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See detailA common system controls the induction of very different genes. The class-A beta-lactamase of Proteus vulgaris and the enterobacterial class-C beta-lactamase.
Datz, M; Joris, Bernard ULg; Azab, E A et al

in European Journal of Biochemistry (1994), 226(1), 149-57

Among the Enterobacteriaceae, Proteus vulgaris is exceptional in the inducible production of a 29-kDa beta-lactamase (cefuroximase) with an unusually high activity towards the beta-lactamase-stable ... [more ▼]

Among the Enterobacteriaceae, Proteus vulgaris is exceptional in the inducible production of a 29-kDa beta-lactamase (cefuroximase) with an unusually high activity towards the beta-lactamase-stable oximino-cephalosporins (e.g. cefuroxime and cefotaxime). Sequencing of the corresponding gene, cumA, showed that the derived CumA beta-lactamase belonged to the molecular class A. The structural gene was under the direct control of gene cumR, which was transcribed backwards and whose initiation codon was 165 bp away from that of the beta-lactamase gene. This resembled the arrangement of structural and regulator genes ampC and ampR of the 39-kDa molecular-class-C beta-lactamase AmpC present in many enterobacteria. Moreover, cloned genes ampD and ampG for negative modulation and signal transduction of AmpC beta-lactamase induction, respectively, were also able to restore constitutively CumA overproducing and non-inducible P. vulgaris mutants to the inducible, wild-type phenotype. The results indicate that controls of the induction phenomena are equivalent for the CumA and AmpC beta-lactamase. Very different structural genes can thus be under the control of identical systems. [less ▲]

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See detailInteractions between Active-Site Serine Beta-Lactamases and So-Called Beta-Lactamase-Stable Antibiotics. Kinetic and Molecular Modelling Studies
Matagne, André ULg; Lamotte-Brasseur, J.; Frère, Jean-Marie ULg

in European Journal of Biochemistry (1993), 217(1), 61-67

The interactions between imipenem and four monobactams and three class A beta-lactamases have been studied in detail. Despite their reputation as being beta-lactamase-stable, some of these compounds were ... [more ▼]

The interactions between imipenem and four monobactams and three class A beta-lactamases have been studied in detail. Despite their reputation as being beta-lactamase-stable, some of these compounds were significantly hydrolysed by the enzymes. The results obtained with the Streptomyces albus G beta-lactamase have been analysed in the light of molecular modelling studies. The discussion is extended to include other so-called beta-lactamase-stable antibiotics to demonstrate that this appellation can often be misleading. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Addition of Nine Residues at the C-Terminus of Human Prolactin Drastically Alters Its Biological Properties
Goffin, Vincent; Struman, Ingrid ULg; Goormaghtigh, E. et al

in European Journal of Biochemistry (1993), 214(2), 483-90

We have added nine extra residues to the C-terminal of human prolactin and analysed the effect of this mutation on the ability of the hormone to bind to its lactogenic receptor and to induce Nb2 cell ... [more ▼]

We have added nine extra residues to the C-terminal of human prolactin and analysed the effect of this mutation on the ability of the hormone to bind to its lactogenic receptor and to induce Nb2 cell division. Both properties are markedly affected when compared to the natural 23-kDa human prolactin. Since no alteration of the global protein folding was detected either by circular dichroism or by infrared spectroscopy, the decrease in biological potency can be exclusively attributed to an effect of the nine additional residues on their near environment. From infrared analysis and secondary structure prediction, the elongated tail is assumed to be involved in a beta-sheet with a few residues initially belonging to the fourth helix. Moreover, from the X-ray structures of porcine and human growth hormones, two proteins homologous to prolactins, the nine extra residues are likely to fold within a concave pocket delimited by helices 1 and 4, and the second half of the loop connecting helices 1 and 2 (loop 1). Thereby, we suggest that the additional residues prevent some residues belonging to this pocket from interacting with the lactogenic receptor. This is in perfect agreement with our earlier proposal that the binding site of prolactin to the lactogenic receptor is homologous to that of growth hormone to the somatogenic receptor, i.e. essentially composed of residues belonging to this concave pocket. [less ▲]

