive temperature, total glycoprotein patterns were altered and glycosylation of protein-disulfide isomerase was perturbed, we propose that a deficiency in protein glycosylation is responsible for the observed cell death phenotype. [less ▲]

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See detailRhoA-GDP regulates RhoB protein stability. Potential involvement of RhoGDIalpha.
Ho, Thi Thanh Giang ULg; Merajver, Sofia D; Lapière, Charles et al

in Journal of Biological Chemistry (2008), 283(31), 21588-98

RhoA plays a significant role in actin stress fibers formation. However, silencing RhoA alone or RhoA and RhoC did not completely suppress the stress fibers suggesting a residual "Rho-like" activity. RhoB ... [more ▼]

RhoA plays a significant role in actin stress fibers formation. However, silencing RhoA alone or RhoA and RhoC did not completely suppress the stress fibers suggesting a residual "Rho-like" activity. RhoB, the third member of the Rho subclass, is a shortlived protein barely detectable in basal conditions. In various cell types, the silencing of RhoA induced a strong up-regulation of both total and active RhoB protein levels that were rescued by re-expressing RhoA and related to an enhanced half-life of the protein. The RhoA-dependent regulation of RhoB does not depend on the activity of RhoA but is mediated by its GDP-bound form. The stabilization of RhoB was not dependent on isoprenoid biosynthesis, Rho kinase, extracellular signal-regulated kinase, p38 mitogen-activated kinase, or phosphatidylinositol 3'-OH kinase pathways but required RhoGDIalpha. The forced expression of RhoGDIalpha increased RhoB half-life, whereas its knock-down antagonized the induction of RhoB following RhoA silencing. Moreover, a RhoA mutant (RhoAR68E) unable to bind RhoGDIalpha was significantly less efficient as compared with wild-type RhoA in reversing RhoB up-regulation upon RhoA silencing. These results suggest that, in basal conditions, RhoGDIalpha is rate-limiting and the suppression of RhoA makes it available to stabilize RhoB. Our results highlight RhoGDIalpha-dependent cross-talks that regulate the stability of RhoGTPases. [less ▲]

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See detailRunx2-and histone deacetylase 3-mediated repression is relieved in differentiating human osteoblast cells to allow high bone sialoprotein expression
Lamour, Virginie ULg; Detry, Cédric ULg; Sanchez, Christelle ULg et al

in Journal of Biological Chemistry (2007), 282(50), 36240-36249

Bone sialoprotein (BSP) is a bone matrix glycoprotein whose expression coincides with terminal osteoblastic differentiation and the onset of mineralization. In this study we show that BSP expression is ... [more ▼]

Bone sialoprotein (BSP) is a bone matrix glycoprotein whose expression coincides with terminal osteoblastic differentiation and the onset of mineralization. In this study we show that BSP expression is considerably increased in confluent Saos-2 human osteosarcoma cells and in differentiating normal human osteoblasts, concomitantly with the decrease of Runx2, a key transcription factor controlling bone formation. Therefore, we investigated the role of Runx2 in the regulation of BSP expression in Saos-2 cells. Using a mobility shift assay, we demonstrated that Runx2 binds to the BSP promoter only in preconfluent cells. Histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3) has been recently shown to act as a Runx2 co-repressor. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays demonstrated that both Runx2 and HDAC3 are detectable at the BSP promoter in preconfluent Saos-2 cells but not when they are confluent and overexpress BSP. Consistently, nuclear Runx2 protein level is down-regulated, whereas Saos-2 cells became increasingly confluent. Finally, the suppression of HDAC3, Runx2, or both by RNA interference induced the expression of BSP at both mRNA and protein levels in Saos-2 cells. Our data demonstrate that Runx2 and HDAC3 repress BSP gene expression and that this repression is suspended upon osteoblastic cell differentiation. Both the nuclear disappearance of Runx2 and the non-recruitment of HDAC3 represent new means to relieve Runx2-mediated suppression of BSP expression, thus allowing the acquisition of a fully differentiated and mineralization-competent phenotype by osteoblast cells. [less ▲]

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See detailThe essential cell division protein FtsN interacts with the murein (peptidoglycan) synthase PBP1B in Escherichia coli
Muller, P.; Ewers, C.; Bertsche, U. et al

in Journal of Biological Chemistry (2007), 282(50), 36394-36402

Bacterial cell division requires the coordinated action of cell division proteins and murein (peptidoglycan) synthases. Interactions involving the essential cell division protein FtsN and murein synthases ... [more ▼]

