References of "Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE]"
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See detailReusability study of Novozym® 435 for the enzymatic synthesis of mannosyl myristate in pure ionic liquids
Galonde, Nadine ULg; Richard, Gaetan ULg; Deleu, Magali ULg et al

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2013)

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See detailLittérature scientifique et formation à l'information, la situation des bioingénieurs à Gembloux Agro-Bio Tech (ULg).
Pochet, Bernard ULg; Lepoivre, Philippe ULg; Thirion, Paul ULg

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2013), 17(1),

This article is written from a doctoral work on the role of scientific literature in the bioengineers' teaching at Gembloux. It is essentially a summary including recent advances in information literacy ... [more ▼]

This article is written from a doctoral work on the role of scientific literature in the bioengineers' teaching at Gembloux. It is essentially a summary including recent advances in information literacy. Data analysis indicates that the bioengineers working at Gembloux publish at least as much as other scientists in Belgium, they preferentially publish articles in journals with impact factor, they read preferentially articles and they use all electronic resources available to them. Their fields of research, and reading, goes beyond the strict sense of agronomy. The courses provided at Gembloux are based on the concept of information literacy. It describes a set of skills that allow individuals to recognize an information need and enable them to locate, valuate and use needed information. The Information Literacy concept has evolved over the last two decades. Information literacy education is going well beyond the library. The skills involved are also social and cultural skills besides intellectual skills. They include media and new information technologies without being reduced to technical or technological skills. At Gembloux, the information literacy education, is registered in student's schedule, integrates production of scientific papers and is based on a methodological approach and his own didactic and specific contents. [less ▲]

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See detailTÉvolution des connaissances sur les fonctionnalités de la fraction protéose-peptone du lait: Propriétés techno-fonctionnelles et biologiques (synthèse bibliographique)
Karamoko, Gaoussou ULg; Anihouvi, Prudent; Blecker, Christophe ULg

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2013), 17(2), 373-382

he total proteose-peptone fraction (TPP) is defined as a heat-stable soluble fraction of milk, representing about 10% of the whey protein. TPP is divided into two classes according to its origin. The ... [more ▼]

he total proteose-peptone fraction (TPP) is defined as a heat-stable soluble fraction of milk, representing about 10% of the whey protein. TPP is divided into two classes according to its origin. The first class consists of proteolysis fragments of the β-casein from the N-terminal region. These are non-hydrophobic fractions, which are the highly soluble β-CN-5P (f1-105/107); β-CN-4P (f1-28) and β-CN-1P (f29-105/107) respectively called PP5 (14.3 kDa), PP8S (9.9 kDa), and PP8F (4 kDa). The second class includes the hydrophobic fractions of glycoproteins, whose major constituents are a glycoprotein LP28, the highly hydrophobic glycoprotein LP18 and a hydrophobic peptide with apparent Mr, respectively 28 kDa, 18 kDa and 11 kDa. TPP has numerous interesting characteristics such as techno-functional properties (emulsifying and foaming actions) and biological properties (lipolysis inhibition and antimicrobial activities), making TPP usable as a potential functional ingredient for industry. In addition, these functional properties are partly governed by the major components including glycoproteins, such as LP28, due to their hydrophobic nature. [less ▲]

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See detailJatropha curcas L. (Euphorbiaceae): Insectes ravageurs et propriétés biocides
Abdoul Habou, Zakari; Toudou, Adam; Haubruge, Eric ULg et al

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2013), 17(4), 604-612

Jatropha curcas, ou Pourghère, est un arbuste de la famille des Euphorbiacées, largement répandu dans les pays tropicaux. Ses graines sont riches d'une huile pouvant servir de biocarburant dans les ... [more ▼]

Jatropha curcas, ou Pourghère, est un arbuste de la famille des Euphorbiacées, largement répandu dans les pays tropicaux. Ses graines sont riches d'une huile pouvant servir de biocarburant dans les moteurs diesels modifiés. La plante est attaquée par divers insectes ravageurs appartenant principalement aux ordres des Hétéroptères, Coléoptères et Orthoptères. Ils provoquent des dégâts sur les fruits, les inflorescences et les feuilles. Les ravageurs les plus fréquemment observés sur J. curcas sont des punaises du genre Pachycoris (Hétéroptère : Scutelleridae), qui sont largement répandues au Mexique, en Australie, aux États-Unis, au Brésil et au Nicaragua. Ces punaises causent des dégâts importants sur les fruits et provoquent la malformation des graines, et avec elle une réduction de la teneur en huile. Même si les arbustes de Jatropha sont victime d'infestations d'insectes, plusieurs études démontrent l'effet insecticide de son huile contre des ravageurs importants tels que Busseola fusca (Fuller) (Lépidoptère : Noctuidae), Sesamia calamistis Hampson (Lépidoptère : Noctuidae), Aphis gossypii Glover (Homoptère: Aphididae) et Callosobruchus chinensis L. (Coléoptère : Bruchidae). Dans ce document, nous présentons dans une première partie les principaux insectes ravageurs de J. curcas et dans une seconde section les effets insecticides démontrés de son huile. [less ▲]

