Leukemic target susceptibility to natural killer cytotoxicity: relationship with BCR-ABL expression.
Baron, Frédéric ; ; et al
in Blood (2002), 99(6), 2107-13
Chronic myeloid leukemia is a clonal myeloproliferative expansion of transformed primitive hematopoietic progenitor cells characterized by high-level expression of BCR-ABL chimeric gene, which induces ... [more ▼]
Chronic myeloid leukemia is a clonal myeloproliferative expansion of transformed primitive hematopoietic progenitor cells characterized by high-level expression of BCR-ABL chimeric gene, which induces growth factor independence. However, the influence of BCR-ABL expression on cell-mediated cytotoxicity is poorly understood. In the present study, we asked whether BCR-ABL expression interferes with leukemic target sensitivity to natural killer (NK) cell cytolysis. Our approach was based on the use of 2 BCR-ABL transfectants of the pluripotent hematopoietic cell line UT-7 expressing low (UT-7/E8, UT-7/G6) and high (UT-7/9) levels of BCR-ABL. As effector cells, we used CD56(bright), CD16-, CD2- NK cells differentiated in vitro from CD34 cord blood progenitors. We demonstrated that BCR-ABL transfectants UT-7/9 were lysed by NK cells with a higher efficiency than parental and low UT-7/E8.1 and UT-7/G6 transfectants. This enhanced susceptibility to lysis correlated with an increase in expression of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) by target cells. Treatment of UT-7/9 cells by STI571 (a specific inhibitor of the abl kinase) resulted in a decrease in NK susceptibility to lysis and ICAM-1 down-regulation in target cells. Furthermore, the constitutive activation of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) detected in BCR-ABL transfectant UT-7/9, was significantly attenuated when cells were treated by STI571. Interestingly, inhibition of NF-kappaB activation by BAY11-67082 (a specific NF-kappaB inhibitor) resulted in down-regulation of ICAM-1 expression and a subsequent decrease in NK-induced killing of UT-7/9 transfectants. Our results show that oncogenic transformation by BCR-ABL may increase susceptibility of leukemic progenitors to NK cell cytotoxicity by a mechanism involving overexpression of ICAM-1 as a consequence of NF-kappaB activation. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 10 (0 ULg)
Effects of BM-573, a dual thromboxane A(2) receptor antagonist and thromboxane synthase inhibitor, on osteogenic sarcoma cell-induced platelet aggregation
; David, Jean-Louis ; et al
in Blood (2001, November 16), 98(11, Part 2), 43Detailed reference viewed: 6 (2 ULg)
Alkaline phosphatase positive reticular cell network recovery after radiation-induced marrow aplasia in mice
; Thiry, Anne-Marie ; Boniver, Jacques et al
in Blood (2001, November 16), 98(11, Part 2), 141Detailed reference viewed: 3 (0 ULg)
Cessation of intensive treatment with recombinant human erythropoietin is followed by secondary anemia.
Piron, Maude ; ; Gothot, André et al
in Blood (2001), 97(2), 442-8
Little information is available on the evolution of erythropoiesis after interruption of recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEpo) therapy. Iron-overloaded rats received 20 daily injections of rHuEpo ... [more ▼]
Little information is available on the evolution of erythropoiesis after interruption of recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEpo) therapy. Iron-overloaded rats received 20 daily injections of rHuEpo. During treatment, reticulocytes, soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR), and hematocrit increased progressively. This was accompanied by a substantial expansion of spleen erythropoiesis but a decrease in the bone marrow. Five weeks after treatment, rats developed a significant degree of a regenerative anemia. Erythropoietic activity, as assessed by reticulocytes, sTfR, erythroid cellularity, iron incorporation into heme, and the number of erythroid colonies, was severely depressed 3 weeks after cessation of rHuEpo. This was followed by regeneration of erythroblasts and reticulocytes at weeks 6 to 7 post-Epo, but erythroid progenitors recovered only partially by that time. The anemia was definitely corrected 2 months after cessation of rHuEpo treatment. Serum Epo levels remained elevated for several weeks, but the sensitivity of marrow erythroid precursors to Epo was preserved. No rat antibodies to rHuEpo were detected, and serum from post-Epo animals did not exert any inhibitory activity on erythropoiesis. In conclusion, after cessation of intensive rHuEpo therapy, there was a strong inhibition of erythropoietic activity with secondary anemia followed by late recovery. This was not due to antibodies or other soluble inhibitory factors, a defect in endogenous Epo production, or a loss of sensitivity to Epo. This may rather represent intrinsic erythroid marrow exhaustion, mostly at the level of erythroid progenitors but also at later stages of erythropoiesis. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 29 (6 ULg)
Distinct behavior of mutant triosephosphate isomerase in hemolysate and in isolated form: molecular basis of enzyme deficiency
; ; et al
in Blood (2001), 98(10), 3106-12
In a Hungarian family with severe decrease in triosephosphate isomerase (TPI) activity, 2 germ line-identical but phenotypically differing compound heterozygote brothers inherited 2 independent (Phe240Leu ... [more ▼]