Bacterial cell division requires the coordinated action of cell division proteins and murein (peptidoglycan) synthases. Interactions involving the essential cell division protein FtsN and murein synthases were studied by affinity chromatography with membrane fraction. The murein synthases PBP1A, PBP1B, and PBP3 had an affinity to immobilized FtsN. FtsN and PBP3, but not PBP1A, showed an affinity to immobilized PBP1B. The direct interaction between FtsN and PBP1B was confirmed by pulldown experiments and surface plasmon resonance. The interaction was also detected by bacterial two-hybrid analysis. FtsN and PBP1B could be cross-linked in intact cells of the wild type and in cells depleted of PBP3 or FtsW. FtsN stimulated the in vitro murein synthesis activities of PBP1B. Thus, FtsN could have a role in controlling or modulating the activity of PBP1B during cell division in Escherichia coli. [less ▲]

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See detailRegulation of insulin secretion by SIRT4, a mitochondrial ADP-ribosyltransferase
Ahuja, Nidhi; Schwer, Bjoern; Carobbio, Stefania et al

in Journal of Biological Chemistry (2007), 282(46),

Sirtuins are homologues of the yeast transcriptional repressor Sir2p and are conserved from bacteria to humans. We report that human SIRT4 is localized to the mitochondria. SIRT4 is a matrix protein and ... [more ▼]

Sirtuins are homologues of the yeast transcriptional repressor Sir2p and are conserved from bacteria to humans. We report that human SIRT4 is localized to the mitochondria. SIRT4 is a matrix protein and becomes cleaved at amino acid 28 after import into mitochondria. Mass spectrometry analysis of proteins that coimmunoprecipitate with SIRT4 identified insulin degrading enzyme and the ADP/ATP carrier proteins, ANT2 and ANT3. SIRT4 exhibits no histone deacetylase activity but functions as an efficient ADP-ribosyltransferase on histones and bovine serum albumin. SIRT4 is expressed in islets of Langerhans and colocalizes with insulin-expressing beta cells. Depletion of SIRT4 from insulin-producing INS-1E cells results in increased insulin secretion in response to glucose. These observations define a new role for mitochondrial SIRT4 in the regulation of insulin secretion. [less ▲]

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See detailLipopolysaccharide-mediated interferon regulatory factor activation involves TBK1-IKK epsilon-dependent lys(63)-linked polyubiquitination and phosphorylation of TANK/I-TRAF
Gatot, Jean-Stéphane; Gioia, Romain ULg; Chau, Tieu-Lan ULg et al

in Journal of Biological Chemistry (2007), 282(43), 31131-31146

Type I interferon gene induction relies on IKK-related kinase TBK1 and IKK epsilon-mediated phosphorylations of IRF3/7 through the Toll-like receptor-dependent signaling pathways. The scaffold proteins ... [more ▼]

Type I interferon gene induction relies on IKK-related kinase TBK1 and IKK epsilon-mediated phosphorylations of IRF3/7 through the Toll-like receptor-dependent signaling pathways. The scaffold proteins that assemble these kinase complexes are poorly characterized. We show here that TANK/ITRAF is required for the TBK1- and IKK epsilon-mediated IRF3/7 phosphorylations through some Toll-like receptor-dependent pathways and is part of a TRAF3-containing complex. Moreover, TANK is dispensable for the early phase of double-stranded RNA-mediated IRF3 phosphorylation. Interestingly, TANK is heavily phosphorylated by TBK1-IKK epsilon upon lipopolysaccharide stimulation and is also subject to lipopolysaccharide- and TBK1-IKK epsilon-mediated Lys(63)-linked polyubiquitination, a mechanism that does not require TBK1-IKK epsilon kinase activity. Thus, we have identified TANK as a scaffold protein that assembles some but not all IRF3/7-phosphorylating TBK1-IKK epsilon complexes and demonstrated that these kinases possess two functions, namely the phosphorylation of both IRF3/7 and TANK as well as the recruitment of an E3 ligase for Lys63-linked polyubiquitination of their scaffold protein, TANK. [less ▲]

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See detailPromoter-dependent effect of IKK alpha on NF-kappa B/p65 DNA binding
Gloire, Geoffrey ULg; Horion, Julie; El Mjiyad, Nadia ULg et al

in Journal of Biological Chemistry (2007), 282(29), 21308-21318

IKK alpha regulates many chromatin events in the nuclear phase of the NF-kappa B program, including phosphorylation of histone H3 and removal of co-repressors from NF-kappa B-dependent promoters. However ... [more ▼]