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See detailThe development of knowledge regarding the characteristics of the proteose peptone fraction of milk: Techno-functional and biological properties. A review
Karamoko, Gaoussou ULg; Anihouvi, Prudent; Blecker, Christophe ULg

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2013), 17(2), 373-382

The total proteose-peptone fraction (TPP) is defined as a heat-stable soluble fraction of milk, representing about 10% of the whey protein. TPP is divided into two classes according to its origin. The ... [more ▼]

The total proteose-peptone fraction (TPP) is defined as a heat-stable soluble fraction of milk, representing about 10% of the whey protein. TPP is divided into two classes according to its origin. The first class consists of proteolysis fragments of the β-casein from the N-terminal region. These are non-hydrophobic fractions, which are the highly soluble β-CN-5P (f1-105/107); β-CN-4P (f1-28) and β-CN-1P (f29-105/107) respectively called PP5 (14.3 kDa), PP8S (9.9 kDa), and PP8F (4 kDa). The second class includes the hydrophobic fractions of glycoproteins, whose major constituents are a glycoprotein LP28, the highly hydrophobic glycoprotein LP18 and a hydrophobic peptide with apparent Mr, respectively 28 kDa, 18 kDa and 11 kDa. TPP has numerous interesting characteristics such as techno-functional properties (emulsifying and foaming actions) and biological properties (lipolysis inhibition and antimicrobial activities), making TPP usable as a potential functional ingredient for industry. In addition, these functional properties are partly governed by the major components including glycoproteins, such as LP28, due to their hydrophobic nature. [less ▲]

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See detailHabitat diversity of the Multicolored Asian ladybeetle Harmonia axyridis Pallas (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) in agricultural and arboreal ecosystems: a review
Vandereycken, Axel ULg; Durieux, Delphine ULg; Joie, Emilie ULg et al

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2012), 16(4), 553-563

The Multicolored Asian ladybeetle, Harmonia axyridis (Pallas), native to Asia, is an invasive species in many European and American countries. Initially introduced as a biological control agent against ... [more ▼]

The Multicolored Asian ladybeetle, Harmonia axyridis (Pallas), native to Asia, is an invasive species in many European and American countries. Initially introduced as a biological control agent against aphids and coccids in greenhouses, this alien species rapidly invaded many habitats such as forests, meadows, wetlands, and agricultural crops. This paper reviews the habitats (forests, crops, herbs, gardens and orchards) where H. axyridis has been observed, either during insect samplings or as part of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) programs. Studies have referenced H. axyridis on 106 plant taxa (35 arboreal species, 21 crop species, 27 herbaceous species, 11 ornamental species, and 12 orchard species) and have identified 89 plant- prey relationships (34 arboreal species, 16 crop species, 13 herbaceous species, 10 ornamental species, and 16 orchard species) in different countries. Harmonia axyridis is more abundant in forest areas, principally on Acer, Salix, Tilia and Quercus, than in agroecosystems. Some plant species, such as Urtica dioica L., which surround crops, contain large numbers of H. axyridis and could constitute important reserves of this alien species in advance of aphid invasions into crops. This review highlights the polyphagy and eurytopic aspect of H. axyridis. [less ▲]

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See detailLes modèles de microbiologie prévisionellepour la maitrise de la sécurité des aliments (synthèse bibliographique)
Delhalle, Laurent ULg; Daube, Georges ULg; Adolphe, Ysabelle ULg et al

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2012), 16(3), 369-381

Predictive microbiology aims to predict the evolution of microorganisms in foods with mathematical models. Several models have been published and the complexity of some of them makes their use difficult ... [more ▼]

Predictive microbiology aims to predict the evolution of microorganisms in foods with mathematical models. Several models have been published and the complexity of some of them makes their use difficult for the uninitiated. However, the use of this discipline will become widespread in coming years. These models provide, for example, additional tools to ensure the microbiological safety of food, to establish the contamination flow in a food chain, to develop and to assist the quality assurance systems. The development of new computer software and database will enable stakeholders in the food chain to have a better control of microbiological hazards. The aim of this summary is to give an overview of existing models of predictive microbiology and their applications. A first approach of the primary, secondary and tertiary models is given. The modelling of latency, integrated models and growth tests are also discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailCharacteristics of African traditional beers brewed with sorghum malt: a review
Lyumugabe, F.; Gros, J.; Nzungize, J. et al