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See detailSite-Directed Mutagenesis of the Streptomyces R61 Dd-Peptidase. Catalytic Function of the Conserved Residues around the Active Site and a Comparison with Class-a and Class-C Beta-Lactamases
Hadonou, Ayaovi Medard; Wilkin, Jean-Marc; Varetto, Louis ULg et al

in European Journal of Biochemistry (1992), 207(1), 97-102

The importance of various residues in the Streptomyces R61 penicillin-sensitive DD-peptidase has been assessed by site-directed mutagenesis. The replacement of the active Ser62 by a Cys residue yielded an ... [more ▼]

The importance of various residues in the Streptomyces R61 penicillin-sensitive DD-peptidase has been assessed by site-directed mutagenesis. The replacement of the active Ser62 by a Cys residue yielded an inactive protein which was also unable to recognize penicillin. The activity of the Lys65 → Arg mutant with the peptide and thiol ester substrates was decreased 100-200-fold and the rate of penicillin inactivation was decreased 20 000-fold or more. The mutant thus behaved as a poor, but penicillin-resistant, DD-peptidase. The other studied mutations, the mutations Phe358 → Leu, Tyr90 → Asn, Thr101 → Asn, Phe164 → Ala, Asp225 → Glu and Asp225 → Asn had little influence on the catalytic and penicillin-binding properties. The Asp225 mutants did not exhibit an increased sensitivity to cefotaxime. The Phe164 → Ala mutant was significantly more unstable than the wild-type enzyme. [less ▲]

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See detailBinding of a 100-kDa ubiquitous factor to the human prolactin promoter is required for its basal and hormone-regulated activity
Peers, Bernard ULg; Nalda, Asunción M; Monget, Philippe et al

in European Journal of Biochemistry (1992), 210(1), 53-8

cAMP strongly stimulates the activity of the human prolactin (hPRL) promoter. We have previously shown that two types of cis-element are required for this cAMP regulation; binding sites for the pituitary ... [more ▼]

cAMP strongly stimulates the activity of the human prolactin (hPRL) promoter. We have previously shown that two types of cis-element are required for this cAMP regulation; binding sites for the pituitary-specific factor Pit-1, and the sequence spanning nucleotides -115 to -85 (named sequence A). Sequence A contains the TGACG motif found in the consensus sequence of the cAMP-responsive element (CRE). In this study, we show that a mutation in the TGACG motif of sequence A strongly reduces not only the cAMP regulation but also the Ca2+ regulation and basal activity of the hPRL promoter. Furthermore, gel-shift assays indicate that the mutation prevents binding of a ubiquitous factor which is not the CRE-binding protein. Southwestern experiments suggest that this ubiquitous factor's molecular mass is approximately 100 kDa. We conclude that binding of a 100-kDa ubiquitous factor to sequence A is required for full basal and hormonal regulation of hPRL-promoter activity. [less ▲]

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See detailFurther Purification and Characterization of the DNA 3'-Phosphatase from Rat-Liver Chromatin Which Is Also a Polynucleotide 5'-Hydroxyl Kinase
Habraken, Yvette ULg; Verly, W. G.

in European Journal of Biochemistry (1988), 171(1-2), 59-66

The DNA 3'-phosphatase activity of rat-liver chromatin has been purified. A DNA 5'-hydroxyl kinase activity comigrates at each step of purification. Both enzymes have the same molecular mass (79 kDa) and ... [more ▼]