In a Hungarian family with severe decrease in triosephosphate isomerase (TPI) activity, 2 germ line-identical but phenotypically differing compound heterozygote brothers inherited 2 independent (Phe240Leu and Glu145stop codon) mutations. The kinetic, thermodynamic, and associative properties of the recombinant human wild-type and Phe240Leu mutant enzymes were compared with those of TPIs in normal and deficient erythrocyte hemolysates. The specific activity of the recombinant mutant enzyme relative to the wild type was much higher (30%) than expected from the activity (3%) measured in hemolysates. Enhanced attachment of mutant TPI to erythrocyte inside-out vesicles and to microtubules of brain cells was found when the binding was measured with TPIs in hemolysate. In contrast, there was no difference between the binding of the recombinant wild-type and Phe240Leu mutant enzymes. These findings suggest that the missense mutation by itself is not enough to explain the low catalytic activity and "stickiness" of mutant TPI observed in hemolysate. The activity of the mutant TPI is further reduced by its attachment to inside-out vesicles or microtubules. Comparative studies of the hemolysate from a British patient with Glu104Asp homozygosity and with the platelet lysates from the Hungarian family suggest that the microcompartmentation of TPI is not unique for the hemolysates from the Hungarian TPI-deficient brothers. The possible role of cellular components, other than the mutant enzymes, in the distinct behavior of TPI in isolated form versus in hemolysates from the compound heterozygotes and the simple heterozygote family members is discussed. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 9 (0 ULg)
The effect of recombinant human erythropoietin on platelet counts is strongly modulated by the adequacy of iron supply.
; Beguin, Yves
in Blood (1999), 93(10), 3286-93
The effect of recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEpo) on megakaryopoiesis remains controversial. Treatment with rHuEpo in renal failure patients has been associated with a slight elevation of platelet ... [more ▼]
The effect of recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEpo) on megakaryopoiesis remains controversial. Treatment with rHuEpo in renal failure patients has been associated with a slight elevation of platelet counts. In animal studies, high doses of rHuEpo produced an increase of platelet counts followed by a gradual return to normal after 7 to 15 days or even a substantial degree of thrombocytopenia. However, because iron deficiency is also known to be associated with thrombocytosis, (functional) iron deficiency during rHuEpo could be contributing to these observations. We investigated the impact of iron supply on changes in platelet counts induced by rHuEpo. Rats were either fed normal food (normal rats) or received 1% carbonyl iron for 2 weeks or 3 months, as well as during the experiment, to achieve iron supplementation or overload, respectively. Rats of all three categories then received daily intravenous injections of rHuEpo (10, 50, or 150 U) or normal saline (0 U) for 20 days. With 0 to 10 U rHuEpo, platelets remained stable. In normal rats receiving 50 to 150 U rHuEpo, platelets increased to 120% to 140% of baseline at 4 to 12 days to level off at 120% at 16 to 20 days. This response was less sustained in splenectomized animals. Iron-supplemented rats receiving 50 to 150 U rHuEpo also increased platelets initially, but the peak was at day 4, followed by a gradual return to baseline and even a moderate thrombocytopenia later on. Iron-overloaded rats receiving 50 to 150 U rHuEpo also had increased platelets at day 4, but the duration of platelet increase was shorter, and they experienced a more pronounced degree of thrombocytopenia in proportion to the dose of rHuEpo. Because the early elevation of platelets was of larger magnitude than hematocrit changes, it is unlikely that it could be accounted for by shrinkage of plasma volume. Because it was observed in all three iron conditions, there appears to be some direct positive effect of rHuEpo on platelet production. However, after this transient effect, expanded erythropoiesis appears to exert a negative impact upon platelet production. Secondary thrombocytopenia was not related to splenic pooling, and its very slow correction after cessation of rHuEpo therapy is not compatible with changes in platelet survival. Rather, it is consistent with stem cell competition between erythroid and megakaryocytic development. However, this secondary thrombocytopenia is masked by (functional) iron deficiency in rats not receiving an adequate iron supply from food or stores. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 25 (0 ULg)
A dominant negative mutation in the P2X1 receptor causes a severe bleeding disorder.
Oury, Cécile ; ; et al
in Blood (1999)Detailed reference viewed: 5 (0 ULg)
Whole-body positron emission tomography using 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose for posttreatment evaluation in Hodgkin's disease and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma has higher diagnostic and prognostic value than classical computed tomography scan imaging.
