References of "Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE]"
     in
Bookmark and Share    
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailLes distorsions de ségrégation chez les plantes et leurs conséquences sur l'amélioration génétique
Diouf, F.B.H.; Mergeai, Guy ULg

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2012), 16(4), 499-508

Detailed reference viewed: 14 (1 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailSimulation de la croissance du blé à l’aide de modèles écophysiologiques : Synthèse bibliographique des méthodes, potentialités et limitations.
Dumont, Benjamin ULg; Vancutsem, Françoise ULg; Seutin, Benoit ULg et al

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2012), 16(3), 376-386

Crop models describe the growth and development of a crop interacting with its surrounding agro-environmental conditions (soil, climate and close conditions of the plant). However, the implementation of ... [more ▼]

Crop models describe the growth and development of a crop interacting with its surrounding agro-environmental conditions (soil, climate and close conditions of the plant). However, the implementation of such models remains difficult because of the high number of explanatory variables and parameters. It often happens that important discrepancies appear between measured and simulated values. This article aims to highlight the different sources of uncertainty related to the use of crop models, as well as the actual methods that allow to compensate or, at least, to consider these sources of error during the model result analysis. This article presents a literature review that firstly synthetises the general mathematical structure of crop models. The main criteria for evaluating crop models are then described. Finally, several methods used for improving models are given. Parameter estimation methods, including frequentist and Bayesian approaches, are presented and data assimilation methods are reviewed. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 116 (33 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailDevelopment and application of a microplate method to evaluate the efficacy of essential oils against Penicillium italicum Wehmer, Penicillium digitatum Sacc. and Colletotrichum musea (Berk. M.A. Curtis) Arx, three postharvest fungal pathogens of fruits
Kouassi, Kouadio Hugues Sosthène ULg; Bajji, M.; Brostaux, Yves ULg et al

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2012), 16(3), 325-336

A microbioassay was developed for evaluating the in vitro antifungal activity of 30 preselected essential oils. A template based on 10 serial dilutions with eight replicates per dilution arranged on two ... [more ▼]

A microbioassay was developed for evaluating the in vitro antifungal activity of 30 preselected essential oils. A template based on 10 serial dilutions with eight replicates per dilution arranged on two 96-well ELISA plates was used as a reproducible and standardized design to identify the in vitro effectiveness of these essential oils against Penicillium italicum Wehmer, Penicillium digitatum Sacc. and Colletotrichum musea (Berk. M.A. Curtis) Arx, three postharvest fungal pathogens, on fruits. Growth of mycelium was monitored by measuring optical density (492 nm). Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Cinnamomum verum and Eugenia caryophyllus were found to be still active against all the three pathogens even at 100 ppm. Compared to other methods, this microbioassay proved to be a rapid, reproducible, and efficient method for testing the efficacy of essential oils that inhibit spore germination in P. italicum, P. digitatum and C. musea. The assay requires relatively small amounts of essential oils. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 107 (9 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailProgramme de Gestion Durable de l'Azote en agriculture. Considérations pratiques et conceptuelles sur la méthodologie du contrôle public du reliquat d'azote nitrique dans le sol des exploitations agricoles wallonnes
Vandenberghe, Christophe ULg; Palm, Rodolphe ULg; Lambert, Richard et al

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2012), 16(1), 25-32

Within the Walloon Action Programme, transposition of the Nitrates Directive, the Administration organizes each year a control of the soil nitrate nitrogen residues in about 900 parcels located in ... [more ▼]

Within the Walloon Action Programme, transposition of the Nitrates Directive, the Administration organizes each year a control of the soil nitrate nitrogen residues in about 900 parcels located in vulnerable zone in order to verify if the practices of nitrogen spreading by the farmers are in accordance with the Walloon Action Programme. The current method is to yearly spot “suspects” by a control in three parcels in about 300 farms and to follow “suspects” by an observation programme wich leads after maximum six years to a penalty or to the end of this programme. The present statistical study means to assess the public control’s methodology: what is the probability to penalize a “good” farmer, to forget a “bad” farmer? This study is based on real data and on a theoretical approach. Both conclusions indicate that the official methodology is sufficiently appropriate. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 64 (5 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailEffect of water stress on growth, water consumption and yield of silage maize under flood irrigation in a semi-arid climate of Tadla (Morocco)
BOUAZZAMA, Bassou ULg

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2012), 16(4), 468-477

The field study of crop response to water stress is important to maximize yield and improve agricultural water use efficiency in areas where water resources are limited. This study was carried out during ... [more ▼]