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2012), 16(4), 509-530

Traditional sorghum beers are produced in several countries of Africa, but variations in the manufacturing process may occur depending on the geographic localization. These beers are very rich in calories ... [more ▼]

Traditional sorghum beers are produced in several countries of Africa, but variations in the manufacturing process may occur depending on the geographic localization. These beers are very rich in calories, B-group vitamins including thiamine, folic acid, riboflavin and nicotinic acid, and essential amino acids such as lysine. However, the traditional sorghum beer is less attractive than Western beers because of its poorer hygienic quality, organoleptic variations and shorter shelf life. Research into the microbiological and biochemical characteristics of traditional sorghum beers as well as their technologies have been performed and documented in several African countries. This review aims to summarize the production processes and compositional characteristics of African traditional sorghum beers (ikigage, merissa, doro, dolo, pito, amgba and tchoukoutou). It also highlights the major differences between these traditional beers and barley malt beer, consumed worldwide, and suggests adaptations that could be made to improve the production process of traditional sorghum beer. [less ▲]

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See detailCinétique de décroissance de la surface verte et estimation du rendement du blé d’hiver
Kouadio, Amani Louis ULg; Djaby, Bakary ULg; Grégory, Duveiller et al

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2012), 16(2), 179-191

A large number of agrometeorological models for crop yield assessment are available with various levels of complexity and empiricism. However, the current development of models for wheat yield forecasting ... [more ▼]

A large number of agrometeorological models for crop yield assessment are available with various levels of complexity and empiricism. However, the current development of models for wheat yield forecasting does not always reflect the inclusion of the loss of valuable green area and its relation to biotic and abiotic processes in production situation. In this study the senescence phase of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is monitored through the GAI (Green Area Index), calculated from digital hemispherical photography taken over plots in Belgium, Grand-Duchy of Luxembourg and France. Two curve-fitting functions (modified Gompertz and modified logistic) are used to describe the senescence phase. Metrics derived from these functions and characterizing this phase (i.e. the maximum value of GAI, the senescence rate and the time taken to reach either 37% or 50% of the green surface in the senescent phase) are related to final grain yields. The regression-based models calculated with these metrics showed that final yield could be estimated with a coefficient of determination of 0,83 and a RMSE of 0,48 t.ha-1. Such simple models may be considered as a first yield estimates that may be performed in order to provide a better integrated yield assessment in operational systems. Indeed, estimation of cereal-crop production, particularly wheat, is considered as a priority in most crop research programs due to the relevance of food grain to world agricultural production. [less ▲]

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See detailDéfinition du profil écologique de l'azobé, Lophira alata, une espèce ligneuse africaine de grande importance : synthèse bibliographique et perspectives pour des recherches futures
Biwole, Achille ULg; Bourland, Nils ULg; Daïnou, Kasso ULg et al

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2012), 16(2), 217-228

Over two decades, labors made in order to promote sustainable management of African tropical forests are tackled to the lack of knowledge about this complex ecosystem. Ecological parameters of timber ... [more ▼]

Over two decades, labors made in order to promote sustainable management of African tropical forests are tackled to the lack of knowledge about this complex ecosystem. Ecological parameters of timber species are no more studied, this complicates long-term sustainable forest management. This literature review related to the ecology and silviculture of ekki, Lophira alata Banks ex C.F.Gaertn. (Ochnaceae), a main African timber species recorded as “vulnerable” in the IUCN Red List, will serve as a study’s case. The planned literature review reveals the doubt about its taxonomy, as well as the lack of understanding concerning its reproductive biology, growth conditions, population dynamics parameters, and the spatial distribution of its genetic diversity. The deficiency of knowledge about its ecological needs and the factors which have historically influenced its population dynamics explain why most silvicultural trails provide hazardous and uncertain results. Remedying these gaps in order to improve its ecological characterization and innovative silvicultural trails, would be a significant contribution to the sustainable management of its populations. [less ▲]

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See detailInfluence de l'état d'ameublissement et de la rugosité du sol des parcelles agricoles sur l'exactitude de l'altitude des points de contrôle positionnés au GPS
Ouedraogo, Mohamar ULg; Debouche, Charles ULg; Degre, Aurore ULg

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2012), 16(1), 33-44

Our goal in this study is to estimate through ranges of variation, the impact of agricultural parcels soil’s tilth and roughness, due to cultivation techniques, on the exactness of ground control points ... [more ▼]