The DNA 3'-phosphatase activity of rat-liver chromatin has been purified. A DNA 5'-hydroxyl kinase activity comigrates at each step of purification. Both enzymes have the same molecular mass (79 kDa) and the same isoelectric point (8.6). It thus seems that the two activities are born by the same protein just as with the phage T4 enzyme which is, at the same time, a 5'-hydroxyl kinase and a 3'-phosphatase. An additional argument is that ATP, which does not influence the rate of the 3'-phosphatase reaction but which is a cosubstrate of the 5'-hydroxyl kinase, protects the 3'-phosphatase activity against thermal denaturation and trypsin digestion. The two active sites must, however, be largely independent within a common support: the thermal denaturation and trypsin inactivation rates are very different for the two activities; increasing the ionic strength activates the kinase and inhibits the phosphatase; polyvalent anions inhibit the phosphatase and have little effect on the kinase. The two active sites might belong to different domains of the protein; they could not however be separated by a partial trypsin digestion. The rates of 3'-dephosphorylation and 5'-phosphorylation by the chromatin enzyme are the same in native and denatured DNA. The 3'-phosphatase has no action on 3'-monodeoxynucleotide, but it hydrolyzes the 3'-phosphate in dinucleotides. The Km of the 3'-phosphatase is 0.548 microM. The Km (5'-OH) and Km (ATP) of the 5'-hydroxyl kinase are about 3.9 microM and 0.69 microM respectively. The chromatin enzyme is unable to hydrolyze 3'-phosphoglycolate ends in DNA. [less ▲]

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See detailProperties and crystallization of a genetically engineered, water-soluble derivative of penicillin-binding protein 5 of Escherichia coli K12
Ferreira, Luis C; Schwarz, Uli; Keck, Wolfgang et al

in European Journal of Biochemistry (1988), 171(1-2), 11-16

Derivatives of the Escherichia coli penicillin-binding protein 5 (PBP5) with truncated carboxyl terminals were obtained by altering the carboxyl-coding end of the dacA gene. After cloning the modified ... [more ▼]

Derivatives of the Escherichia coli penicillin-binding protein 5 (PBP5) with truncated carboxyl terminals were obtained by altering the carboxyl-coding end of the dacA gene. After cloning the modified dacA gene into a runaway-replication-control plasmid, one clone that overproduced and excreted the desired protein into the periplasm was used as a source for the isolation of a water-soluble PBP5 (i.e. PBP5S). In PBP5S the carboxyl-terminal 21-amino-acid region of the wild-type protein was replaced by a short 9-amino-acid segment. Milligram amounts of PBP5S were purified by penicillin affinity chromatography in the absence of detergents or of chaotropic agents. PBP5S was stable and possessed DD-carboxypeptidase activity without added Triton X-100. Upon reaction with [14C]benzylpenicillin it was converted into a rather short-lived acyl-enzyme complex, as observed with PBP5. Both PBP5 and PBP5S were crystallized. In contrast to PBP5, PBP5S yielded enzymatically active, well-formed prismatic crystals suitable for X-ray analysis. [less ▲]

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See detailNucleotide sequence of the gene encoding the Streptomyces albus G β-lactamase precursor
Dehottay, Philippe; Dusart, Jean; De Meester, Fabien et al

in European Journal of Biochemistry (1987), 166(2), 345-350

A 1400-base DNA fragment, which contains the gene encoding the extracellular active-site serine beta-lactamase of Streptomyces albus G previously cloned into Streptomyces lividans [Dehottay et al. (1986 ... [more ▼]

A 1400-base DNA fragment, which contains the gene encoding the extracellular active-site serine beta-lactamase of Streptomyces albus G previously cloned into Streptomyces lividans [Dehottay et al. (1986) Gene 42, 31-36], was sequenced. The gene codes for a 314-amino-acid precursor, the N-terminal region of which has the characteristics of a signal peptide. The beta-lactamase as excreted by the host strain S. lividans PD6 has a ragged N-terminus, indicating either the presence of a leader peptidase of poor specificity or the action of an aminopeptidase. The primary structure (as deduced from the nucleotide sequence) was confirmed by amino acid sequencing of a 16-residue stretch at the amino terminus of the protein, a 12-residue stretch containing the active-site serine [De Meester et al. (1987) Biochem. J. 244, 427-432] and a 23-residue stretch obtained by trypsin digestion of the protein. The beta-lactamase belongs to class A, has three half-cystine residues (one of which occurs on the amino side of the active-site serine) and is inactivated by thiol reagents. Putative ribosome binding site and terminator region were identified. [less ▲]

