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See detailReconstitution of yeast nucelotide excision repair with purified RAD proteins, replication protein A and transcription factor TFIIH
Guzder, Sami; Habraken, Yvette ULg; Sung, Patrick et al

in Journal of Biological Chemistry (1995), 270(22), 12973-6

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See detailTranscription factor NF-kB is activated by photosensitization generating oxidative DNA damages
Legrand-Poels, Sylvie ULg; Bours, Vincent ULg; Piret, Bernard et al

in Journal of Biological Chemistry (1995), 270(12), 6925-6934

Reactive oxygen intermediates like hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) have been shown to serve as messengers in the induction of NF-kappa B and, then, in the activation and replication of human immunodeficiency ... [more ▼]

Reactive oxygen intermediates like hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) have been shown to serve as messengers in the induction of NF-kappa B and, then, in the activation and replication of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 in human cells. Because H2O2 can be converted into the highly reactive OH. at various locations inside the cells, we started to investigate the generation of Reactive oxygen intermediates by photosensitization. This technique is based on the use of a photosensitizer which is a molecule absorbing visible light and which can be located at various sites inside the cell depending on its physicochemical properties. In this work, we used proflavine (PF), a cationic molecule having a high affinity for DNA, capable of intercalating between DNA base pairs. Upon visible light irradiation, intercalated PF molecules oxidize guanine residues and generate DNA single-strand breaks. In lymphocytes or monocytes latently infected with HIV-1 (ACH-2 or U1, respectively), this photosensitizing treatment induced a cytotoxicity, an induction of NF-kappa B, and a reactivation of HIV-1 in cells surviving the treatment. NF-kappa B induction by PF-mediated photosensitization was not affected by the presence of N-acetyl-L-cysteine while strong inhibition was recorded when the induction was triggered by H2O2 or by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate. Another transcription factor like AP-1 is less activated by this photosensitizing treatment. In comparison with other inducing treatments, such as phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate or tumor necrosis factor alpha, the activation of NF-kappa B is slow, being optimal 120 min after treatment. These kinetic data were obtained by following, on the same samples, both the appearance of NF-kappa B in the nucleus and the disappearance of I kappa B-alpha in cytoplasmic extracts. These data allow us to postulate that signaling events, initiated by DNA oxidative damages, are transmitted into the cytoplasm where the inactive NF-kappa B factor is resident and allow the translocation of p50/p65 subunits of NF-kappa B to the nucleus leading to HIV-1 gene expression. [less ▲]

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See detailCharacterization and partial amino acid sequencing of a 107-kDa procollagen I N-proteinase purified by affinity chromatography on immobilized type XIV collagen.
Colige, Alain ULg; Beschin, A.; Samyn, B. et al

in Journal of Biological Chemistry (1995), 270(28), 16724-30

Procollagen I N-proteinase (EC 3.4.24.14), the enzyme that specifically processes type I and type II procollagens to collagen, was isolated from extracts of fetal calf skin. After two chromatographic ... [more ▼]

Procollagen I N-proteinase (EC 3.4.24.14), the enzyme that specifically processes type I and type II procollagens to collagen, was isolated from extracts of fetal calf skin. After two chromatographic steps on concanavalin A-Sepharose and heparin-Sepharose, the semi-purified preparation was used to produce monoclonal antibodies. One reacting antibody was found to recognize not the enzyme itself but type XIV collagen on which the enzyme was bound. This binding, highly sensitive to ionic conditions (plH, salt concentrations) but not affected by non-ionic detergents, was used for affinity chromatography that strongly improved the purification procedure. The enzyme is extensively characterized: 1) it has a molecular mass of 107 kDa as determined by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in presence of SDS and of about 130 kDa when estimated by gel filtration on a Sephacryl-S300; 2) in standard assay (pH 7.5, 0.2 M NaCl, 35 degrees C), the activation energy for reaction with amino procollagen type I was 17,000 calories per mole. In the same conditions, Km and Vmax values were, respectively, 435 and 39 nM per hour but varied strongly with pH and salt concentration; 3) the enzyme cleaved the NH2-terminal propeptide of type I procollagen at the specific site, the Pro-Gln bond in the alpha 1 type I procollagen chain; 4) the enzyme contained a high proportion of Gly, Asx, and Glx residues but no Hyp or Hyl; 5) partial amino acid sequences obtained from internal peptides of the enzyme displayed no significant homology with known sequences. The association of procollagen I N-proteinase with a FACIT (fibril-associated collagens with interrupted triple helices) collagen as found here might be of physiological significance. [less ▲]