Jerusalem, Guy ; Beguin, Yves ; Fassotte, Marie-France et al
in Blood (1999), 94(2), 429-33
A residual mass after treatment of lymphoma is a clinical challenge, because it may represent vital tumor as well as tissue fibrosis. Metabolic imaging by 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) positron ... [more ▼]
A residual mass after treatment of lymphoma is a clinical challenge, because it may represent vital tumor as well as tissue fibrosis. Metabolic imaging by 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) offers the advantage of functional tissue characterization that is largely independent of morphologic criteria. We compared 18F-FDG PET to computed tomography (CT) in the posttreatment evaluation of 54 patients with Hodgkin's disease (HD) or intermediate/high-grade non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). Residual masses on CT were observed in 13 of 19 patients with HD and 11 of 35 patients with NHL. Five of 24 patients with residual masses on CT versus 1 of 30 patients without residual masses presented a positive 18F-FDG PET study. Relapse occurred in all 6 patients (100%) with a positive 18F-FDG PET, 5 of 19 patients (26%) with residual masses on CT but negative 18F-FDG PET, and 3 of 29 patients (10%) with negative CT scan and 18F-FDG PET studies (P </=.0001). We observed a higher relapse and death rate in patients with residual masses at CT compared with patients without residual masses at CT (progression-free survival at 1 year: 62 +/- 10 v 88 +/- 7%, P =. 0045; overall survival at 1 year: 77 +/- 5 v 95 +/- 5%, P =.0038). A positive 18F-FDG PET study was even more consistently associated with poorer survival: compared with patients with a negative 18F-FDG PET study, the 1-year progression-free survival was 0% versus 86% +/- 5% (P <.0001) and the 1-year overall survival was 50% +/- 20% versus 92% +/- 4% (P <.0001). The detection of vital tumor by 18F-FDG PET after the end of treatment has a higher predictive value for relapse than classical CT scan imaging (positive predictive value: 100% v 42%). This could help identify patients requiring intensification immediately after completion of chemotherapy. However, 18F-FDG PET mainly predicts for early progression but cannot exclude the presence of minimal residual disease, possibly leading to a later relapse. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 12 (2 ULg)
Treatment of anemia in myelodysplastic syndromes with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor plus erythropoietin: results from a randomized phase II study and long-term follow-up of 71 patients.
; ; Beguin, Yves et al
in Blood (1998), 92(1), 68-75
Treatment with erythropoietin (epo) may improve the anemia of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) in approximately 20% of patients. Previous studies have suggested that treatment with the combination of ... [more ▼]
Treatment with erythropoietin (epo) may improve the anemia of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) in approximately 20% of patients. Previous studies have suggested that treatment with the combination of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) and epo may increase this response rate. In the present phase II study, patients with MDS and anemia were randomized to treatment with G-CSF + epo according to one of two alternatives; arm A starting with G-CSF for 4 weeks followed by the combination for 12 weeks, and arm B starting with epo for 8 weeks followed by the combination for 10 weeks. Fifty evaluable patients (10 refractory anemia [RA], 13 refractory anemia with ring sideroblasts [RARS], and 27 refractory anemia with excess blasts [RAEB]) were included in the study, three were evaluable only for epo as monotherapy and 47 for the combined treatment. The overall response rate to G-CSF + epo was 38%, which is identical to that in our previous study. The response rates for patients with RA, RARS, and RAEB were 20%, 46%, and 37%, respectively. Response rates were identical in the two treatment groups indicating that an initial treatment with G-CSF was not neccessary for a response to the combination. Nine patients in arm B showed a response to the combined treatment, but only three of these responded to epo alone. This suggests a synergistic effect in vivo by G-CSF + epo. A long-term follow-up was made on 71 evaluable patients from both the present and the preceding Scandinavian study on G-CSF + epo. Median survival was 26 months, and the overall risk of leukemic transformation during a median follow-up of 43 months was 28%. Twenty patients entered long-term maintenance treatment and showed a median duration of response of 24 months.The international prognostic scoring system (IPSS) was effective to predict survival, leukemic transformation, and to a lesser extent, duration of response, but had no impact on primary response rates. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 38 (1 ULg)
Red blood cell precursor mass as an independent determinant of serum erythropoietin level.