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See detailThe pH dependence of the active-site serine DD-peptidase of Streptomyces R61
Varetto, Louis; Frère, Jean-Marie ULg; Nguyen-Distèche, Martine ULg et al

in European Journal of Biochemistry (1987), 162(3), 525-531

Titration of the active-site serine DD-peptidase of Streptomyces R61 shows that formation of acyl enzyme during hydrolysis of the substrate Ac2-L-Lys-D-Ala-D-Ala and enzyme inactivation by the beta-lactam ... [more ▼]

Titration of the active-site serine DD-peptidase of Streptomyces R61 shows that formation of acyl enzyme during hydrolysis of the substrate Ac2-L-Lys-D-Ala-D-Ala and enzyme inactivation by the beta-lactam compounds benzylpenicillin, N-acetylampicillin and ampicillin relies on the acidic form of an enzyme's group of pK approximately equal to 9.5. It is proposed that protonation of a lysine epsilon-amino group facilitates initial binding by charge pairing with the free carboxylate of the substrate and the beta-lactam molecules. Lowering the pH from 7 to 5 has no effect on the second-order rate constant of enzyme acylation by benzylpenicillin and N-acetylampicillin but results in a decreased rate constant of acylation by ampicillin and Ac2-L-Lys-D-Ala-D-Ala. Protonation of the side-chain amino group of ampicillin and a decreased efficacy of the initial binding of the peptide to the enzyme seem to be responsible for the observed effects. Whatever the molecule bound to the enzyme, there is no sign for the active involvement of an enzyme's histidine residue of pK 6.5-7.0 in the hydrolysis pathway. [less ▲]

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See detailPrimary structure of the Streptomyces R61 extracellular DD-peptidase. 2. Amino acid sequence data
Joris, Bernard ULg; Jacques, Philippe; Frère, Jean-Marie ULg et al

in European Journal of Biochemistry (1987), 162(3), 519-524

In order to confirm the Streptomyces codon usage, the Streptomyces R61 DD-peptidase was fragmented by cyanogen bromide cleavage of the carboxymethylated protein, trypsin digestion of the carboxymethylated ... [more ▼]

In order to confirm the Streptomyces codon usage, the Streptomyces R61 DD-peptidase was fragmented by cyanogen bromide cleavage of the carboxymethylated protein, trypsin digestion of the carboxymethylated protein and trypsin digestion of the protein treated with beta-iodopenicillinate and endoxo-delta 4-tetrahydrophthalic acid. The isolated peptides, which altogether represented more than 50% of the polypeptide chain, were sequenced. The data thus obtained were in excellent agreement with the primary structure of the protein as deduced from the nucleotide sequence of the cloned gene. Though a weak acylating agent, beta-iodopenicillanate reacted selectively with the active site of the DD-peptidase and formed an adduct which mas much more stable than that formed with benzylpenicillin, thus facilitating the isolation and characterization of the active-site peptide. [less ▲]

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See detailPrimary structure of the Streptomyces R61 extracellular DD-peptidase. 1. Cloning into Streptomyces lividans and nucleotide sequence of the gene
Duez, Colette ULg; Fraipont, Claudine ULg; Joris, Bernard ULg et al

in European Journal of Biochemistry (1987), 162

An 11450-base DNA fragment containing the gene for the extracellular active-site serine DD-peptidase of Streptomyces R61 was cloned in Streptomyces lividans using the high-copy-number plasmid pIJ702 as ... [more ▼]

