References of "Bulletin de la Classe des Sciences. Académie Royale de Belgique"
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See detailSur la couleur du glycol éthylénique et de la glycérine
Spring, Walthère ULg

in Bulletin de la Classe des Sciences. Académie Royale de Belgique (1907), (12), 1031-1040

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See detailSur un hydrate de soufre
Spring, Walthère ULg

in Bulletin de la Classe des Sciences. Académie Royale de Belgique (1906), (7), 452-459

Spring, W. Bulletin de la Classe des Sciences, Academie Royale de Belgique (1906), 1906, 452-59; SciFinder (Chemical Abstracts Service: Columbus, OH); https://scifinder.cas.org (accessed July 8, 2010). If ... [more ▼]

Spring, W. Bulletin de la Classe des Sciences, Academie Royale de Belgique (1906), 1906, 452-59; SciFinder (Chemical Abstracts Service: Columbus, OH); https://scifinder.cas.org (accessed July 8, 2010). If one lets sulfurous acid in water and hydrogen sulfide work on the other, then Polythionic acid form and sulfur, what latter after DEBUS (Chem. News 57. 87) a new allotropic modification with the ability to form with water a colloidal solution is to be (sulfur δ). The alleged Pentathionic acid shows up with intensive illumination not as an homogeneous body, but as a colloidal solution, and the sulfur δ of DEBUS not a allotropic modification, but a hydrate is S8•H2O. One receives it, if one removes and up to the constant weight in the vacuum dries the acid from with above reaction the formed S by months-long dialyze with daily fresh water, as a yellowish, partially translucent mass from conchoidal break; there is 51.6% sulfur when washing with CS2. The part unsolvable in CS2 dismisses from about 80° at water, with the melting point of the S the formula S8•H2O appropriate quantity (S8 = molecular size of the firm S!). The density of hydrate pressed in cylinder form amounts to with 19°, related to water of 4°, 1.9385; meadow after 93.6/2.07 6.4/1 = 51.6; = 100/51.6 = 1.9380 on octahedral S, if were residual insoluble S not after removal water in CS2. Powdered hydrate loses 2.41% H2O, the pressed 1.33% with 7-monthly standing over H2SO4; it thus has a vapor pressure. A part of hydrate is destroyed; simultaneous increased its density. If the drained body with water remains in contact, then the density decreases again; it exists thus a condition of the S, which connects itself directly with water, and which delivers the water in the dry medium again. In the desiccator partially S give in powder form 3.1%, in the pressed condition 5.8% at CS2 in solution dehydrated. Pressure favors thus the transition of the matter to a condition of larger density. Reprinted with the permission of the American Chemical Society. Copyright © 2010. American Chemical Society (ACS). All Rights Reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailSur la limite de visibilité de la fluorescence et sur la limite supérieure du poids absolu des atomes d'hydrogène
Spring, Walthère ULg

in Bulletin de la Classe des Sciences. Académie Royale de Belgique (1905), (5), 201-211

Spring, W. Bulletin de la Classe des Sciences, Academie Royale de Belgique (1905), 201-11; SciFinder (Chemical Abstracts Service: Columbus, OH); https://scifinder.cas.org (accessed July 8, 2010). A ... [more ▼]

Spring, W. Bulletin de la Classe des Sciences, Academie Royale de Belgique (1905), 201-11; SciFinder (Chemical Abstracts Service: Columbus, OH); https://scifinder.cas.org (accessed July 8, 2010). A solution of fluorescein in optically pure water was subjected to the action of a powerful beam of electric light, and the limit of dilution was observed at which a visible green fluorescence was produced. Assuming under these conditions that one cubic millimetre of the solution contained one molecule of fluorescein (C20H10O5K2 = 408), the value 2.5 × 10-21 grams is obtained for the superior limit of the weight of the atom of hydrogen, which is one-twenty-thousand-millionth part of the value 5 × 10-11 calculated by Annaheim (this Journal, 1877, i, 31), but is about seven thousand times as great as the value 3.45 × 10-25 calculated from the kinetic theory of gases. Reprinted with the permission of the American Chemical Society. Copyright © 2010. American Chemical Society (ACS). All Rights Reserved [less ▲]

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See detailSur l'origine des nuances vertes des eaux de la nature et sur l'incompatibilité des composés calciques, ferriques et humiques en leur milieu
Spring, Walthère ULg

in Bulletin de la Classe des Sciences. Académie Royale de Belgique (1905), (7), 300-309