; ; et al
in Blood (1998), 91(6), 2139-45
Serum erythropoietin (sEpo) concentration is primarily related to the rate of renal production and, under the stimulus of hypoxia, increases exponentially as hemoglobin (Hb) decreases. Additional factors ... [more ▼]
Serum erythropoietin (sEpo) concentration is primarily related to the rate of renal production and, under the stimulus of hypoxia, increases exponentially as hemoglobin (Hb) decreases. Additional factors, however, appear to influence sEpo, and in this work, we performed studies to evaluate the role of the red blood cell precursor mass. We first compared the relationship of sEpo with Hb in patients with low versus high erythroid activity. The first group included 27 patients with erythroid aplasia or hypoplasia having serum transferrin receptor (sTfR) levels < 3 mg/L (erythroid activity < 0.6 times normal), while the second one included 28 patients with beta-thalassemia intermedia having sTfR levels > 10 mg/L (erythroid activity > 2 times normal). There was no difference between the two groups with respect to Hb (8.3 +/- 1.6 v 8.0 +/- 1.3 g/dL, P > .05), but sEpo levels were notably higher in patients with low erythroid activity (1,601 +/- 1,542 v 235 +/- 143 mU/mL, P < . 001). In fact, multivariate analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed that, at any given Hb level, sEpo was higher in patients with low erythroid activity (P < .0001). Twenty patients undergoing allogeneic or autologous bone marrow transplantation (BMT) were then investigated. A marked increase in sEpo was seen in all cases at the time of marrow aplasia, disproportionately high when compared with the small decrease in Hb level. Sequential studies were also performed in five patients with iron deficiency anemia undergoing intravenous (IV) iron therapy. Within 24 to 72 hours after starting iron treatment, marked decreases in sEpo (up to one log magnitude) were found before any change in Hb level. Similar observations were made in patients with megaloblastic anemia and in a case of pure red blood cell aplasia. These findings point to an inverse relationship between red blood cell precursor mass and sEpo: at any given Hb level, the higher the number of red blood cell precursors, the lower the sEpo concentration. The most likely explanation for this is that sEpo levels are regulated not only by the rate of renal production, but also by the rate of utilization by erythroid cells. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 18 (1 ULg)
Anemia in children with cancer is associated with decreased erythropoietic activity and not with inadequate erythropoietin production.
; Beguin, Yves ; et al
in Blood (1998), 92(5), 1793-8
A defect in erythropoietin (EPO) production has been advocated as being the main cause of anemia presented at time of diagnosis or during treatment by adults with solid tumors. On the basis of this defect ... [more ▼]
A defect in erythropoietin (EPO) production has been advocated as being the main cause of anemia presented at time of diagnosis or during treatment by adults with solid tumors. On the basis of this defect, anemic cancer patients, both adults and children, have been treated with recombinant human EPO (rHuEPO). To further elucidate the pathophysiology of anemia in children with cancer, we measured serum soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR), a quantitative marker of erythropoiesis, and serum EPO at time of diagnosis and during chemotherapy in children suffering from solid tumor or leukemia. We determined serum EPO in 111 children (55 leukemia, 56 solid tumors) at time of diagnosis. In the last 44 patients (23 leukemia and 21 solid tumors), sTfR levels were also measured. Serum EPO together with sTfR levels were also determined in 60 children receiving chemotherapy (29 leukemia, 31 solid tumors). These results were compared with those obtained from appropriate control groups. In all patients, we found a highly significant correlation between the logarithm of EPO (log[EPO]) and the hemoglobin (Hb) level. In all subsets of patients, sTfR levels were inappropriately low for the degree of anemia. Neither leukemic nor solid tumor groups showed a significant inverse relationship between log(sTfR) and the Hb level as would be expected in anemic patients with appropriate marrow response. Thus, in children with cancer, anemia is associated with a decreased total bone marrow erythropoietic activity which, in contrast to what has been reported in anemic cancer adults, is not related to defective EPO production. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 19 (1 ULg)
Cell cycle-related changes in repopulating capacity of human mobilized peripheral blood CD34(+) cells in non-obese diabetic/severe combined immune-deficient mice.