The field study of crop response to water stress is important to maximize yield and improve agricultural water use efficiency in areas where water resources are limited. This study was carried out during two growing periods in 2009 and 2010 in order to study the effect of water stress on crop growth, water consumption and dry matter yield of silage maize (Zea mays L.) supplied with flood irrigation under the semi-arid climate of Tadla in Morocco. Four to five irrigation treatments were applied at the rates of 100, 80, 60, 40 and 20% crop evapotranspiration (ETc) of maize. Soil water status, crop growth, leaf area index and above-ground biomass were measured. Results showed that irrigation deficit affected plant height growth, accelerated the senescence of the leaves and reduced the leaf area index. The maximum values of this parameter reached at flowering under the full irrigation treatment (100% ETc) were 5.1 and 4.8 in 2009 and 2010, respectively. Dry matter yields varied from 5.3 t.ha-1 under T4 (40% ETc) to 16.4 t.ha-1 under T1 (100% ETc) in 2009, whereas in 2010, it oscillated between 3.9 t.ha-1 under T5 (20% ETc) to 12.5 t.ha-1 under T1 (100% ETc). The establishment of the water budget by growth phase showed that the water use efficiency was higher during the linear phase of growth. Water use efficiency calculated at harvest varied between 2.99 kg.m-3 under T1 to 1.84 kg.m-3 under T5. The actual evapotranspiration under T1 (100% ETc) was 478 mm and 463 mm in 2009 and 2010, respectively. Using the averaged values of the two years, linear relationships were evaluated between dry matter yield and water consumption ETa. The yield response factor (Ky) for the silage maize for both growth seasons was 1.12. Under the Tadla semi-arid climate, it is proposed that silage maize should be irrigated as a priority before other crops with a Ky lower than 1.12. It is also recommended that, under limited water supplies, irrigation be applied during the linear phase of growth of this crop. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 4 (0 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailLes crèmes végétales : une alternative aux crèmes laitières
Anihouvi, Prudent; Danthine, Sabine ULg; Karamoko, Gaoussou ULg et al

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2012), 16(3), 344-359

Detailed reference viewed: 60 (23 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailKinetics of the hydrolysis of polysaccharide galacturonic acid and neutral sugars chains from flaxseed mucilage
Happi Emaga, Thomas; Rabetafika, Holy-Nadia ULg; Blecker, Christophe ULg et al

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2012), 16(2), 139-147

Detailed reference viewed: 40 (15 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailStructure, properties and obtention routes of flaxseed lignan secoisolariciresinol
Sainvitu, Pauline ULg; Nott, Katherine ULg; Richard, Gaetan ULg et al

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2012), 16(1), 115-124

Following a brief description of the structure and nomenclature of the lignan family, this review focuses on the flaxseed lignan secoisolariciresinol (SECO). The main properties, the analysis methods and ... [more ▼]

Following a brief description of the structure and nomenclature of the lignan family, this review focuses on the flaxseed lignan secoisolariciresinol (SECO). The main properties, the analysis methods and two routes for the preparation of SECO, i.e. extraction from renewable raw material and (hemi)-synthesis, are reviewed. Green methods recently developed for the first route and chemical syntheses inspired from biosyntheses for the second one are the main subjects of this paper. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 129 (41 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailHow to count elephants in West African savannahs? Synthesis and comparison of main gamecount methods
Bouché, Philippe ULg; Lejeune, Philippe ULg; Vermeulen, Cédric ULg

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2012), 16(1), 77-91

The comparison of some elephants count methods – aerial sampling count, aerial total count and direct foot count – has been presented through surveys’ study cases implemented in Benin, Burkina Faso and ... [more ▼]

The comparison of some elephants count methods – aerial sampling count, aerial total count and direct foot count – has been presented through surveys’ study cases implemented in Benin, Burkina Faso and Niger. We compare them in terms of effort and cost to survey an area (sampling efficiency), efficiency in data collection (detection efficiency) as well as accuracy and precision. Aerial sampling count returns low sampling and detection efficiency and very low precision and accuracy figures when counting elephants populations below 0.5 elephant.km-2. Precision can partly be improved by stratification. Direct foot count returns the best sampling and detection efficiency but insufficient data number to produce reliable estimates. Therefore some authors often produced no results for elephants. Aerial total count is a costly method in absolute value. It requires important logistic and no measure of error is possible. However it provides relatively good sampling and detection efficiency as well as relatively accurate figures appreciated by wildlife managers if technical requirements are respected. Aerial total count could be recommended to survey small population of West African elephants each 3 to 5 years to minimize yearly count costs. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 260 (19 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailCaractérisation des plantations privées de teck (Tectona grandis L.f.) du département de l'Atlantique au Sud-Bénin
Atindogbé, Gilbert; Fonton, Noël Houédougbé; Fandohan, Belarmain et al