Spring, W. Bull. de l'Acad. royale de Belg. (1905), 1905, 300 to 310; SciFinder (Chemical Abstracts Service: Columbus, OH); https://scifinder.cas.org (accessed July 8, 2010). After Baron V. AUFSESS (Die ... [more ▼]

Spring, W. Bull. de l'Acad. royale de Belg. (1905), 1905, 300 to 310; SciFinder (Chemical Abstracts Service: Columbus, OH); https://scifinder.cas.org (accessed July 8, 2010). After Baron V. AUFSESS (Die Farbe der Seen. Inaug.-Diss. Muenchen 1903) the refraction of the light does not have influence on the change of the blue color water, mainly also because one can obtain green water by dissolving lime compounds/connections, yellow or brown water by solve ones of humus substances in pure water. The going by experiments of the authors, which are down partly in detail described, led however to the subsequent results: the lime compounds/connections natural water do not have inherent color and are not a cause of the much-observed green coloring in with examination appearing even clear lime water; the green, after elimination of the dyes residual coloring contained in the water is the result of the refraction of the light through invisible portion cups, which the water still includes, and whose presence can be done by an intensive light beam. The lime compounds/connections affect strongly fell in the water contained the ferric compounds/connections and with these on the humus substances, which the latter natural color water strongly change. Lime salts protect therefore the blue color water. In case of the not-blue, lime-containing, natural water an equilibrium between the cleaning effect of their lime compounds/connections results and steady influxes of the humus and ferric compounds/connections, which let disappear its brown coloring lower for itself the blue color water. The blue, more or less greenish color of the purest water give information over the point, where the equilibrium between the antagonists is fixed. Purely blue water (6 m coating thickness) becomes green by dissolving lime from Icelandic double spar; when introducing CO2 a clear, somewhat less green solution of acid calcium carbonate forms; also gypsum colors such water green. During the passage of radiation of electrical light these solutions appear, particularly the CaH2(CO3)2-containing, optically clouds, it carefully to dry was evaporated, the residue contained partially organic substance, partially SiO2 or silicates (from the glass of the container), which were contained in the solution therefore in the colloidal condition. After filtering the other Ca-containing solutions by animal charcoal these showed the same blue color as pure water. When regarding by a pipe of 6 m length appears pure water with 1/1 000 000 part ferric hydroxide brown, with 1/2 000 000 green, with 1/5 000 000 unmodified blue. With humus substances the blue color is already changed by more than 1/40 000 000 part. Ferric salts color brownish; they are particularly reduced by humus substances, in the light, sometimes partially to ferrous compounds/connections, whose color is not possible, and which with the humus substances insoluble, failing compounds to be received. To a liter of clear solution with 1/3 000 000 if part colloidal Fe(OH) 3 (to dissolve of FeCl3 in H2O) is added a same volume acid calcium carbonate or CaSO4-Solution, then a flocculation, tags begins is because of the container soil a brown, ocher-colored dirt, the water is perfectly clear, appears green and leaves a residue of CaCO3 or CaSO4 without trace iron after few instants; the sediment contains 85-90% Fe(OH)3, CaCO3 or CaSO4. Also with insoluble CaCO3 begins the flocculation of the ferric compounds/connections immediately; similarly soluble salts work; with sodium chloride (sea water) a trace remains iron in solution. Reprinted with the permission of the American Chemical Society. Copyright © 2010. American Chemical Society (ACS). All Rights Reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailSur la décomposition de quelques sulfates acides à la suite d'une déformation mécanique
Spring, Walthère ULg

in Bulletin de la Classe des Sciences. Académie Royale de Belgique (1904), (5), 290-309

Spring, W. Bulletin de la Classe des Sciences, Academie Royale de Belgique (1904), 1904, 290-309; SciFinder (Chemical Abstracts Service: Columbus, OH); https://scifinder.cas.org (accessed July 8, 2010 ... [more ▼]