An 11450-base DNA fragment containing the gene for the extracellular active-site serine DD-peptidase of Streptomyces R61 was cloned in Streptomyces lividans using the high-copy-number plasmid pIJ702 as vector. Amplified expression of the excreted enzyme was observed. Producing clones were identified with the help of a specific antiserum directed against the pure DD-peptidase. The coding sequence of the gene was then located by hybridization with a specific nucleotide probe and sub-fragments were obtained from which the nucleotide sequence of the structural gene and the putative promoter and terminator regions were determined. The sequence suggests that the gene codes for a 406-amino-acid protein precursor. When compared with the excreted, mature DD-peptidase, this precursor possesses a cleavable 31-amino-acid N-terminal extension which has the characteristics of a signal peptide, and a cleavable 26-amino-acid C-terminal extension. On the basis of the data of Joris et al. (following paper in this journal), the open reading frame coding for the synthesis of the DD-peptidase was established. Comparison of the primary structure of the Streptomyces R61 DD-peptidase with those of several active-site serine β-lactamases and penicillin-binding proteins of Escherichia coli shows homology in those sequences that comprise the active-site serine residue. When the comparison is broadened to the complete amino acid sequences, significant homology is observed only for the pair Streptomyces R61 DD-peptidase/Escherichia coli ampC β-lactamase (class C). Since the Streptomyces R61 DD-peptidase and β-lactamases of class A have very similar three-dimensional structures [Kelly et al. (1986) Science (Wash. DC) 231, 1429–1431; Samraoui et al. (1986) Nature (Lond.) 320, 378–380], it is concluded that these tertiary features are probably also shared by the β-lactamases of class C, i.e. that the Streptomyces R61 DD-peptidase and the β-lactamases of classes A and C are related in an evolutionary sense. [less ▲]

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See detailCloning and structure analysis of the rat apolipoprotein A-I cDNA
Poncin, Jacques; Martial, Joseph ULg; Gielen, Jacques

in European Journal of Biochemistry (1984), 140(3), 493-8

Apolipoprotein A-I, the major protein in mammalian high-density lipoprotein, acts as a cofactor for lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase during the formation of cholesterol ester and as such, is thought ... [more ▼]

Apolipoprotein A-I, the major protein in mammalian high-density lipoprotein, acts as a cofactor for lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase during the formation of cholesterol ester and as such, is thought to promote cholesterol efflux from peripheral cells to the liver. In this paper, we report the partial purification of rat liver apolipoprotein A-I mRNA by a polysome immunoadsorption technique, and its cDNA cloning. Isolation of two overlapping cDNA clones enabled us to derive the whole rat apolipoprotein A-I cDNA coding sequence. Comparison of the deduced protein sequence with its human counterpart reveals a striking homology between the prepropeptide precursors. Both mature protein amino-terminal regions are very homologous, suggesting that this particular domain could be involved in lipid/protein binding or lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase activation. [less ▲]

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See detailSpontaneous modification of the oxoglutarate translocator in vivo.
Duyckaerts, Claire ULg; Sluse-Goffart, claudine; Sluse, Francis ULg et al

in European Journal of Biochemistry (1984), 142

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See detailStudy of the Zn-containing DD-carboxypeptidase of Streptomyces albus G by small-angle X-ray scattering in solution.
Labischinski, Harald; Giesbrecht, Peter; Fischer, E. et al

in European Journal of Biochemistry (1984), 138(1), 83-87

Study of the Zn2+-containing D-alanyl-D-alanine-cleaving carboxypeptidase of Streptomyces albus G by small-angle X-ray scattering in solution yielded the following molecular parameters: radius of gyration ... [more ▼]

Study of the Zn2+-containing D-alanyl-D-alanine-cleaving carboxypeptidase of Streptomyces albus G by small-angle X-ray scattering in solution yielded the following molecular parameters: radius of gyration R = 1.82 +/- 0.05 nm; largest diameter D = 5.9 +/- 0.2 nm; relative molecular mass Mr = 17000 +/- 2000; volume V approximately equal to 35 +/- 2 nm3; degree of hydration: 0.25 +/- 0.02 g water/g protein. By reference to theoretical scattering curves of rigid triaxial homogeneous bodies, a model which fits all experimental data is an elliptical cylinder. Such a model is compatible with that observed in the crystal structure. At those high concentrations necessary to form inactive enzyme-ligand associations the non-competitive beta-lactam inhibitors, cephalothin and cephalosporin C, drastically altered the scattering behaviour of the protein. [less ▲]