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See detailIdentification of structural determinants controlling human and mouse stromelysin-3 proteolytic activities
Noël, Agnès ULg; Santavicca, M.; Stoll, I. et al

in Journal of Biological Chemistry (1995), 270

Matrix metalloproteinases (matrixins) constitute a group of extracellular proteinases belonging to the metzincin superfamily. They are involved in both physiological and pathological tissue remodeling ... [more ▼]

Matrix metalloproteinases (matrixins) constitute a group of extracellular proteinases belonging to the metzincin superfamily. They are involved in both physiological and pathological tissue remodeling processes, including those associated with cancer progression. Stromelysin-3, which is expressed in most invasive human carcinomas, is a matrix metalloproteinase with unusual functional properties. In particular, its mature form does not cleave any of the major extracellular matrix components. To define critical structural determinants involved in controlling stromelysin-3 proteolytic activity, we have used site-directed mutagenesis. We show that the deletion of at least 175 C-terminal amino-acids is sufficient to endow mouse stromelysin-3 with activities against casein, laminin, and type IV collagen. In the case of the human enzyme, however, a further and single Ala-235 Pro substitution is necessary to observe similar activities. Ala-235, which characterizes human stromelysin-3 among matrixins, is located immediately after the C terminus of the “Met-turn,” which forms a hydrophobic basis for the catalytic zinc atom in the metzincin family. We conclude that human stromelysin-3 has gained specific functional properties during evolution by amino acid substitution in the catalytic zinc environment, and that it represents an attractive target for specific inhibitors that may be used to prevent cancer progression. [less ▲]

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See detailCloning of an SNF2/SWI2-related protein that binds specifically to the SPH motifs of the SV40 enhancer and to the HIV-1 promoter.
Sheridan, P. L.; Schorpp, M.; Voz, Marianne ULg et al

in Journal of Biological Chemistry (1995), 270(9), 4575-87

We have isolated a human cDNA clone encoding HIP116, a protein that binds to the SPH repeats of the SV40 enhancer and to the TATA/inhibitor region of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 promoter. The ... [more ▼]

We have isolated a human cDNA clone encoding HIP116, a protein that binds to the SPH repeats of the SV40 enhancer and to the TATA/inhibitor region of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 promoter. The predicted HIP116 protein is related to the yeast SNF2/SWI2 transcription factor and to other members of this extended family and contains seven domains similar to those found in the vaccinia NTP1 ATPase. Interestingly, HIP116 also contains a C3HC4 zinc-binding motif (RING finger) interspersed between the ATPase motifs in an arrangement similar to that found in the yeast RAD5 and RAD16 proteins. The HIP116 amino terminus is unique among the members of this family, and houses a specific DNA-binding domain. Antiserum raised against HIP116 recognizes a 116-kDa nuclear protein in Western blots and specifically supershifts SV40 and HIV-1 protein-DNA complexes in gel shift experiments. The binding site for HIP116 on the SV40 enhancer directly overlaps the site for TEF-1, and like TEF-1, binding of HIP116 to the SV40 enhancer is destroyed by mutations that inhibit SPH enhancer activity in vivo. Purified fractions of HIP116 display strong ATPase activity that is preferentially stimulated by SPH DNA and can be inhibited specifically by antibodies to HIP116. These findings suggest that HIP116 might affect transcription, directly or indirectly, by acting as a DNA binding site-specific ATPase. [less ▲]