Spring, W. Bulletin de la Classe des Sciences, Academie Royale de Belgique (1904), 1904, 290-309; SciFinder (Chemical Abstracts Service: Columbus, OH); https://scifinder.cas.org (accessed July 8, 2010). There after earlier investigations of the authors, (see page 776), perhaps strong compression the same effect as increased temperature on firm body exercises, then it was to be assumed that crystal water-containing salts and acid salts will or less disintegrate with intensive mechanical deformation into their components. For examination the acid sulfates of the alkali metals were selected, with which, as the subsequent compilation shows, which is smaller molecular volume than the sum of the volumes of the developing decomposition products, which decomposition is connected with volume increase. Salt, Density, Molecular volumes. (* determined by the author). Li2SO4, 2.228 *, 2LiHSO4 = 98.1. LiHSO4, 2.123 *, Li2SO4 +. H2SO4 = 102.3. Na2SO4, 2.655, 2NaHSO4 = 98.6. NaHSO4, 2.435 with 13° *, Na2SO4 +. H2SO4 = 106.4. K2SO4 , 2.670, 2KHSO4 = 118. KHSO4, 2.302 with 13° * K2SO4 +. H2SO4 = 118.1. Rb2SO43.596 with 16° *, RbHSO4 = 125.8. RbHSO4, 2.892 with 16° *, Rb2SO4 +. H2SO4 = 126.9. Cs2SO44.250 with 16° * ,2CsHSO4 = 136.6. CsHSO4, 3.352 with 16° *, Cs2SO4 +. H2SO4 = 137.7. Since it not actually concerns around production of a simple hydrostatic pressure, but the effect of a pressing with deformation, the salts in a steel cylinder were pressed together, which possessed an opening, which permitted a "flow through" of the examined substance in the ground; Rise in temperature was completely impossible. The received results are the following. LiHSO4 separates due to pressing into an effluent acid-richer component (approximately 9LiHSO4•2H2SO4) and a part staying, which approaches the composition of the neutral salt. With that salts LiHSO4•H2O continues to go the decay still, whereby the water partly flows. With NaHSO4 no clear flow with occurring cleavage could be observed, on the other hand a clear cleavage occurs, in the discharge of a large quantity crystal water with different hydrates of the acid sulfate, in particular at somewhat increased temperature and a considerable quantity expresses H2SO4; at low temperature first water is separated. The salt 5NaHSO4• H2SO4• 7H2O develops with 40° liquid approximately the composition NaHSO4 has acid, the mass staying; with 80° the decomposition continues to go still, as a small quantity of Na2SO4 develops. The acid sulfates the pressing with 100°, applied by potassium, rubidium, cesium decomposing with; not; hereby it stands in the agreement that these salts are resistant in relation to the effect of the heat. In further experiments a mixture of NaHSO4 with different basic oxides : PbO, CuO, HgO, Ag2O, strong pressure suspended. In completely closed cylinder, without which possibility of flow stepped, like the continuous coloring showed no reaction . If against it the pressure with a mechanical deformation is accompanied (small opening in the ground), takes place a reaction up to complete neutralization of the H2SO4 contained in the acid sulfate; the same effect reached by simple grating, whereby CuO white CuSO4Na2• SO4• H2O gives. From the observations it follows except the analogy between heat effect and pressing still that so-called molecular compounds/connections are less resistant opposite the deformation than atomic compounds/connections. An explanation of the features follows from the conception that pressing causes a change of the molecular condition in the sense of a "pseudo fusion". These procedures have a great importance probably on geological of areas (ground pressure). Reprinted with the permission of the American Chemical Society. Copyright © 2010. American Chemical Society (ACS). All Rights Reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailSur la diminution de densité qu'éprouvent certains corps à la suite d'une forte compression et sur la raison probable de ce phénomène
Spring, Walthère ULg

in Bulletin de la Classe des Sciences. Académie Royale de Belgique (1903), (12), 1066-1082

Spring, W. Bulletin de la Classe des Sciences, Academie Royale de Belgique (1904), 1903, 1066-82; SciFinder (Chemical Abstracts Service: Columbus, OH); https://scifinder.cas.org (accessed July 8, 2010 ... [more ▼]