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2012), 16(4), 441-451

Teak plantations are an undeniable asset, representing socio-economic and environmental importance in South Benin. Plantation owners see teak as an asset, enabling them to supplement their income through ... [more ▼]

Teak plantations are an undeniable asset, representing socio-economic and environmental importance in South Benin. Plantation owners see teak as an asset, enabling them to supplement their income through timber production and sales. Sustainable management of teak plantations requires a high level of knowledge and understanding of the resource by plantation owners. The snowball sampling method was used in order to reach private teak plantations owners. This is a chain sampling method, which uses information from the first informant (plantation owner) to trace the others in the sample. Data were collected on the socio-economic status of plantation owners, and on both the geographical location and the size of the plantations. Dendrometrical parameters were measured through strip sampling. Factor analysis followed by hierarchical classification and stepwise discriminant analysis were performed in order to build a profile of the owners. We have identified 2,431 owners and 2,624 plantations. Young plantations (up to 5 years old) represent 16.4% of the total plantation area, high forests 12.7% and coppices 70.9%. Overall, these plantations were small in size (average = 0.44 ha). The number of trees per ha was found to be high, regardless of the forest system (respectively 3,371 trees/ha for young plantations, 3006 trees/ha for high forests and 6305 trees/ha for coppice). These high numbers reflect the fact that the trees represent farm-grown timber. Four groups of owners were distinguished: smallholder farmers seeking income (group 1), small city dweller planters and those motivated by securing their properties (group 2), city dweller planters with medium size plantations (group 3); and owners with large-scale plantations (group 4). All groups were willing to secure their land or be involved in the timber trade. The specific characteristics of each group need to be taken into account in considering the sustainable management of private teak plantations in South Benin. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 69 (3 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailEcology and management of Pericopsis elata (Harms) Meeuwen (Fabaceae) populations: a review
Bourland, Nils ULg; Kouadio, Yao Lambert; Fétéké, Fousséni et al

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2012), 16(4), 486-498

Pericopsis elata (Fabaceae) is a valuable timber species occurring in moist semi-deciduous African forests. While it is at present substantially reduced, the tree’s natural distribution previously covered ... [more ▼]

Pericopsis elata (Fabaceae) is a valuable timber species occurring in moist semi-deciduous African forests. While it is at present substantially reduced, the tree’s natural distribution previously covered several distinct areas from Côte d’Ivoire to the Democratic Republic of Congo. This species has been logged since the second half of the 20th century. Because it suffers from a lack of regeneration, P. elata is now included in CITES Appendix II and is recorded as “Endangered A1cd” on the IUCN Red List. As with other long-lived light-demanding species, the survival of P. elata may have been favored by important disturbances that occurred in the Congo Basin during the last millennia. While both international trade and industrial uses of the wood of P. elata are well documented, information about its ecology are very sparse or contradictory, and even absent in some cases (e.g., regarding its effective flowering diameter). Furthermore, data describing the management of P. elata are scarce, including potential solutions to compensate for the deficit of natural regeneration. Along the same lines, genetic studies still remain at an early stage and only vague hypotheses have been offered to explain the origins of the tree’s populations. We emphasize the need for new research on those topics. Further studies would be useful in deciding whether P. elata populations can continue to be logged without the species being threatened with extinction. Finally, such research needs to target effective and inexpensive management procedures that could secure the future of the species in a logging context. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 139 (47 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailLes entérocoques : avantages et inconvénients en biotechnologie (synthèse bibliographique)
Aguilar Galvez, A.; Dubois Dauphin, Robin ULg; Destain, Jacqueline ULg et al

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2012), 16(1), 67-76

Detailed reference viewed: 28 (7 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailSilk moths in Madagascar: Biology, uses and challenges related to Borocera cajani (Boisduval, 1833) (Lepidoptera – Lasiocampidae)
Razafimanantsoa, Tsiresy; Rajoelison, Gabrielle; Ramamonjisoa, Bruno et al

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2012), 16(2), 269-276

Borocera cajani (Lepidoptera, Lasiocampidae), also named Landibe, is main wild silk moth currently used to produce silk textiles in Madagascar. Silk production involve many member of the local population ... [more ▼]