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See detailEvidence for a Second Receptor Binding Site on Human Prolactin
Goffin, Vincent; Struman, Ingrid ULg; Mainfroid, V. et al

in Journal of Biological Chemistry (1994), 269(51), 32598-606

The existence of a second receptor binding site on human prolactin (hPRL) was investigated by site-directed mutagenesis. First, 12 residues of helices 1 and 3 were mutated to alanine. Since none of the ... [more ▼]

The existence of a second receptor binding site on human prolactin (hPRL) was investigated by site-directed mutagenesis. First, 12 residues of helices 1 and 3 were mutated to alanine. Since none of the resulting mutants exhibit reduced bioactivity in the Nb2 cell proliferation bioassay, the mutated residues do not appear to be functionally necessary. Next, small residues surrounding the helix 1-helix 3 interface were replaced with Arg and/or Trp, the aim being to sterically hinder the second binding site. Several of these mutants exhibit only weak agonistic properties, supporting our hypothesis that the channel between helices 1 and 3 is involved in a second receptor binding site. We then analyzed the antagonistic and self-antagonistic properties of native hPRL and of several hPRLs analogs altered at binding site 1 or 2. Even at high concentrations (approximately 10 microM), no self-inhibition was observed with native hPRL; site 2 hPRL mutants self-antagonized while site 1 mutants did not. From these data, we propose a model of hPRL-PRL receptor interaction which slightly differs from that proposed earlier for the homologous human growth hormone (hGH) (Fuh, G., Cunningham, B. C., Fukunaga, R., Nagata, S., and Goeddel, D. V., and Well, J. A. (1992) Science 256, 1677-1680). Like hGH, hPRL would bind sequentially to two receptor molecules, first through site 1, then through site 2, but we would expect the two sites of hPRL to display, unlike the two binding sites of hGH, about the same binding affinity, thus preventing self-antagonism at high concentrations. [less ▲]

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See detailA conserved 5' to 3' exonuclease activity in yeast and human nucleotide excision repair protein RAD2 and XPG
Habraken, Yvette ULg; Sung, Patrick; Prakash, Louise et al

in Journal of Biological Chemistry (1994), 269(50), 31342-5

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See detailCold Adaptation of Proteins. Purification, Characterization, and Sequence of the Heat-Labile Subtilisin from the Antarctic Psychrophile Bacillus Ta41
Davail, S.; Feller, Georges ULg; Narinx, E. et al

in Journal of Biological Chemistry (1994), 269(26), 17448-53

The gene of subtilisin S41, an alkaline protease secreted by the psychrophile Bacillus TA41, encodes for a preproenzyme of 419 amino acids residues. The nucleotide sequence and NH2- and COOH-terminal ... [more ▼]

The gene of subtilisin S41, an alkaline protease secreted by the psychrophile Bacillus TA41, encodes for a preproenzyme of 419 amino acids residues. The nucleotide sequence and NH2- and COOH-terminal amino acid sequencing of the purified enzyme indicate that the mature subtilisin S41 is composed of 309 residues with a predicted M(r) = 31,224. Subtilisin S41 shares most of its properties with mesophilic subtilisins (structure of the precursor, 52% amino acid sequence identity, alkaline pH optimum, broad specificity, Ca2+ binding) but is characterized by a higher specific activity on macromolecular substrate, by a shift of the optimum of activity toward low temperatures, and by a low thermal stability. The enzyme also differs by an acidic pI (5.3) and the presence of one disulfide bond. It is proposed that the psychrophilic enzyme possesses a more flexible molecular structure when compared to mesophilic and thermophilic subtilases in order to compensate for the reduction of reaction rates at low temperatures. The model of subtilisin S41 indeed reveals several features able to induce a more flexible, heat-labile conformation: the occurrence of four extended surface loops, a very hydrophilic surface through 11 extra Asp residues, and the lack of several salt bridges and aromatic-aromatic interactions. The low affinity of the Ca1 calcium binding site (Kd(app) = 10(-6) M), resulting possibly from one chelating side chain substitution and the stacking of Gly residues, also reflect a less compact conformation. The difference of free energy of stabilization between subtilisin S41 and a mesophilic subtilisin suggests that the balance of exo- and endothermically formed weak bonds is critical for the enzyme flexibility. [less ▲]

