References of "Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE]"
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See detailLes entérocoques : avantages et inconvénients en biotechnologie (synthèse bibliographique)
Aguilar Galvez, A.; Dubois Dauphin, Robin ULg; Destain, Jacqueline ULg et al

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2012), 16(1), 67-76

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See detailSilk moths in Madagascar: Biology, uses and challenges related to Borocera cajani (Boisduval, 1833) (Lepidoptera – Lasiocampidae)
Razafimanantsoa, Tsiresy; Rajoelison, Gabrielle; Ramamonjisoa, Bruno et al

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2012), 16(2), 269-276

Borocera cajani (Lepidoptera, Lasiocampidae), also named Landibe, is main wild silk moth currently used to produce silk textiles in Madagascar. Silk production involve many member of the local population ... [more ▼]

Borocera cajani (Lepidoptera, Lasiocampidae), also named Landibe, is main wild silk moth currently used to produce silk textiles in Madagascar. Silk production involve many member of the local population, from the wild silk harvesters, to the spinners, traders, dyers, weavers and the artisans who transform the silk into clothing, accessories and decorative items. Uapaca bojeri (Tapia) forests are the last remnants of highland primary forest, which are threatened by human destruction through bush fires, firewood collection and charcoal production. Uapaca bojeri forest in the highland shelters wild Malagasy silkworms Borocera cajani and is the main host plant of this Lepidoptera species. Both this tree and Borocera cajani are endemic of Madagascar. Due to other-harvest of pupae and destruction of nature forest, wild silk production in those early sites has largely disappeared. Studing Borocera cajani’s biology and revitalize its silk constitute a way to conserve them [less ▲]

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See detailPresent status of the development of mycoherbicides against water hyacinth: successes and challenges. A review
Dagno, Karim; Lahlali, Rachid; Diourté, Mamourou et al

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2012), 16(3), 360-368

Recent trends in the implementation of bioherbicide use in the control of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes [Martius] Solms Laubach) have depended primarily on several strategies. The use of ... [more ▼]

Recent trends in the implementation of bioherbicide use in the control of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes [Martius] Solms Laubach) have depended primarily on several strategies. The use of bioherbicides has been stimulated as part of the search for alternatives to chemical control, as the use of these more environmentally-friendly formulations minimizes hazards resulting from herbicide residue to both human and animal health, and to the ecology. In addition, one of the major strategies in the concept of biological control is the attempt to incorporate biological weed control methods as a component of integrated weed management, in order to achieve satisfactory results while reducing herbicide application to a minimum. Several fungal pathogens with mycoherbicide potential (Sclerotinia sclerotiorum in Hyakill™ and Cercospora rodmanii, named ABG-5003) have been discovered on diseased water hyacinth plants, but none has become commercially available in the market. Biological, technological, and commercial constraints have hindered progress in this area. Many of these constraints are being addressed, but there is a critical need to better understand the biochemical and physiological data regarding the pathogenesis of these new bioherbicides. Oil emulsions are recognized as a way to increase both efficiency of application and efficacy of biocontrol agents. [less ▲]

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See detailPAMPs, MAMPs, DAMPs and others: An update on the diversity of plant immunity elicitors [PAMPs, MAMPs, DAMPs et autres: Mise à jour de la diversité des éliciteurs de l'immunité des plantes]
Henry, Guillaume; Thonart, Philippe ULg; Ongena, Marc ULg

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2012), 16(2), 257-268

Plants possess a broad array of defenses that could be actively expressed in response of pathogenic organisms or parasites but also following beneficial saprophytic microorganisms recognition ... [more ▼]

Plants possess a broad array of defenses that could be actively expressed in response of pathogenic organisms or parasites but also following beneficial saprophytic microorganisms recognition. Specifically, there are compounds derived from these organisms and called elicitors that are perceived by the plant to induce a locally or systemically expressed resistance. The understanding of the physiological and biological basis of these induced immunity mechanisms have greatly advanced over the past years but a deeper investigation of the mechanisms underlying the perception of elicitors is essential to develop novel strategies for pest control. The application of chemical and biological stimulators of plant immune defenses in conventional agriculture is expected to increase within the next years. Because of their organic origin and as they provide means for conferring plant protection in a non-transgenic manner, elicitors of plant immunity have a huge potential as biocontrol products. Through this review, we want to illustrate the diversity of compounds identified as stimulators of the plant immune system and describe the mechanisms by which they could be recognized at the plasma membrane level. [less ▲]

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See detailMicrosale interactions between earthworms and microorganisms, a review
Zirbes, Lara ULg; Thonart, Philippe ULg; Haubruge, Eric ULg