Borocera cajani (Lepidoptera, Lasiocampidae), also named Landibe, is main wild silk moth currently used to produce silk textiles in Madagascar. Silk production involve many member of the local population, from the wild silk harvesters, to the spinners, traders, dyers, weavers and the artisans who transform the silk into clothing, accessories and decorative items. Uapaca bojeri (Tapia) forests are the last remnants of highland primary forest, which are threatened by human destruction through bush fires, firewood collection and charcoal production. Uapaca bojeri forest in the highland shelters wild Malagasy silkworms Borocera cajani and is the main host plant of this Lepidoptera species. Both this tree and Borocera cajani are endemic of Madagascar. Due to other-harvest of pupae and destruction of nature forest, wild silk production in those early sites has largely disappeared. Studing Borocera cajani’s biology and revitalize its silk constitute a way to conserve them [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 108 (12 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailPresent status of the development of mycoherbicides against water hyacinth: successes and challenges. A review
Dagno, Karim; Lahlali, Rachid; Diourté, Mamourou et al

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2012), 16(3), 360-368

Recent trends in the implementation of bioherbicide use in the control of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes [Martius] Solms Laubach) have depended primarily on several strategies. The use of ... [more ▼]

Recent trends in the implementation of bioherbicide use in the control of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes [Martius] Solms Laubach) have depended primarily on several strategies. The use of bioherbicides has been stimulated as part of the search for alternatives to chemical control, as the use of these more environmentally-friendly formulations minimizes hazards resulting from herbicide residue to both human and animal health, and to the ecology. In addition, one of the major strategies in the concept of biological control is the attempt to incorporate biological weed control methods as a component of integrated weed management, in order to achieve satisfactory results while reducing herbicide application to a minimum. Several fungal pathogens with mycoherbicide potential (Sclerotinia sclerotiorum in Hyakill™ and Cercospora rodmanii, named ABG-5003) have been discovered on diseased water hyacinth plants, but none has become commercially available in the market. Biological, technological, and commercial constraints have hindered progress in this area. Many of these constraints are being addressed, but there is a critical need to better understand the biochemical and physiological data regarding the pathogenesis of these new bioherbicides. Oil emulsions are recognized as a way to increase both efficiency of application and efficacy of biocontrol agents. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 82 (1 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailPAMPs, MAMPs, DAMPs and others: An update on the diversity of plant immunity elicitors [PAMPs, MAMPs, DAMPs et autres: Mise à jour de la diversité des éliciteurs de l'immunité des plantes]
Henry, Guillaume; Thonart, Philippe ULg; Ongena, Marc ULg

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2012), 16(2), 257-268

Plants possess a broad array of defenses that could be actively expressed in response of pathogenic organisms or parasites but also following beneficial saprophytic microorganisms recognition ... [more ▼]

Plants possess a broad array of defenses that could be actively expressed in response of pathogenic organisms or parasites but also following beneficial saprophytic microorganisms recognition. Specifically, there are compounds derived from these organisms and called elicitors that are perceived by the plant to induce a locally or systemically expressed resistance. The understanding of the physiological and biological basis of these induced immunity mechanisms have greatly advanced over the past years but a deeper investigation of the mechanisms underlying the perception of elicitors is essential to develop novel strategies for pest control. The application of chemical and biological stimulators of plant immune defenses in conventional agriculture is expected to increase within the next years. Because of their organic origin and as they provide means for conferring plant protection in a non-transgenic manner, elicitors of plant immunity have a huge potential as biocontrol products. Through this review, we want to illustrate the diversity of compounds identified as stimulators of the plant immune system and describe the mechanisms by which they could be recognized at the plasma membrane level. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 102 (14 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailMicrosale interactions between earthworms and microorganisms, a review
Zirbes, Lara ULg; Thonart, Philippe ULg; Haubruge, Eric ULg

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2012), 16(1), 125-131

Detailed reference viewed: 19 (3 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailIdentité et écologie des espèces forestières commerciales d'Afrique Centrale: le cas de Milicia spp.
Daïnou, Kasso ULg; Doucet, Jean-Louis ULg; Sinsin, Brice et al

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2012), 16

Le terme iroko regroupe les deux espèces du genre africain Milicia et désigne le bois qui en est dérivé. Malgré une importance économique reconnue depuis plus de deux siècles et une diminution sensible ... [more ▼]