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See detailMechanism of Thiamine Transport in Neuroblastoma Cells. Inhibition of a High Affinity Carrier by Sodium Channel Activators and Dependence of Thiamine Uptake on Membrane Potential and Intracellular Atp
Bettendorff, Lucien ULg; Wins, Pierre

in Journal of Biological Chemistry (1994), 269(20), 14379-14385

Nerve cells are particularly sensitive to thiamine deficiency. We studied thiamine transport in mouse neuroblastoma (Neuro 2a) cells. At low external concentration, [14C]thiamine was taken up through a ... [more ▼]

Nerve cells are particularly sensitive to thiamine deficiency. We studied thiamine transport in mouse neuroblastoma (Neuro 2a) cells. At low external concentration, [14C]thiamine was taken up through a saturable high affinity mechanism (Km = 35 nM). This was blocked by low concentrations of the Na+ channel activators veratridine (IC50 = 7 +/- 4 microM) and batrachotoxin (IC50 = 0.9 microM). These effects were not antagonized by tetrodotoxin and were also observed in cell lines devoid of Na+ channels, suggesting that these channels are not involved in the mechanism of inhibition. At high extracellular concentrations, thiamine uptake proceeds essentially via a low affinity carrier (Km = 0.8 mM), insensitive to veratridine but blocked by divalent cations. In both cases, the uptake was independent on external sodium, partially inhibited (10-35%) by depolarization and sensitive to metabolic inhibitors. A linear relationship between the rate of thiamine transport and intracellular ATP concentration was found. When cells grown in a medium of low thiamine concentration (6 nM) were exposed to 100 nM extracellular thiamine, a 3-fold increase in intracellular thiamine diphosphate was observed after 2 h while the concomitant increase in intracellular free thiamine was barely significant. These data suggest a secondary active transport of thiamine, the main driving force being thiamine phosphorylation rather than the sodium gradient. [less ▲]

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See detailPurification, Characterization, and Nucleotide Sequence of the Thermolabile Alpha-Amylase from the Antarctic Psychrotroph Alteromonas Haloplanctis A23
Feller, Georges ULg; Lonhienne, T.; Deroanne, Christophe ULg et al

in Journal of Biological Chemistry (1992), 267(8), 5217-21

The alpha-amylase excreted by the antarctic bacterium Alteromonas haloplanctis was purified and the corresponding amy gene was cloned and sequenced. N- and C-terminal amino acid sequencing were used to ... [more ▼]

The alpha-amylase excreted by the antarctic bacterium Alteromonas haloplanctis was purified and the corresponding amy gene was cloned and sequenced. N- and C-terminal amino acid sequencing were used to establish the primary structure of the mature A. haloplanctis alpha-amylase which is composed of 453 amino acids with a predicted Mr of 49,340 and a pI of 5.5. Three Ca2+ ions are bound per molecule and its activity is modulated by chloride ions. Within the four consensus sequences, Asp-174, Glu-200, and Asp-264 are the proposed catalytic residues. The psychrotrophic A. haloplanctis alpha-amylase is characterized by a high amylolytic activity at low temperatures, a reduced apparent optimal temperature, and typical thermodynamic activation parameters A. haloplanctis alpha-amylase has also a low thermal stability as demonstrated by the temperature effect on both activity and secondary structure. It is suggested that structure flexibility and lower sensitivity of secondary structure to temperature variations in the low temperature range are the main structural adaptations of the psychrotrophic enzyme. The unusual stacking of small amino acids around the catalytic residues is proposed as a factor inducing active site flexibility and concomitant high activity of the enzyme at low temperatures. [less ▲]