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2012), 16(1), 125-131

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See detailIdentité et écologie des espèces forestières commerciales d'Afrique Centrale: le cas de Milicia spp.
Daïnou, Kasso ULg; Doucet, Jean-Louis ULg; Sinsin, Brice et al

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2012), 16

Le terme iroko regroupe les deux espèces du genre africain Milicia et désigne le bois qui en est dérivé. Malgré une importance économique reconnue depuis plus de deux siècles et une diminution sensible ... [more ▼]

Le terme iroko regroupe les deux espèces du genre africain Milicia et désigne le bois qui en est dérivé. Malgré une importance économique reconnue depuis plus de deux siècles et une diminution sensible des densités de population du fait de l'exploitation, les connaissances scientifiques utiles à la gestion durable de l'iroko font défaut, particulièrement en Afrique Centrale. L'existence même d'une spéciation au sein du genre Milicia mérite d'être revérifiée: les caractères utilisés pour séparer les deux taxons M. excelsa (Welw.) C.C. Berg et M. regia (A. Chev.) C.C. Berg sont peu consistants et une révision de ces traits distinctifs permettrait de réétudier le niveau de vulnérabilité des populations de Milicia spp., et donc de revoir les stratégies de gestion de ce groupe taxonomique. M. regia n'a fait l'objet que de rares études écologiques tandis que M. excelsa, plus largement distribuée, a retenu l'attention scientifique en Afrique de l'Ouest, dans une certaine mesure. Dans tous les cas, les traits d'histoire de vie conditionnant la diversité génétique et le taux de régénération naturelle méritent d'être identifiés ou mieux décrits. En particulier, les connaissances existantes sur les populations reproductrices, les facteurs régulant la floraison, les patrons de fructification et de dispersion des diaspores, ainsi que d'autres caractères qui amènent à décrire l'iroko comme un arbre pionnier (besoins en lumière, dormance des graines) devraient être mieux documentés. Enfin, la dynamique même des populations naturelles de juvéniles devra également être mieux caractérisée. En l'absence de données fines en écologie, la durabilité de nombreuses ressources ligneuses commerciales est tributaire d'actions sylvicoles, lesquelles peuvent être coûteuses et ne pas être garanties sur le long terme. [less ▲]

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See detailPythium root rot of common bean : biology and control methods. A review
Nzungize, J.R.; Lyumugabe, F.; Busogoro, J.-P. et al

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2012), 16(3), 405-413

Pythium root rot constitutes a highly damaging constraint on the common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris L., grown in several areas of Eastern and Central Africa. Here, this food legume is cultivated intensively ... [more ▼]

Pythium root rot constitutes a highly damaging constraint on the common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris L., grown in several areas of Eastern and Central Africa. Here, this food legume is cultivated intensively under poor conditions of crop rotation due to the exiguity of the land in the region. Yield losses of up to 70 % in traditional local bean cultivars have been reported in Kenya and Rwanda. In this study, a detailed analysis of the biology and diversity of the Pythium genus was carried out in order to understand the mechanisms leading to the development of the disease. Various control methods for reducing the damage provoked by this disease were analyzed. [less ▲]

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See detailSauvetage d'embryons chez les légumineuses alimentaires en générale et dans le genre Phaseolus en particulier (synthèse bibliographique)
Barikissou, Eugénie; Baudoin, Jean-Pierre ULg

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2012), 16(2), 203-215

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See detailStructure spatiale des arbres des savanes boisées et forêts claires soudaniennes : implication pour les enrichissements forestiers
Fonton, Noël Houédougbé; Atindogbe, Gilbert; Fandohan, Belarmain et al

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2012), 16(4), 429-440

During the last decade, management of woodlands in the Sudanian region of Benin has been based on enrichment with valuable tree-species. Yet, no previous research has been undertaken to support enrichment ... [more ▼]

During the last decade, management of woodlands in the Sudanian region of Benin has been based on enrichment with valuable tree-species. Yet, no previous research has been undertaken to support enrichment design with respect to plant eye view, tree growth magnitude or survival capacity under local forest environments. To fill in this gap, Ripley's K function was used to assess the spatial pattern of trees, diameter classes and dominant valuable species in the Sudanian zone. Data were collected in four sites of variable size (150 X 100 m, 150 X 100 m, 100 X 50 m and 150 X 150 m). Mostly, the spatial patterns of the target species revealed small-clumps. Within these small-clumps, intraspecific repulsions were observed on average at a 3 m scale, while interspecific repulsions were noticed at a 4.5 m scale. Only a weak repulsion between diameter size was also remarked, suggesting that proximity to adult trees would not affect the survival of young plants. With regard to observed repulsion scales, we would suggest using a minimum of a 3 m space between trees of the same species and a 4.5 m space between trees of different species, for enrichment plantings in Sudanian woodlands, if based on the target species. However, this suggested spacing may not be optimal with regard to plant growth. Further investigation is needed to address this aspect. [less ▲]