Spring, W. Bulletin de la Classe des Sciences, Academie Royale de Belgique (1904), 1903, 1066-82; SciFinder (Chemical Abstracts Service: Columbus, OH); https://scifinder.cas.org (accessed July 8, 2010). At an amount of metals, as well as other materials, very strong pressure causes, (over 10000 atmospheres, instead of a density increase a decrease [with (NH4)2SO4 for example: 1.773 to 1.750). For these by the author, as well as feature examined more near by KAHLBAUM is tried an explanation, by being brought in compound/connection with the variation in volume with melting. It assumed that perfectly spherical bodies under the influence of an all-sided working strong pressure partly do not arrive at "flowing", thus a change of their molecular structure in the sense of a reduction that is experienced viscosity (pseudo fusion). If this view applies, then bodies, which expand when melting, must experience a volume increase with strong pressure also and in reverse. This consequence is confirmed by the experience. Examples of the first type are tin, lead, cadmium, silver, during bismuth when melting pull together and accordingly also with strong pressure at density increase. Author made wires of different metals, by being pressed by close openings, and observed the fact that Bi-wire was first completely flexible and returned only to some bends to the brittle condition whereby the acceptance by high pressure caused one flowing is supported. The obtained wires were divided ever into 2 parts, and heats one half up to near the melting point, whereby S.c. returned to the normal condition. If one dipped now the "started" and the "fluent" wire together into a salt solution of the same metal, then a weak current could be proven by means of a sensitive galvanometer. The voltage/tension amounts to the following: with tin 0.11, lead 0.12, cadmium 0.20, silver 0.98, bismuth 0.385 milivolts. With the four first, lower volume increase melting metals the "fluent" wire cathode was, with bismuth anode. Similar results were obtained with polished metal bars and rolled out volumes. Over the density variations of some metals with 16° the following table gives information. Metal, Density of the, Fluent, Rolled Metals, Started metals. Lead..., 11.3351, 11.3348, 11.3410. Tin..., 7.3011, 7.3016, 7.3137. Cadmium..., 8.6558, 8.6603, 8.6633. Silver..., 10.2485, 10.2531, 10.2696. Bismuth..., 9.8522, -, 9.8354. One must "protect" from this between firm, in which a metal cannot experience noticeable deformation, and which "apparent" firm differentiates, which by the loss of crystalline structure and the ability of flowing is characterized. Certain materials go possessing easily into this condition over (plastic metals), during different this ability in very small measure or at all; materials of the latter type (coal, sand) cannot be combined also through still so high pressure to a uniform mass. Reprinted with the permission of the American Chemical Society. Copyright © 2010. American Chemical Society (ACS). All Rights Reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailSur la cause de la direction du clivage des phyllades et des schistes
Spring, Walthère ULg

in Bulletin de la Classe des Sciences. Académie Royale de Belgique (1902), (2), 150-154

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See detailSur la transparence des milieux troubles aux rayons X
Spring, Walthère ULg

in Bulletin de la Classe des Sciences. Académie Royale de Belgique (1902), (12), 938-943

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See detailLa reproduction des animaux et la continuité de la vie
Van Beneden, Édouard ULg

in Bulletin de la Classe des Sciences. Académie Royale de Belgique (1902)

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See detailSur l'illumination de quelques verres
Spring, Walthère ULg

in Bulletin de la Classe des Sciences. Académie Royale de Belgique (1900), (12), 1014-1027

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See detailSur la floculation des milieux troubles
Spring, Walthère ULg

in Bulletin de la Classe des Sciences. Académie Royale de Belgique (1900), (7), 483-520

Spring, W. Bull. Acad. roy. Belgique. (1899), 37, 790-815; SciFinder (Chemical Abstracts Service: Columbus, OH); https://scifinder.cas.org (accessed July 8, 2010). In this very interesting stand the ... [more ▼]