GOTHOT, André ; ; et al
in Blood (1998), 92(8), 2641-9
Most primitive hematopoietic progenitor cells reside in vivo within the G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle. By simultaneous DNA/RNA staining it is possible to distinguish G0 and G1 states and to isolate cells ... [more ▼]
Most primitive hematopoietic progenitor cells reside in vivo within the G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle. By simultaneous DNA/RNA staining it is possible to distinguish G0 and G1 states and to isolate cells in defined phases of the cell cycle. We report here the use of cell cycle fractionation to separate human mobilized peripheral blood (MPB) CD34(+) cells capable of repopulating the bone marrow (BM) of non-obese diabetic/severe combined immune-deficient (NOD/SCID) mice. In freshly isolated MPB, repopulating cells were predominant within the G0 phase, because transplantation of CD34(+) cells residing in G0 (G0CD34(+)) resulted on average in a 16.6- +/- 3.2-fold higher BM chimerism than infusion of equal numbers of CD34(+) cells isolated in G1. We then investigated the effect of ex vivo cell cycle progression, in the absence of cell division, on engraftment capacity. Freshly isolated G0CD34(+) cells were activated by interleukin-3 (IL-3), stem cell factor (SCF), and flt3-ligand (FL) for a 36-hour incubation period during which a fraction of cells progressed from G0 into G1 but did not complete a cell cycle. The repopulating capacity of stimulated cells was markedly diminished compared with that of unmanipulated G0CD34(+) cells. Cells that remained in G0 during the 36-hour incubation period and those that traversed into G1 were sorted and assayed separately in NOD/SCID recipients. The repopulating ability of cells remaining in G0 was insignificantly reduced compared with that of unstimulated G0CD34(+) cells. On the contrary, CD34(+) cells traversing from G0 into G1 were largely depleted of repopulating capacity. Similar results were obtained when G0CD34(+) cells were activated by the combination of thrombopoietin-SCF-FL. These studies provide direct evidence of the quiescent nature of cells capable of repopulating the BM of NOD/SCID mice. Furthermore, these data also demonstrate that G0-G1 progression in vitro is associated with a decrease in engraftment capacity. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 9 (0 ULg)
Orderly process of sequential cytokine stimulation is required for activation and maximal proliferation of primitive human bone marrow CD34+ hematopoietic progenitor cells residing in G0.
; ; GOTHOT, André et al
in Blood (1997), 90(2), 658-68
Bone marrow (BM) CD34+ cells residing in the G0 phase of cell cycle may be the most suited candidates for the examination of cell cycle activation and proliferation of primitive hematopoietic progenitor ... [more ▼]
Bone marrow (BM) CD34+ cells residing in the G0 phase of cell cycle may be the most suited candidates for the examination of cell cycle activation and proliferation of primitive hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs). We designed a double simultaneous labeling technique using both DNA and RNA staining with Hoechst 33342 and Pyronin Y, respectively, to isolate CD34+ cells residing in G0(G0CD34+). Using long-term BM cultures and limiting dilution analysis, G0CD34+ cells were found to be enriched for primitive HPCs. In vitro proliferation of G0CD34+ cells in response to sequential cytokine stimulation was examined in a two-step assay. In the first step, cells received a primary stimulation consisting of either stem cell factor (SCF), Flt3-ligand (FL), interleukin-3 (IL-3), or IL-6 for 7 days. In the second step, cells from each group were washed and split into four or more groups, each of which was cultured again for another week with one of the four primary cytokines individually, or in combination. Tracking of progeny cells was accomplished by staining cells with PKH2 on day 0 and with PKH26 on day 7. Overall examination of proliferation patterns over 2 weeks showed that cells could progress into four phases of proliferation. Phase I contained cytokine nonresponsive cells that failed to proliferate. Phase II contained cells dividing up to three times within the first 7 days. Phases III and IV consisted of cells dividing up to five divisions and greater than six divisions, respectively, by the end of the 14-day period. Regardless of the cytokine used for primary stimulation, G0CD34+ cells moved only to phase II by day 7, whereas a substantial percentage of cells incubated with SCF or FL remained in phase I. Cells cultured in SCF or FL for the entire 14-day period did not progress beyond phase III but proliferated into phase IV (with <20% of cells remaining in phases I and II) if IL-3, but not IL-6, was substituted for either cytokine on day 7. G0CD34+ cells incubated with IL-3 for 14 days proliferated the most and progressed into phase IV; however, when SCF was substituted on day 7, cells failed to proliferate into phase IV. Most intriguing was a group of cells, many of which were CD34+, detected in cultures initially stimulated with IL-3, which remained as a distinct population, mostly in G0/G1, unable to progress out of phase II regardless of the nature of the second stimulus received on day 7. A small percentage of these cells expressed cyclin E, suggesting that their proliferation arrest may have been mediated by a cyclin-related disruption in cell cycle. These results suggest that a programmed response to sequential cytokine stimulation may be part of a control mechanism required for maintenance of proliferation of primitive HPCs and that unscheduled stimulation of CD34+ cells residing in G0 may result in disruption of cell-cycle regulation. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 10 (1 ULg)
Functional heterogeneity of human CD34(+) cells isolated in subcompartments of the G0 /G1 phase of the cell cycle.