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See detailImpact of sowing density and nitrogen fertilization on Rumex obtusifolius L. development in organic winter cereal crops
Stilmant, Didier; Bodson, Bernard ULg; Losseau, Céline

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2012), 16(3), 237-343

The control of Rumex obtusifolius L. (broad-leafed dock) is very important in organic farming systems. Indeed, concerns about managing this weed without the use of herbicides is one of the major factors ... [more ▼]

The control of Rumex obtusifolius L. (broad-leafed dock) is very important in organic farming systems. Indeed, concerns about managing this weed without the use of herbicides is one of the major factors limiting the uptake of these systems by conventional farmers. Against this backround, we analyzed the impact of two management practices on the development of R. obtusifolius populations in two winter cereal trials: spelt (triticum spelta [L.] thell.) and triticale (xtriticosecale [A.Camus]Wittm.). The management factors were sowing density (SD) and nitrogen fertilization (NF) at the tillering stage. The results showed that and increase in SD and NF led to stronger crop growth and better soil coverage by the end of sping, demonstrated by a significant decrease in photosynthetic active radiation (PAR) at soil level. However, although there was an SD effect, it was too weak in April to restrict an increase in R. obtusifolius populations through the recruitment of new R. obtusifulius plants. An increase in R. obtusifolius population density was also linked to an increase in the NF level, illustrating the nitrophilic character of this weed. Although an increase in SD and NF at the tillering stage led to a higher canopy density, these two practices failed to reduce R. Obtusifolius density in the cereal crops. Nevertheless, cereal yields were shown to be maintained or improved. Our results indicate that, even when combining weed harrowing and some cultural weed control methods, this perennial weed is difficult to control. [less ▲]

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See detailLa forêt de tapia, écosystème endémique de Madagascar : écologie, fonctions, causes de dégradation et de transformation (synthèse bibliographique)
Rakotondrasoa, Olivia Lovanirina; Malaisse, François ULg; Rajoelison, Gabrielle Lalanirina et al

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2012), 16(4), 541-552

Cet article constitue une synthèse sur la forêt de tapia (Uapaca bojeri Baill.) de Madagascar en vue de présenter son importance dans le développement de la communauté riveraine via l’amélioration des ... [more ▼]

Cet article constitue une synthèse sur la forêt de tapia (Uapaca bojeri Baill.) de Madagascar en vue de présenter son importance dans le développement de la communauté riveraine via l’amélioration des revenus par ménage. La forêt de tapia est une formation « socio-naturelle », à strate arborée quasi monospécifique et endémique de Madagascar. Elle est localisée uniquement dans les hautes terres malgaches. À part les fonctions écosystémiques, la forêt de tapia abrite différentes ressources naturelles, entre autres les produits forestiers non ligneux et ligneux, qui jouent un rôle important dans l’économie locale informelle. Toutefois, cette formation végétale est menacée par la destruction humaine à travers les feux de brousse, la production de bois de chauffe et de charbon de bois, l’extension de l’agriculture et l’envahissement par des espèces exotiques de reboisement. Subséquemment, la gestion durable et la protection de cette forêt sont essentielles afin que les populations riveraines puissent en profiter de génération en génération [less ▲]

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See detailPrincipes toxiques, toxicité et technologie de détoxification de la graine de Jatropha curcas L. (synthèse bibliographique)
Nesseim, Thierry Daniel Tamsir; Fillet, Marianne ULg; Mergeai, Guy ULg et al

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2012), 16(4), 531-540

The use of meal from the crushing of Jatropha curcas seed for livestock feed is limited owing to the variable amounts of seed available. This availability depends on the level and variety of toxic and ... [more ▼]

The use of meal from the crushing of Jatropha curcas seed for livestock feed is limited owing to the variable amounts of seed available. This availability depends on the level and variety of toxic and antinutritional compounds contained in the seed at a given time; the most important of these compounds are phorbol esters and curcin. The phorbol esters present in J. curcas seed are euphorbiaceae diterpenes, known for their inflammatory action resulting in irritation and toxicity to insects, fish and mammals. These compounds are sometimes completely degraded in soil and they may be reduced by physical, chemical or biological processes, with a reduction ratio of between 50 and 95%. Curcin is an irritating toxalbumin with lectin activity; it is inactivated by heat treatment at 121 °C for 30 min. Other antinutritional compounds are also present in J. curcas seed, such as saponins and an inhibitor of trypsin activity. This trypsin-inhibiting compound interferes with the digestion process and its reduction is achieved through thermal, chemical or biological treatments. The elimination of, or at least a reduction in the levels of, these molecules represents a rerequisite for using J. curcas meal in the livestock feed sector. [less ▲]