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See detailThe 19-27 Amino-Acid Segment Of Gp51 Adopts An Amphiphilic Structure And Plays A Key Role In The Fusion Events Induced By Bovine Leukemia-Virus
Voneche, V.; Callebaut, I.; Kettmann, Richard ULg et al

in Journal of Biological Chemistry (1992), 267(21),

Previous results indicate that the external glycoprotein gp51 of bovine leukemia virus plays an important role in the process of cell fusion induced by bovine leukemia virus (Bruck, C., Mathot, S ... [more ▼]

Previous results indicate that the external glycoprotein gp51 of bovine leukemia virus plays an important role in the process of cell fusion induced by bovine leukemia virus (Bruck, C., Mathot, S., Portetelle, D., Berte, C., Franssen, J. D., Herion, P., and Burny, A. (1982) Virology 122, 342-352; Voneche, V., Portetelle., D., Kettmann, R., Willems, L., Limbach, K., Paoletti, E., Ruysschaert, J. M., Burny, A., and Brasseur, R. (1992) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 89, 3810-3814) and suggest that a region encompassing residues 23 and 25 of gp51 is involved in this process (Portetelle, D., Couez, D., Bruck, C., Kettmann, R., Mammerickx, M., Van der Maaten, M., Brasseur, R., and Burny, A. (1989) Virology 169, 27-33; Mamoun, R., Morisson, M., Rebeyrotte, N., Busetta, B., Couez, D., Kettmann, R., Hospital, M., and Guillemain, B. (1990) J. Virol. 64, 4180-4188). X-ray diffraction studies performed on envelope glycoproteins of influenza virus indicate that the NH2-terminal part of the external glycoprotein lies very close to the fusion peptide. The same overall structure seems to exist in human immunodeficiency virus as suggested by site-directed mutagenesis followed by syncytia induction assays. Our theoretical studies indicate that a segment expanding between residues 19 and 27 of gp51 probably adopts an amphipathic beta-strand structure. We hypothesize that the amphipathic 19-27 structure of gp51 plays an important role in the process of membrane fusion by interacting with the fusion peptide or with another region of gp30. Mutational analysis disrupting the amphipathy of the 19-27 region strongly altered the fusogenic capacity of the gp51-gp30 complex. [less ▲]

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See detailCharacterization of an unusual thyroid response unit in the promoter of the human placental lactogen gene
Voz, Marianne ULg; Peers, Bernard ULg; Belayew, Alexandra et al

in Journal of Biological Chemistry (1991), 266(20), 13397-404

The human placental lactogen B (hCS-B) promoter activity is strongly stimulated by thyroid hormones in the rat pituitary GC cell line. The minimal DNA sequence required for stimulation, as determined by ... [more ▼]

The human placental lactogen B (hCS-B) promoter activity is strongly stimulated by thyroid hormones in the rat pituitary GC cell line. The minimal DNA sequence required for stimulation, as determined by transfection with 5' and 3' deletion mutants, spans 67 base pairs, from coordinate -97 to -31. DNase I footprinting experiments show that this thyroid response unit includes two adjacent binding sites: one for the thyroid receptor (-67/-41), the other for the pituitary-specific factor GHF1 (-95/-68). Neither region alone is sufficient to confer thyroid responsiveness. The thyroid receptor binding element (TBE) does not contain any repeats or palindromes but is composed of two different domains, one of which is very similar to the half-palindromic motif described by Glass et al. (Glass, C.K., Holloway, J.M., Devary, O.L., and Rosenfeld, M.G. (1988) Cell 54, 313-323). The other is very rich in purine. The normal human growth hormone (hGH-N) promoter, which is 94% similar to the hCS-B promoter, differs from its hCS-B counterpart precisely in this TBE. This difference may explain the opposite 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3) regulation of these two genes. [less ▲]