GOTHOT, André ; ; et al
in Blood (1997), 90(11), 4384-93
Using simultaneous Hoechst 33342 (Hst) and Pyronin Y (PY) staining for determination of DNA and RNA content, respectively, human CD34(+) cells were isolated in subcompartments of the G0 /G1 phase of the ... [more ▼]
Using simultaneous Hoechst 33342 (Hst) and Pyronin Y (PY) staining for determination of DNA and RNA content, respectively, human CD34(+) cells were isolated in subcompartments of the G0 /G1 phase of the cell cycle by flow cytometric cell sorting. In both bone marrow (BM) and mobilized peripheral blood (MPB) CD34(+) cells, primitive long-term hematopoietic culture-initiating cell (LTHC-IC) activity was higher in CD34(+) cells isolated in G0 (G0CD34(+) cells) than in those residing in G1 (G1CD34(+) cells). However, as MPB CD34(+) cells displayed a more homogeneous cell-cycle status within the G0 /G1 phase and a relative absence of cells in late G1 , DNA/RNA fractionation was less effective in segregating LTHC-IC in MPB than in BM. BM CD34(+) cells belonging to four subcompartments of increasing RNA content within the G0 /G1 phase were evaluated in functional assays. The persistence of CD34 expression in suspension culture was inversely correlated with the initial RNA content of test cells. Multipotential progenitors were present in G0 or early G1 subcompartments, while lineage-restricted granulomonocytic progenitors were more abundant in late G1 . In vitro hematopoiesis was maintained for up to 6 weeks with G0CD34(+) cells, whereas production of clonogenic progenitors was more limited in cultures initiated with G1CD34(+) cells. To test the hypothesis that primitive LTHC-ICs would reenter a state of relative quiescence after in vitro division, BM CD34(+) cells proliferating in ex vivo cultures were identified from their quiescent counterparts by a relative loss of membrane intercalating dye PKH2, and were further fractionated with Hst and PY. The same functional hierarchy was documented within the PKH2(dim) population whereby LTHC-IC frequency was higher for CD34(+) cells reselected in G0 after in vitro division than for CD34(+) cells reisolated in G1 or in S/G2 + M. However, the highest LTHC-IC frequency was found in quiescent PKH2(bright) CD34(+) cells. Together, these results support the concept that cells with distinct hematopoietic capabilities follow different pathways during the G0 /G1 phase of the cell cycle both in vivo and during ex vivo culture. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 15 (10 ULg)
Defective iron supply for erythropoiesis and adequate endogenous erythropoietin production in the anemia associated with systemic-onset juvenile chronic arthritis.
; ; et al
in Blood (1996), 87(11), 4824-30
Systemic-onset juvenile chronic arthritis (SoJCA) is associated with high levels of circulating interleukin-6 (IL-6) and is frequently complicated by severe microcytic anemia whose pathogenesis is unclear ... [more ▼]
Systemic-onset juvenile chronic arthritis (SoJCA) is associated with high levels of circulating interleukin-6 (IL-6) and is frequently complicated by severe microcytic anemia whose pathogenesis is unclear. Therefore, we studied 20 consecutive SoJCA patients with hemoglobin (Hb) levels <12 g/dL, evaluating erythroid progenitor proliferation, endogenous erythropoietin production, body iron status, and iron supply for erythropoiesis. Hb concentrations ranged from 6.5 to 11.9 g/dL. Hb level was directly related to mean corpuscular volume (r = .82, P < .001) and inversely related to circulating transferrin receptor (r = -.81, P < .001) suggesting that the severity of anemia was directly proportional to the degree of iron-deficient erythropoiesis. Serum ferritin ranged from 18 to 1,660 microgram/L and was unrelated to Hb level. Bone marrow iron stores wore markedly reduced in the three children investigated, and they also showed increased serum transferrin receptor and normal-to-high serum ferritin. All 20 patients had elevated IL-6 levels and normal in vitro growth of erythroid progenitors. Endogenous erythropoietin (epo) production was appropriate for the degree of anemia as judged by both the observed to predicted log (serum epo) ratio 10.95 +/- 0.12) and a comparison of the serum epo-Hb regression found in these subjects with that of thalassemia patients. Multiple regression analysis showed that serum transferrin receptor was the parameter most closely related to hemoglobin concentration: variation in circulating transferrin receptor explained 61% of the variation in Hb level (P < .001). In 10 severely anemic patients, amelioration of anemia following intravenous iron administration resulted in normalization of serum transferrin receptor. Defective iron supply to the erythron rather than blunted epo production is the major cause of the microcytic anemia associated with SoJCA. A true body-iron deficiency caused by decreased iron absorption likely complicates long-lasting inflammation in the most anemic children, and this can be recognized by high serum transferrin receptor levels. Although oral iron is of no benefit, intravenous iron saccharate is a safe and effective means for improving iron availability for erythropoiesis and correcting this anemia. Thus, while chronically high endogenous IL-6 levels do not appear to blunt epo production, they are probably responsible for the observed abnormalities in iron metabolism. Anemia of chronic disease encompasses a variety of anemic conditions whose peculiar features may specifically correlate with the type of cytokine(s) predominantly released. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 15 (1 ULg)
Prognostic Significance of bcl-2 Protein Expression in Aggressive Non-Hodkin's Lymphoma
; ; et al
in Blood (1996)Detailed reference viewed: 14 (2 ULg)
Early prediction of response to recombinant human erythropoietin in patients with the anemia of renal failure by serum transferrin receptor and fibrinogen.