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See detailInvolvement of phenolic compounds in the susceptibility of bananas to crown rot. A review.
Ewane, Cécile Annie; Lepoivre, Philippe ULg; de Lapeyre de Bellaire, Luc et al

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2012), 16(3), 393-404

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See detailValorisation de la Carte Numérique des Sols de Wallonie et d’une base de données disponible en analyse de sols, dans le cadre de l’évaluation du risque de pollution des eaux souterraines par les pesticides
Bah, Boubacar Billo ULg; Vanclooster, Marnik; Oger, Robert ULg et al

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2011), 15(S2), 709-726

This study shows how the Digital Soil Map of Wallonia and the associated soil database Aardewerk can be combined with the MetaPEARL model to assess the sensitivity of agricultural soils to pesticide ... [more ▼]

This study shows how the Digital Soil Map of Wallonia and the associated soil database Aardewerk can be combined with the MetaPEARL model to assess the sensitivity of agricultural soils to pesticide transfer into underground water tables in Wallonia (Southern Belgium). MetaPEARL is based on an analytical expression which describes the concentration of leached pesticides at the soil profile bottom depending on available data on soil characteristics, climate and pesticide properties. The results show an important soil sensitivity to pesticide transfer with a coefficient of retention on organic matter (Kom) very weak (about 10 dm3.kg-1) or with a relatively high half-life time (DT50 about 60 days). In this case, the pesticide is weakly retained by soil organic matter or slowly degraded and then stays available in the soil and can be quickly leached during rainfalls. In other respects, the pesticide sensitivity to leaching is strongly correlated with soil texture and its organic matter content. It is also observed that the concentration of leached pesticide is strongly depending of the rainfall surplus (water flux into the soil or hydrous balance). A sensitivity analysis has shown that the model is very sensitive to soil thickness, to organic matter content, to the bulk density of the mineral fraction by textural classes and of the organic matter. Therefore, these pedological variables have to be assessed with the highest precision to avoid adding further uncertainty to the predictions obtained. On the basis of the most sensitive soil variables, the analysis of “spatial” uncertainty related to the results delivered by MetaPEARL, due to the consideration of an unique representative value by soil type and by region (deterministic approach), shows that this approach tends to under-estimate the concentration of pesticide leached in the soil. And that compared to the use of a stochastic simulation (probabilistic approach) which takes into account the soil characteristic variability within a given soil type. This stochastic approach allows also the calculation of a more relevant threshold of risk probability (percentile) which can be compared to an imposed standard in view to enhance a sustainable management of natural resources. [less ▲]

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See detailApport de l'approche multicouche et du signal isotopique pour la compréhension de la respiration du sol en écosystème forestier
Goffin, Stéphanie ULg; Longdoz, Bernard; Aubinet, Marc ULg

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2011), 15(4), 575-584

Le flux de dioxyde de carbone émanant du sol participe de manière prépondérante au cycle du carbone. On estime son amplitude à 68 ± 4 Pg C/an. En forêt tempérée, il représente approximativement 60-80% des ... [more ▼]

Le flux de dioxyde de carbone émanant du sol participe de manière prépondérante au cycle du carbone. On estime son amplitude à 68 ± 4 Pg C/an. En forêt tempérée, il représente approximativement 60-80% des émissions totales de CO2 de l’écosystème (respiration de l’écosystème). Compte tenu de l’ampleur de ce flux et des conséquences qu’aurait une quelconque modification de son amplitude sur le chargement en dioxyde de carbone de l’atmosphère, il est primordial d’améliorer la connaissance des mécanismes qui le régissent et de connaître précisément l’influence des variables du milieu (édaphiques et climatiques). Cet article vise à montrer l’intérêt d’effectuer des analyses multicouches des mécanismes à l’origine de ce flux (transport et production) plutôt que de restreindre les études à la surface du sol. De plus, cet article souligne le bénéfice apporté par l’outil isotopique pour améliorer la compréhension mécaniste de ce flux. [less ▲]

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See detailKinetics of the hydrolysis of polysaccharide galacturonic acid and neutral sugars chains from flaxseed mucilage
Happi Emaga, Thomas; Rabetafika, Holy-Nadia ULg; Blecker, Christophe ULg et al