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See detailTranscriptional induction of the human prolactin gene by cAMP requires two cis-acting elements and at least the pituitary-specific factor Pit-1
Peers, Bernard ULg; Monget, Philippe; Nalda, M. Asuncion et al

in Journal of Biological Chemistry (1991), 266(27), 18127-34

To identify the cis-acting elements responsible for cAMP stimulation of human prolactin (hPRL) promoter activity, pituitary GC cells were transfected with 5'-deleted hPRL promoters fused to the ... [more ▼]

To identify the cis-acting elements responsible for cAMP stimulation of human prolactin (hPRL) promoter activity, pituitary GC cells were transfected with 5'-deleted hPRL promoters fused to the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase reporter gene. The proximal regulatory region (coordinates -250 to -42) was sufficient to confer strong cAMP stimulation (+/- 25 fold). Further 5' and 3' deletions performed within this proximal region demonstrated that two types of cis-acting elements are involved in the cAMP regulation: (i) the binding sites of the pituitary-specific factor Pit-1, and (ii) the sequence between coordinates -115 and -85 (named fragment A), which contains a TGACG motif. We show by gel-shift and Southwestern experiments that fragment A binds Pit-1 monomer and also a ubiquitous factor that is neither cAMP-responsive element-binding protein nor activator protein-1. Strong cAMP induction was observed when fragment A was juxtaposed to a Pit-1 binding site. That Pit-1 plays an important role was supported further by the finding that the hPRL proximal region conferred cAMP regulation when linked to the herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase promoter only in pituitary GC cells and not in other heterologous cells, which do not express Pit-1. Furthermore, we observed that concatenated Pit-1 binding sites were able to confer cAMP responsiveness to the thymidine kinase promoter in GC cells. [less ▲]

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See detailFunctional domains of the 67-kDa laminin receptor precursor.
Castronovo, Vincenzo ULg; Taraboletti, G.; Sobel, M. E.

in Journal of Biological Chemistry (1991), 266(30), 20440-6

We report the characterization of two functional domains of the metastasis-associated 67-kDa laminin receptor (67-LR). Using synthetic peptides deduced from the cDNA sequence of the 37-kDa precursor of ... [more ▼]

We report the characterization of two functional domains of the metastasis-associated 67-kDa laminin receptor (67-LR). Using synthetic peptides deduced from the cDNA sequence of the 37-kDa precursor of the laminin receptor (37-LRP) as well as their corresponding affinity-purified polyclonal antibodies, we identified a unique laminin binding site as well as a membrane-associated domain of the receptor. In laminin dot blot and solid phase radioligand assays, a 20 amino acid synthetic peptide (IPCNNKGAHSVGLMWWMLAR, amino acid residues 161-180, designated peptide G) specifically bound to laminin with high affinity (Kd = 5 x 10(-8) M). Peptide G also specifically eluted the 67-LR from a laminin affinity column. Peptide G and laminin reacted with a 1:1 stoichiometry, suggesting that there is one recognition site on laminin for the peptide G domain. Immunofluorescence studies, performed on permeabilized and nonpermeabilized human A2058 melanoma cells using 10 different affinity-purified antibodies to distinct regions of the 37-LRP, identified an unusually short membrane-associated domain that was consistent with a computer predicted transmembrane domain (residues 86-101). Our data demonstrate for the first time that the 37-LRP has two functional domains consistent with the characteristics of the mature 67-LR. Furthermore, we propose peptide G as a potential inhibitor of tumor cell interactions with laminin. [less ▲]