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See detailThe complete amino acid sequence of the Zn2+-containing D-alanyl-D-alanine-cleaving carboxypeptidase of streptomyces albus G
Joris, Bernard ULg; Van Beeumen, Jozef; Casagrande, Fabiana et al

in European Journal of Biochemistry (1983), 130(1), 53-69

The 22076-Mr Zn2+-containing D-alanyl-D-alanine-cleaving carboxypeptidase of Streptomyces abuls G effectively catalyses the transfer of the N alpha, N epsilon-diacetyl-L-lysyl-D-alanyl electrophilic group ... [more ▼]

The 22076-Mr Zn2+-containing D-alanyl-D-alanine-cleaving carboxypeptidase of Streptomyces abuls G effectively catalyses the transfer of the N alpha, N epsilon-diacetyl-L-lysyl-D-alanyl electrophilic group of the standard tripeptide substrate N alpha, N epsilon-diacetyl-L-lysyl-D-alanyl-D-alanine to water. It also performs a weak beta-lactamase activity, hydrolysing penicillin into penicilloate at a very low rate. This protein consists of 212 amino acid residues in a single polypeptide chain. The N terminus is partially blocked as a result of the cyclization of the dipeptide Asn-Gly into anhydroaspartylglycine imide. The protein has been fragmented by cyanogen bromide into five fragments whose sequences have been determined via appropriate subcleavages with various proteases. The ordering of the cyanogen bromide peptide fragments has been carried out (a) by submitting the S-carboxymethylated protein to complete tryptic digestion and labelling the methionine-containing peptides thus obtained with iodo[14C]-acetamide, and (b) by submitting to limited tryptic digestion the S-[2-(4'-pyridyl)ethyl]-cysteine protein whose amino groups have been blocked by reaction with exo-cis-3,6-endoxo-delta 4-tetrahydrophthalic anhydride prior to digestion. The protein contains six cysteine residues in the form of three disulfide bridges. No homology is found by comparing this peptidase with other Zn2+-containing enzymes (carboxypeptidase A, thermolysin, carbonic anhydrase B and alcohol dehydrogenase) and several completely or partially sequenced, serine-containing D-alanyl-D-alanine-cleaving peptidases and Zn2+/serine-containing beta-lactamases. [less ▲]

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See detailConformational analysis of peptide substrates and inhibitors of the Zn2+ G and serine R61 D-alanyl-D-alanine peptidases
De Coen, Jean-Louis; Lamotte, Josette ULg; Ghuysen, Jean-Marie ULg et al

in European Journal of Biochemistry (1981), 121(1), 221-232

The tripeptide Nα,Nɛ-diacetyl-l-lysyl-d-alanyl-d-alanine (Ac2- l-LLys1-dAIa2-dAIa3), which is the standard substrate of the Zn2+ G and serine R61 d-alanyl-d-alanine peptidases, and several ldd tripeptide ... [more ▼]