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2011), (2012 16(2)), 139-147



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See detailThe use of semiochemical slow-release devices in integrated pest management strategies
Heuskin, Stéphanie ULg; Verheggen, François ULg; Haubruge, Eric ULg et al

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2011), 15(3), 459-470

The development of integrated pest management (IPM) strategies is increasing since many problems appeared with the use of synthetic pesticides. Semiochemicals – informative molecules used in insect-insect ... [more ▼]

The development of integrated pest management (IPM) strategies is increasing since many problems appeared with the use of synthetic pesticides. Semiochemicals – informative molecules used in insect-insect or plant-insect interaction – are more and more considered within IPM strategies as alternative or complementary approach to insecticide treatments. Indeed, these species-specific compounds do not present any related adversely affectation of beneficial organisms and do not generate any risk of pest insect resistance as observed with insecticides. Because of their complex biological activity, their dispersion in the environment to be protected or monitored needs the elaboration of slow-release devices ensuring a controlled release of the biologically active volatile compounds. These sensitive molecules also need to be protected from degradation by UV light and oxygen. Many studies were conducted on estimation of release-rate from commercialized or experimental slow-release devices. The influence of climatic parameters and dispenser type were estimated by previous authors in order to provide indications about the on-field longevity of lures. The present review outlines a list of slow-release studies conducted by many authors followed by a critical analysis of these studies. [less ▲]

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See detailBiosensors in Forensic Sciences
Frederickx, Christine ULg; Verheggen, François ULg; Haubruge, Eric ULg

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2011), 15(3), 449-458

A biosensor is a device that uses biological materials to monitor the presence of specific chemicals in an area. Traditional methods of volatile detection used by the law enforcement agencies and rescue ... [more ▼]

A biosensor is a device that uses biological materials to monitor the presence of specific chemicals in an area. Traditional methods of volatile detection used by the law enforcement agencies and rescue teams consist in the canine olfaction. This concept of using dogs to detect specific substances is quite old. However, dogs have some limitations such as cost of training, time of conditioning. Thus, the possibility of using other organisms as biosensors including rats, dolphins, honeybees, parasitic wasps in detection of explosives, narcotics and cadavers has been developed. But, insects have several advantages unshared by mammalians. Insects are very sensitive, cheap to produce and can be conditioned with impressive speed for a specific chemical-detection task. Moreover, insects might be a preferred sensing method in scenarios that are deemed too dangerous to use mammalian. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of the biosensors used in forensic sciences [less ▲]

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See detailCulture in vitro de Jatropha curcas L.
Medza Mve, Samson Daudet ULg; Mergeai, Guy ULg; Baudoin, Jean-Pierre ULg et al

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2011), 15(4), 567-574

The extension of Jatropha curcas L. cultivation as a biofuel feedstock species requires the distribution of a very large number of plants to the producers in a very short period of time. These plants have ... [more ▼]

The extension of Jatropha curcas L. cultivation as a biofuel feedstock species requires the distribution of a very large number of plants to the producers in a very short period of time. These plants have to be able to give a high oil yield and be morphologically and phenotypically homogeneous to facilitate cultural operations. If high oil content can be obtained by varietal selection, the achievement of homogeneous material passes by the in vitro propagation. Various methods of mass production of plant material by axenic culture have been published. This study reviews the protocols published for in vitro propagation of J. curcas and discusses their applicability to an industrial scale. [less ▲]

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See detailLutte contre les ravageurs des stocks de céréales et de légumineuses au Sénégal et en Afrique occidentale : synthèse bibliographique
Gueye, Momar Talla; Seck, Dogo; Wathelet, Jean-Paul ULg et al

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2011), 15(1), 183-194

Post-harvest losses of cereals and legumes are a major problem in Senegal and West Africa. The solutions to eliminate insects, major pests of stored products were mainly chemical. However, due to ... [more ▼]

Post-harvest losses of cereals and legumes are a major problem in Senegal and West Africa. The solutions to eliminate insects, major pests of stored products were mainly chemical. However, due to pollution associated with pesticides use, selection of resistant strains, environmental pollution, poisoning, the search for alternatives is needed. It is reported on different methods of protecting stocks performed alternatively or in combination with pesticides. The major pest species encountered, particularly Prostephanus truncatus (Horn), insect emerging in Senegal, could be controlled by alternative methods including specially the use of insecticide plants. Different aspects related to this alternative way to chemical pesticides are reviewed herein. Keywords. Cereals, pulses, post-harvest, control, pesticides, insecticide plants. [less ▲]

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