Le terme iroko regroupe les deux espèces du genre africain Milicia et désigne le bois qui en est dérivé. Malgré une importance économique reconnue depuis plus de deux siècles et une diminution sensible des densités de population du fait de l'exploitation, les connaissances scientifiques utiles à la gestion durable de l'iroko font défaut, particulièrement en Afrique Centrale. L'existence même d'une spéciation au sein du genre Milicia mérite d'être revérifiée: les caractères utilisés pour séparer les deux taxons M. excelsa (Welw.) C.C. Berg et M. regia (A. Chev.) C.C. Berg sont peu consistants et une révision de ces traits distinctifs permettrait de réétudier le niveau de vulnérabilité des populations de Milicia spp., et donc de revoir les stratégies de gestion de ce groupe taxonomique. M. regia n'a fait l'objet que de rares études écologiques tandis que M. excelsa, plus largement distribuée, a retenu l'attention scientifique en Afrique de l'Ouest, dans une certaine mesure. Dans tous les cas, les traits d'histoire de vie conditionnant la diversité génétique et le taux de régénération naturelle méritent d'être identifiés ou mieux décrits. En particulier, les connaissances existantes sur les populations reproductrices, les facteurs régulant la floraison, les patrons de fructification et de dispersion des diaspores, ainsi que d'autres caractères qui amènent à décrire l'iroko comme un arbre pionnier (besoins en lumière, dormance des graines) devraient être mieux documentés. Enfin, la dynamique même des populations naturelles de juvéniles devra également être mieux caractérisée. En l'absence de données fines en écologie, la durabilité de nombreuses ressources ligneuses commerciales est tributaire d'actions sylvicoles, lesquelles peuvent être coûteuses et ne pas être garanties sur le long terme. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 141 (28 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailPythium root rot of common bean : biology and control methods. A review
Nzungize, J.R.; Lyumugabe, F.; Busogoro, J.-P. et al

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2012), 16(3), 405-413

Pythium root rot constitutes a highly damaging constraint on the common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris L., grown in several areas of Eastern and Central Africa. Here, this food legume is cultivated intensively ... [more ▼]

Pythium root rot constitutes a highly damaging constraint on the common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris L., grown in several areas of Eastern and Central Africa. Here, this food legume is cultivated intensively under poor conditions of crop rotation due to the exiguity of the land in the region. Yield losses of up to 70 % in traditional local bean cultivars have been reported in Kenya and Rwanda. In this study, a detailed analysis of the biology and diversity of the Pythium genus was carried out in order to understand the mechanisms leading to the development of the disease. Various control methods for reducing the damage provoked by this disease were analyzed. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 28 (2 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailSauvetage d'embryons chez les légumineuses alimentaires en générale et dans le genre Phaseolus en particulier (synthèse bibliographique)
Barikissou, Eugénie; Baudoin, Jean-Pierre ULg

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2012), 16(2), 203-215

Detailed reference viewed: 21 (1 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailStructure spatiale des arbres des savanes boisées et forêts claires soudaniennes : implication pour les enrichissements forestiers
Fonton, Noël Houédougbé; Atindogbe, Gilbert; Fandohan, Belarmain et al

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2012), 16(4), 429-440

During the last decade, management of woodlands in the Sudanian region of Benin has been based on enrichment with valuable tree-species. Yet, no previous research has been undertaken to support enrichment ... [more ▼]

During the last decade, management of woodlands in the Sudanian region of Benin has been based on enrichment with valuable tree-species. Yet, no previous research has been undertaken to support enrichment design with respect to plant eye view, tree growth magnitude or survival capacity under local forest environments. To fill in this gap, Ripley's K function was used to assess the spatial pattern of trees, diameter classes and dominant valuable species in the Sudanian zone. Data were collected in four sites of variable size (150 X 100 m, 150 X 100 m, 100 X 50 m and 150 X 150 m). Mostly, the spatial patterns of the target species revealed small-clumps. Within these small-clumps, intraspecific repulsions were observed on average at a 3 m scale, while interspecific repulsions were noticed at a 4.5 m scale. Only a weak repulsion between diameter size was also remarked, suggesting that proximity to adult trees would not affect the survival of young plants. With regard to observed repulsion scales, we would suggest using a minimum of a 3 m space between trees of the same species and a 4.5 m space between trees of different species, for enrichment plantings in Sudanian woodlands, if based on the target species. However, this suggested spacing may not be optimal with regard to plant growth. Further investigation is needed to address this aspect. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 34 (6 ULg)