IKK alpha regulates many chromatin events in the nuclear phase of the NF-kappa B program, including phosphorylation of histone H3 and removal of co-repressors from NF-kappa B-dependent promoters. However, all of the nuclear functions of IKK alpha are not understood. In this study, using mouse embryonic fibroblasts IKK alpha knock-out and reexpressing IKK alpha after retroviral transduction, we demonstrate that IKK alpha contributes to NF-kappa B/p65 DNA binding activity on an exogenous kappa B element and on some, but not all, endogenous NF-kappa B-target promoters. Indeed, p65 chromatin immunoprecipitation assays revealed that IKK alpha is crucial for p65 binding on kappa B sites of icam-1 and mcp-1 promoters but not on i kappa b alpha promoter. The mutation of IKK alpha putative nuclear localization sequence, which prevents its nuclear translocation, or of crucial serines in the IKK alpha activation loop completely inhibits p65 binding on icam-1 and mcp-1 promoters and rather enhances p65 binding on the i kappa b alpha promoter. Further molecular studies demonstrated that the removal of chromatin-bound HDAC3, a histone deacetylase inhibiting p65 DNA binding, is differentially regulated by IKK alpha in a promoter-specific manner. Indeed, whereas the absence of IKK alpha induces HDAC3 recruitment and repression on the icam-1 promoter, it has an opposite effect on the i kappa b alpha promoter, where a better p65 binding occurs. We conclude that nuclear IKK alpha is required for p65 DNA binding in a gene-specific manner. [less ▲]

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See detailMode Of Membrane Interaction And Fusogenic Properties Of A De Novo Transmembrane Model Peptide Depend On The Length Of The Hydrophobic Core
Lorin, A.; Charloteaux, Benoît ULg; Fridmann-Sirkis, Y. et al

in Journal of Biological Chemistry (2007), 282(25), 18388-96

Model peptides composed of alanine and leucine residues are often used to mimic single helical transmembrane domains. Many studies have been carried out to determine how they interact with membranes ... [more ▼]

Model peptides composed of alanine and leucine residues are often used to mimic single helical transmembrane domains. Many studies have been carried out to determine how they interact with membranes. However, few studies have investigated their lipid-destabilizing effect. We designed three peptides designated KALRs containing a hydrophobic stretch of 14, 18, or 22 alanines/leucines surrounded by charged amino acids. Molecular modeling simulations in an implicit membrane model as well as attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared analyses show that KALR is a good model of a transmembrane helix. However, tryptophan fluorescence and attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy indicate that the extent of binding and insertion into lipids increases with the length of the peptide hydrophobic core. Although binding can be directly correlated to peptide hydrophobicity, we show that insertion of peptides into a membrane is determined by the length of the peptide hydrophobic core. Functional studies were performed by measuring the ability of peptides to induce lipid mixing and leakage of liposomes. The data reveal that whereas KALR14 does not destabilize liposomal membranes, KALR18 and KALR22 induce 40 and 50% of lipid-mixing, and 65 and 80% of leakage, respectively. These results indicate that a transmembrane model peptide can induce liposome fusion in vitro if it is long enough. The reasons for the link between length and fusogenicity are discussed in relation to studies of transmembrane domains of viral fusion proteins. We propose that fusogenicity depends not only on peptide insertion but also on the ability of peptides to destabilize the two leaflets of the liposome membrane. [less ▲]

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See detailWithaferin a strongly elicits IkappaB kinase beta hyperphosphorylation concomitant with potent inhibition of its kinase activity
Kaileh, Mary; Vanden Berghe, Wim; Heyerick, Arne et al

in Journal of Biological Chemistry (2007), 282(7), 4253

The transcription factor NFkappaB plays a critical role in normal and pathophysiological immune responses. Therefore, NFkappaB and the signaling pathways that regulate its activation have become a major ... [more ▼]

The transcription factor NFkappaB plays a critical role in normal and pathophysiological immune responses. Therefore, NFkappaB and the signaling pathways that regulate its activation have become a major focus of drug development programs. Withania somnifera (WS) is a medicinal plant that is widely used in Palestine for the treatment of various inflammatory disorders. In this study we show that the leave extract of WS, as well as its major constituent withaferin A (WA), potently inhibits NFkappaB activation by preventing the tumor necrosis factor-induced activation of IkappaB kinase beta via a thioalkylation-sensitive redox mechanism, whereas other WS-derived steroidal lactones, such as withanolide A and 12-deoxywithastramonolide, are far less effective. To our knowledge, this is the first communication of IkappaB kinase beta inhibition by a plant-derived inhibitor, coinciding with MEK1/ERK-dependent Ser-181 hyperphosphorylation. This prevents IkappaB phosphorylation and degradation, which subsequently blocks NFkappaB translocation, NFkappaB/DNA binding, and gene transcription. Taken together, our results indicate that pure WA or WA-enriched WS extracts can be considered as a novel class of NFkappaB inhibitors, which hold promise as novel anti-inflammatory agents for treatment of various inflammatory disorders and/or cancer. [less ▲]

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