Spring, W. Bull. Acad. roy. Belgique. (1899), 37, 790-815; SciFinder (Chemical Abstracts Service: Columbus, OH); https://scifinder.cas.org (accessed July 8, 2010). In this very interesting stand the author gives comprehensive preparation of the philosophy, which led it with its numerous individual investigations, and over the results of these test series. It is possible to seemed that the sedimentary rocks formed, because the apparent is not plastic and weldable bodies accept this characteristics have under pressure. Indeed it showed up with many materials, in particular metals that with pressure alone, without heating up from the powder a connected block develops. This characteristics are proportional with different metals of their weld ability. In addition, with the baud a pressure of 10000 atmospheres is sufficient not yet, in order to cause a cementing. Since a layer height of 50000 m corresponds to this pressure, it is impossible that the sandstones formed alone with pressure. With the metals cementing is based on the ability show also in firm solution and diffusion features. Metals is dissolve mutually it can be combined also in the firm like copper with tin and copper with zinc. On the other hand it does not let itself weld together with zinc with pressure, mix also in the melted lead and zinc (perfectly). The more firmly, the less volatile and a material is less fusible, all the lets is with pressure weld together itself. It shows up with diamond, corundum, quartz and other materials. Without pressure, only by bare laying of smooth surfaces on top of each other such metals, are with each other mixable, can be combined at higher temperature. Two pieces applies mainly for the same metal; with platinum, gold and copper, with the temperature test of 1600 and 1800° the lower melting point was appropriate, just like with such, with those the melting point only for 200° is higher than the test temperature. Also copper and zinc chop lower these conditions together, as a layer brass form 1/4 mm of thickness, also during zinc and lead, zinc and bismuth do not unite. The fact that the solid materials of lower pressure in each other diffuses the results also from the experiments with barium carbonate and sodium sulfate and Barium sulfate and sodium carbonate which from both sides without presence of a solvent with lower pressure became the same equilibrium reached. Chemical reactions in the firm capability of the lower pressure however only then take place, when the volume are not increased. Where by the reaction with Volume decrease is caused, the reaction lower pressure can occur as with mixtures of silver with sulfur with large mobility of the molecules; it does not have to occur however, if the mobility is missing, which with mixtures of zinc and sulfur the case is, although the formation will take place from sulfur zinc also with lower contraction. With agreement a volume distinction occurs, with pressure the coalescence be never caused. with pressure a cleavage is on the contrary often caused with the hydrate of the sulfur arsenic and with the calcium copper acetate. Also transformations of a modification into another, of prism sulfur in octahedral, of graphite in diamond are caused with pressure, and thereby a decreasing of volume occurs. The experiments over the influence of the pressure on firm body did not offer the possibility, the formation of the sedimentary rocks of interpreting in particular the sandstones and conglomerates because quartz does not become plastic and weldable. If however water present with pressure and the formation of a liquid solution is often favored, which works then cementing. In the sandstones and conglomerates consists the binder of amorphously aqueous silicic acid. The author knows by the behavior of these, in particular the younger rocks against caustic potash solution after, by which the amorphous silicic acid is not the quartz grains are dissolved, so that the rock disintegrated. A solution of silicic acid in water can develop with pressure. If one soaks the volume with a colloidal solution of silicic acid, then occurs no caking, because with the drying up, the amorphous silicic acid contracts itself and view the surfaces which can be cemented replaces. One must press evenly as when gluing the wood into pieces together which can be cemented loosely, so that it shrinks with the drying up in the measure like the binder, advances and the relief of that to prevent cementing surfaces. That is caused with the formation of the sandstones with the low pressure of the lay-over sand masses. Reprinted with the permission of the American Chemical Society. Copyright © 2010. American Chemical Society (ACS). All Rights Reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailSur l'unité d'origine du bleu de l'eau
Spring, Walthère ULg

in Bulletin de la Classe des Sciences. Académie Royale de Belgique (1899), (2), 72-80

Spring, W. Bull. Acad. roy. Belg. (1899), 72; SciFinder (Chemical Abstracts Service: Columbus, OH); https://scifinder.cas.org (accessed July 8, 2010). Tyndall's experiments have been repeated and it was ... [more ▼]

Spring, W. Bull. Acad. roy. Belg. (1899), 72; SciFinder (Chemical Abstracts Service: Columbus, OH); https://scifinder.cas.org (accessed July 8, 2010). Tyndall's experiments have been repeated and it was found that suspended particles do not give a blue color to the water. Further experiments showed that fluorescence was not a factor, and the final conclusion reached is that the blue color of water is due simply and solely to the fact that water is blue in color. Reprinted with the permission of the American Chemical Society. Copyright © 2010. American Chemical Society (ACS). All Rights Reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailRemarques sur une note récente de M. Pernter, concernant la couleur bleue du ciel
Spring, Walthère ULg

in Bulletin de la Classe des Sciences. Académie Royale de Belgique (1899), XXXVII(6), 441-446

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See detailRapport sur une notice de M. J.-P. Waltzing : Le dieu celtique Intarabus ou Entarabus
Kurth, Godefroid ULg

in Bulletin de la Classe des Sciences. Académie Royale de Belgique (1896), XXXII(3e série), 743

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