The tripeptide Nα,Nɛ-diacetyl-l-lysyl-d-alanyl-d-alanine (Ac2- l-LLys1-dAIa2-dAIa3), which is the standard substrate of the Zn2+ G and serine R61 d-alanyl-d-alanine peptidases, and several ldd tripeptide analogues where the size and/or the electrical charge of the side chains at position 1, 2 or 3 have been modified (alterations affecting more than one position at the same time were not investigated) have been submitted to conformational analyses based on both short-range and long-range interactions. Among the many backbone conformers of minimal energy of the øii space that have been characterized, four types of conformers are the most probable ones. Depending on the peptides, these conformers may have varying relative probability P values so that the leader conformer is not always the same, but, in all cases, the sum of their P values is 90% or more. With the Gly1, Gly2 or Gly3 analogues (which encompass a larger conformational space), the above ∑P values are still as high as 35–50%. All the above tripeptides bind to the serine d-alanyl-d-alanine peptidase and with the exception of the Gly3 and Gly2 analogues, to the Zn2+d-alanyl-d-alanine peptidase with virtually the same efficacy, at least within a range of variation of the Km values for the substrates or the Ki values for the inhibitors, which is less than one order of magnitude. Structural variations at position 1, 2 or 3 in the peptides that are compatible with efficient binding are not necessarily compatible with substrate activity, thus converting the modified peptides into competitive inhibitors. In particular, substrate activity requires a long side chain at position 1 in the peptides. Conformational analyses of Ac2-lLys-dAla-dAla show that the main backbone has a tendency to adopt a ring-like shape from which the lLYS side chain protrudes as an extended structure. This latter structure forms with the C-terminal d-alanyl-d-alanine an angle varying between 120° and 180° (depending on the conformers) so that its N-terminal acetyl group is about 1–1.5 nm apart from the scissile amide bond. High turnover numbers (at enzyme saturation) also require a dAla at position 2 with both d-alanyl-d-alanine peptidases and at position 3 in the case of the serine d-alanyl-d-alanine peptidase. Finally, all the conformers of the lAla2 and lAla3 analogues of Ac2-lLys-dAla-dAla fall outside the backbone conformational space that comprises the φiφi angles exhibited by the four types of conformers of the ldd tripeptides. The lAla2 and lAla3 tripeptide analogues do not bind to the serine d-alanyl-d-alanine peptidase (at least at a 10 mM concentration) but they behave as noncompetitive inhibitors of the Zn2+d-alanyl-d-alanine peptidase. [less ▲]

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See detailOntogenic development of steroid 16 alpha-hydroxylase as a tool for the study of the multiplicity of cytochrome P-450.
Pasleau, Françoise ULg; Kolodzici, Claudine; Kremers, Pierre ULg et al

in European Journal of Biochemistry (1981), 120

1. Activities of progesterone, testosterone, pregnenolone and dehydroepiandrosterone 16 alpha-hydroxylase are undetectable in the fetal rat liver. During the neonatal period, the four enzymic activities ... [more ▼]

1. Activities of progesterone, testosterone, pregnenolone and dehydroepiandrosterone 16 alpha-hydroxylase are undetectable in the fetal rat liver. During the neonatal period, the four enzymic activities increase in parallel to the concentration of cytochrome P-450. Until puberty, they develop similarly in male and female rat livers. From the 40th to the 55th day, the four steroid 16 alpha-hydroxylase activities increase rapidly in the male rat liver. The sexual differentiation of the steroid 16 alpha-hydroxylation observed in adult male and female rats takes place around the 55th day. 2. In the adult rat liver, steroid 16 alpha-hydroxylase is supported by two forms of cytochrome P-450 (form I and form II), which differ in their relative affinities for the various steroid substrates, and by their relative proportions in male and female rat livers. These two forms of cytochrome P-450 are also present in the young male and female rat livers, but are roughly equal in proportion. The transition from the immature to the adult repartition of the two forms occurs during puberty and is correlated with the sexual differentiation of the steroid 16 alpha-hydroxylase activities. 3. During the critical phases of the rat ontogenic development, the in vitro interactions between benzo[a]pyrene and steroids were compared at the level of two rat liver monooxygenases: steroid 16 alpha-hydroxylase and aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase. (a) In the immature male and female rat livers, progesterone 16 alpha-hydroxylase, and to a lesser extent, pregnenolone 16 alpha-hydroxylase are inhibited by benzo[a]pyrene. Progesterone 16 alpha-hydroxylase is also inhibited by metyrapone. (b) In the young rat, aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase cannot be inhibited by steroids and appears to be supported by a single form of cytochrome P-450. The transition from the immature to the adult situation occurs around the 40th day. [less ▲]

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