Beguin, Yves ; ; R'Zik, Samir et al
in Blood (1993), 82(7), 2010-6
Recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEpo) has been shown to be effective in correcting the anemia of chronic renal failure, but the dose needed may be variable. The reason for this variation is not known ... [more ▼]
Recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEpo) has been shown to be effective in correcting the anemia of chronic renal failure, but the dose needed may be variable. The reason for this variation is not known, but several factors could be involved, such as iron deficiency, inflammation, aluminum intoxication, hyperparathyroidism, blood losses, or marrow dysfunction. Treatment with rHuEpo was given intravenously thrice weekly after hemodialysis to 64 consecutive unselected patients with the anemia of chronic renal failure. The starting dose was 50 U/kg/dose, which was increased to 75 and 100 U/kg/dose if no response was observed after 1 and 2 months of treatment. After a minimum follow-up of 6 months, response was evaluated as early (hematocrit [Hct] > or = 30% before 3 months) or late (Hct > or = 30% after 3 months) response, or failure (target Hct not attained). We examined the value of various laboratory parameters (baseline values and early changes) as predictors of response to rHuEpo. The best prediction by pretreatment parameters only was obtained with baseline serum transferrin receptor (TfR) (< or > or = 3,500 ng/mL) and fibrinogen (< or > or = 4 g/L): 100% response rate when both parameters were low, versus only 29% when they were both high, and versus 67% when one was low and the other high. When the 2-week TfR increment was greater than 20%, the response rate was 96%. When TfR increment was less than 20%, the response rate was 100% when baseline TfR and fibrinogen were low, 12% when fibrinogen was elevated, and 62% when fibrinogen was low but baseline TfR high. The predictive value of baseline TfR and fibrinogen and of the 2-week increment of TfR was confirmed by life table analysis and stepwise discriminant analysis. Major reasons for failure or late response were identified and included subclinical inflammation, iron deficiency, functional iron deficiency, marrow disorders, hemolysis, bleeding, and low Epo dose. We conclude that response to rHuEpo can be predicted early by pretreatment fibrinogen and TfR, together with early changes of TfR levels. These prognostic factors illustrate the importance of the early erythropoietic response, subclinical inflammation, and functional iron deficiency. Early recognition of a low probability of response in a given patient could help identify and correct specific causes of treatment failure to hasten clinical improvement and avoid prolonged ineffective use of an expensive medication. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 15 (3 ULg)
Quantitative assessment of erythropoiesis and functional classification of anemia based on measurements of serum transferrin receptor and erythropoietin.
Beguin, Yves ; ; et al
in Blood (1993), 81(4), 1067-76
We evaluated the quantitative value of a simple model of erythropoiesis, based on the basic assumptions that the red blood cell (RBC) mass determines erythropoietin (Epo) production, which in turn ... [more ▼]
We evaluated the quantitative value of a simple model of erythropoiesis, based on the basic assumptions that the red blood cell (RBC) mass determines erythropoietin (Epo) production, which in turn stimulates erythropoietic activity. The RBC mass was quantitated by direct isotopic measurement (RCM), Epo production by serum Epo levels, and erythropoiesis by the ferrokinetic measurement of the erythron transferrin uptake (ETU), the serum transferrin receptor (TfR) level, and the reticulocyte (retic) index, and was completed by an evaluation of overall marrow erythron cellularity. We studied a total of 195 subjects, including 31 normal individuals, 38 patients with polycythemia, and 126 patients with various forms of anemia. Instead of only quantitating Epo and erythropoiesis in absolute terms, we also evaluated them in relation to the degree of anemia or polycythemia, and expressed the results as a ratio of observed values to values predicted from the regression equations between hematocrit (Hct) on the one hand, and Epo, TfR, and ETU on the other, obtained in a carefully selected subpopulation. The slope of the regression of TfR (as well as ETU) versus Hct was very similar to the slope of the regression of Epo versus Hct. Average EPO and TfR (as well as ETU) values predicted from the regression equations were quite comparable to observed values in most groups of subjects, with exceptions predictable from knowledge of the pathophysiology of these hematologic disorders. We identified four major patterns of erythropoiesis, ie, normal, hyperdestruction (with variants of hemolysis or ineffective erythropoiesis), intrinsic marrow hypoproliferation, and defective Epo production. Dissecting out groups of patients showed much greater heterogeneity than when patients were analyzed by group. This was particularly true in the case of a hypoproliferative component being combined with hyperdestruction, giving what we called a "mixed disorder of erythropoiesis." We conclude that the pathophysiology of anemia can be assessed by a simple measurement of Hct, retic index, Epo, and TfR levels, with Epo and TfR being more informative when expressed in relation to the degree of anemia. The model is particularly useful for detecting the presence of multiple mechanisms of anemia in the same patient. However, it has limitations inherent to the relative invalidity of TfR in iron deficiency, the imprecision of a retic count, and the difficulty in distinguishing hemolysis from ineffective erythropoiesis in some patients and in recognizing a component of hyperdestruction in hypoproliferative anemia. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 27 (0 ULg)
Subcutaneous erythropoietin for treatment of refractory anemia in hematologic disorders. Results of a phase I/II clinical trial.