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See detail2.8-Å Structure of penicillin-sensitive D-alanyl carboxypeptidase-transpeptidase from Streptomyces R61 and complexes with β-lactams
Kelly, Judith A; Knox, James R; Moews, Paul C et al

in Journal of Biological Chemistry (1985), 260(10), 6449-6458

The crystallographic structure of the penicillin-sensitive D-alanyl carboxypeptidase-transpeptidase from Streptomyces R61 has been solved to 2.8-A resolution. The 38,000-dalton serine peptidase has two ... [more ▼]

The crystallographic structure of the penicillin-sensitive D-alanyl carboxypeptidase-transpeptidase from Streptomyces R61 has been solved to 2.8-A resolution. The 38,000-dalton serine peptidase has two regions of secondary structure, an alpha/beta cluster, and a region which contains five helical segments. The beta sheet is composed of five beta strands. The tertiary structure has no homology with the classic serine proteases or with the zinc carboxypeptidases. The binding at a common site of three types of beta-lactam (a penicillin, a cephalosporin, a monocyclic beta-lactam) and a desazacyclobutanone has been observed in Fourier difference maps. The binding site sequence is Val-Gly-Ser-Val-Thr-Lys. The beta-lactam ring lies near the enzyme's catalytic serine at position 37, and the C3 substituent of a cephalosporin falls near lysine 40. [less ▲]

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See detailHuman prolactin. cDNA structural analysis and evolutionary comparisons
Cooke, Nancy E; Coit, Doris; Shine, John et al

in Journal of Biological Chemistry (1981), 256(8), 4007-16

Prolactin (Prl), growth hormone, and chorionic sommatomammotropin form a set (the "Prl set") of hormones which is thought to have evolved from a common ancestral gene. This assumption is based on several ... [more ▼]

Prolactin (Prl), growth hormone, and chorionic sommatomammotropin form a set (the "Prl set") of hormones which is thought to have evolved from a common ancestral gene. This assumption is based on several lines of evidence: overlap in their biological and immunological properties, similarities in their amino acid sequences, and homologies in the nucleic acid sequences of their structural genes. In the current study we report the cloning, amplification in bacteria, and sequence analysis of DNA complementary to Prl mRNA isolated from human pituitary Prl-secreting adenomas. The cloned DNA contains 914 bases, which includes the entire coding sequence of human prePrl as well as portions of the 5- and 3'-untranslated regions of the mRNA. The amino acid sequence predicted by our data differs from a previously reported amino acid sequence in 8 positions. With the results of this study we can now compare in one species the nucleotide sequences of the structural gene coding for each of the hormones of the Prl set. The sequence divergence at replacement sites is used to establish an evolutionary clock for the Prl set of genes. Using this clock, we postulate that the chromosomal segregation of human Prl and human growth hormone occurred about 392 million years ago and that growth hormone and chorionic sommatomammotropin underwent an intrachromosomal recombination within the last 10 million years. [less ▲]

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See detailStructure of cloned DNA complementary to rat prolactin messenger RNA
Cooke, Nancy E; Coit, Doris; Weiner, Richard I et al

in Journal of Biological Chemistry (1980), 255(13), 6502-6510

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See detailMolecular cloning of DNA complementary to bovine growth hormone mRNA
Miller, Walter L; Martial, Joseph ULg; Baxter, John D

in Journal of Biological Chemistry (1980), 255(16), 7521-4

We have cloned DNA complementary to mRNA coding for bovine growth hormone (bGH). Double-stranded DNA complementary to bovine pituitary mRNA was inserted into the Pst I site of plasmid pBR322 by the dC x ... [more ▼]