; ; Beguin, Yves et al
in Blood (1992), 79(1), 29-37
We have used recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO) in a phase I/II clinical trial to evaluate its ability to reverse refractory anemia in hematologic disorders. rHuEPO was administered subcutaneously ... [more ▼]
We have used recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO) in a phase I/II clinical trial to evaluate its ability to reverse refractory anemia in hematologic disorders. rHuEPO was administered subcutaneously 5 days per week at escalating doses (50 to 150 U/kg per day). The aim of treatment was a hemoglobin (Hb) level greater than or equal to 10 g/dL without blood transfusion. Of 25 patients treated, 17 were evaluable, most of them with a regular need for transfusion. Eight of these had lymphoproliferative disorders (three cases of malignant lymphoma and five of monoclonal gammopathy) and were exposed to cytotoxic therapy. The other nine patients had hematopoietic stem cell disorders (four cases of myelodysplastic syndrome, three of idiopathic myelofibrosis, and two of chronic myelogenous leukemia). All patients with lymphoproliferative disorder had serum EPO levels inappropriately low for the degree of anemia, while patients with stem cell disorder showed variable values. Erythroid marrow activity was inadequate in all cases. Seven of eight patients with lymphoproliferative disorder responded to treatment maintaining Hb above 10 g/dL without transfusion. The median dose of rHuEPO required for correction of anemia was 75 U/kg. In four cases response was maintained with 50 U/kg, three times per week. There was no complete response among patients with hematopoietic stem cell disorder, although transfusion requirement was eliminated or reduced in four cases. Four patients developed functional iron deficiency during rHuEPO treatment and required iron supplementation to obtain response. Aggravation of splenomegaly was observed in two cases of myeloproliferative disorder. We conclude that: (1) subcutaneous administration of rHuEPO can be effective and safe in patients with lymphoproliferative disorder exposed to chemotherapy and showing inappropriate EPO response to anemia; (2) this is less likely in hematopoietic stem cell disorders, although favorable responses may be observed in occasional patients; and (3) functional iron deficiency as a cause of nonresponse to rHuEPO is frequent also in nonrenal anemia. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 12 (0 ULg)
Blunted erythropoietin production and decreased erythropoiesis in early pregnancy.
Beguin, Yves ; ; et al
in Blood (1991), 78(1), 89-93
After decreasing in the first trimester of pregnancy, the total red blood cell mass increases in the second and third trimesters to peak at term at about 120% to 125% of nonpregnant values, but how this ... [more ▼]
After decreasing in the first trimester of pregnancy, the total red blood cell mass increases in the second and third trimesters to peak at term at about 120% to 125% of nonpregnant values, but how this is brought about by changes in the rate of erythropoiesis is not known. We evaluated erythropoiesis by measuring serum transferrin receptor (TfR) levels in 406 women during normal pregnancy (N = 317), at delivery (N = 63), or in the early postpartum (N = 27). Despite the presence of the placenta and the frequent occurrence of iron deficiency, TfR levels remained low in the first two trimesters and increased in the third trimester and at delivery. To explain why erythropoiesic activity was relatively low in early pregnancy, we also measured serum immunoreactive erythropoietin (Epo) in relation to the degree of anemia. There was a very strong correlation between serum TfR and Epo levels in the entire group (r = .59, P less than .0001) as well as in each period of pregnancy. Epo levels remained low for the degree of anemia and did not correlate with hematocrit in the first two trimesters, but recovered afterwards. In the early postpartum, Epo production and erythropoiesis were normal. We conclude that: (1) erythropoiesis is decreased in the first part of pregnancy but increases afterwards; and (2) blunted Epo production in early pregnancy could be responsible for that observation. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 11 (0 ULg)