We have cloned DNA complementary to mRNA coding for bovine growth hormone (bGH). Double-stranded DNA complementary to bovine pituitary mRNA was inserted into the Pst I site of plasmid pBR322 by the dC x dG tailing technique and amplified in E. coli x 1776. A recombinant plasmid containing bGH cDNA ws identified by hybridization to cloned rat growth hormone cDNA. It contains the entire coding and 3'-untranslated regions and 31 bases in the 5'-untranslated region. Nucleotide sequence analysis determined the sequence of the 26-amino acid signal peptide and confirmed the published amino acid sequence of the secreted hormone at all but 2 residues. Codon usage is nonrandom, with 81.7% of the codons ending in G or C. The nucleotide sequence of bGH mRNA is 83.9% homologous with rat GH mRNA and 76.5% homologous with human GH mRNA, while the respective amino acid sequence homologies are 83.5% and 66.8%. [less ▲]

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See detailLaminin--a glycoprotein from basement membranes.
Timpl, R.; Rhode, H.; Robey, P. G. et al

in Journal of Biological Chemistry (1979), 254(19), 9933-7

We have isolated a large noncollagenous glycoprotein, laminin, from a mouse tumor that produces basement membrane. The protein consists of at least two polypeptide chains (Mr = 220,000 and Mr = 440,000 ... [more ▼]

We have isolated a large noncollagenous glycoprotein, laminin, from a mouse tumor that produces basement membrane. The protein consists of at least two polypeptide chains (Mr = 220,000 and Mr = 440,000) joined to each other by disulfide bonds. Laminin and type IV collagen are major constituents of the tumor. Laminin is distinctly different from fibronectin, another component of basement membranes, in amino acid composition and immunological reactivity. Pepsin digestion of laminin releases a large, cystine-rich fragment which retains most of the antigenicity of the original protein. Immunological studies using purified antibody against laminin show that it is produced by a variety of cultured cells. In addition, these antibodies react with the basement membranes of normal tissues, suggesting that this protein or an immunologically related protein is a constituent of the basement membranes of these tissues. [less ▲]

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See detailStability of D-5,5-dimethyl-delta2-thiazoline-4-carboxylic acid in relation to its possible occurrence as a degradation product of penicillin by the exocellular DD-carboxypeptidase-transpeptidase from Streptomyces R61 and the membrane-bound dd-carboxypeptidase from Bacillus stearothermophilus
Adriaens, Paul; Meesschaert, Boudewijn; Frère, Jean-Marie ULg et al

in Journal of Biological Chemistry (1978), 253(10), 3660-3665

The stability of D-5,5-dimethyl-delta2-thiazoline-4-carboxylic acid has been studied under various conditions. In 10 mM cacodylate, pH 6.5, and at 55 degrees C, D-5,5-dimethyl-delta2-thiazoline-4 ... [more ▼]

The stability of D-5,5-dimethyl-delta2-thiazoline-4-carboxylic acid has been studied under various conditions. In 10 mM cacodylate, pH 6.5, and at 55 degrees C, D-5,5-dimethyl-delta2-thiazoline-4-carboxylic acid (at concentrations lower than 1 mM) is hydrolyzed into N-formyl-D-penicillamine with a half-life of 3 to 4 min. On this basis, it is very unlikely that D-5,5-dimethyl-delta2-thiazoline-4-carboxylic acid could be one of the end products resulting from the cleavage of benzylpenicillin by the DD-carboxypeptidase of Bacillus stearothermophilus (as reported by Hammarstrom and Strominger (1976) J. Biol. Chem. 251, 7947--7949). In 3 mM phosphate, pH 7.5, and at 37 degrees C, D-5,5-dimethyl-delta2-thiazoline-4-carboxylic acid (at concentrations lower than 1 mM) has a half-life of 45 min. On the basis of kinetic experiments carried out under these conditions with phenoxymethylpenicillin and the DD-carboxypeptidase-transpeptidase of Streptomyces R61, it is concluded that the primary product which arises from the thiazolidine moiety of the antibiotic molecule and gives rise to N-formyl-D-penicillamine, has a half-life of 10 min, a value which is not compatible with the hypothesis that D-5,5-dimethyl-delta2-thiazoline-4-carboxylic acid would be an intermediate involved in the fragmentation pathway. [less ▲]

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