Our goal in this study is to estimate through ranges of variation, the impact of agricultural parcels soil’s tilth and roughness, due to cultivation techniques, on the exactness of ground control points elevation surveyed by RTK (Real Time Kinematic) GPS (Global Positioning System). So, 16 point’s elevations which were located each 100 mm on a transect have been surveyed first by using a total station (TS), and then a RTK GPS in 2 parcels (3 transects per parcel). Cultivation techniques on those parcels were different. The parcel 1 was tilled, and the soil of parcel 2 was prepared for cereal cropping. Then, the analysis of variance has been applied on the differences of TS and RTK GPS elevations data to estimate the confidence interval of ground control points elevation due (i) to soil tilth, whereas the times series statistical method have been applied on elevation data to estimate the confidence interval due (ii) to soil roughness. The confidence intervals of points elevation are estimated being (i) [51 mm; 57 mm], (ii) [-4 mm; 4 mm] for parcel 1, and (i) [97 mm; 113 mm], (ii) [-35 mm; 23 mm], for parcel 2. Results show that ground control point’s elevations exactness is influenced by soil tilth and soil roughness. In conclusion, we can admit that soil tilth and soil roughness have significant impact on the exactness of ground control points located on agricultural parcels. This impact must be considered in DEM errors evaluation of agricultural watershed. [less ▲]

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See detailEcological review of black-grass (Alopecurus myosuroides Huds.) propagation abilities in relationship with herbicide resistance
Maréchal, Pierre-Yves ULg; Henriet, François; Vancutsem, Françoise ULg et al

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2012), 16(1),

Alopecurus myosuroides Huds. (vulpin des champs) a toujours été une préoccupation majeure pour les céréaliculteurs et le développement de la résistance aux herbicides n’améliore pas la situation. Cet ... [more ▼]

Alopecurus myosuroides Huds. (vulpin des champs) a toujours été une préoccupation majeure pour les céréaliculteurs et le développement de la résistance aux herbicides n’améliore pas la situation. Cet article de synthèse résume les différents critères impliqués dans les modèles de dispersion d’individus de vulpin des champs au sein d’un champ ou d’une population sensible. Pour ce faire, le cycle complet du vulpin est décrit de la semence à la semence. Depuis le développement végétatif précoce jusqu’à la chute de la graine, chaque étape est décrite en prenant en compte comment la résistance aux herbicides peut influencer ou exercer un impact différent par rapport à des plantes sensibles. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Status of the Medium-Sized Ungulate Populations in 2010, Nazinga Game Ranch, Burkina Faso (Western Africa)
Marchal, Antoine; Lejeune, Philippe ULg; Ouedraogo, Moumouni et al

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2012), 16(3),

The present study consists of analyzing the raw data collected from the annual line-transect foot count of medium-sized ungulates, carried out at the Nazinga Game Ranch (NGR), Burkina Faso (Western Africa ... [more ▼]

The present study consists of analyzing the raw data collected from the annual line-transect foot count of medium-sized ungulates, carried out at the Nazinga Game Ranch (NGR), Burkina Faso (Western Africa), in both 2001 and 2010. The annual census focused on the seven main medium-sized ungulates, namely (in alphabetical order), the Bushbuck (Tragelaphus scriptus), the Common Warthog (Phacochoerus africanus), the Defassa Waterbuck (Kobus ellipsiprymnus), the Grimm’s Duiker (Sylvicapra grimmia), the Oribi (Ourebia ourebi), the Roan Antelope (Hippotragus equinus) and the Western Hartebeest (Alcelaphus buselaphus). The census also focused on illegal anthropogenic activities. The wildlife populations were quantitatively analyzed through an estimation of their absolute density via the distance sampling method and through their evolution over the last decade using two relative density indexes, namely the Kilometric Abundance Index (KAI) and a spatial distribution index. These indexes were also used to measure the evolution of illegal activities over the same period. Both the wildlife observations and the anthropogenic observations were mapped using the Kernel method. Following an increasing trend in their population between 2001 and 2010, both the Roan Antelope and the Western Hartebeest reached an estimated density of 4.7 individuals per km², while the Defassa Waterbuck reached 2.4 individuals per km². Following an inverse trend over the same period, the Bushbuck, the Grimm’s Duiker and the Oribi reached an estimated density of 0.4 individuals per km². As for the Common Warthog, its estimated density of 2.5 individuals per km² seemed to remain unchanged during that decade. A comparison between wildlife observations and anthropogenic observations reveals a high decrease in animal densities in the north, east and west peripheral borders of the NGR and a flagrant extension of the proportion of the ranch being subjected to illegal activities (poaching, cattle herding, etc.). [less ▲]

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See detailLes distorsions de ségrégation chez les plantes et leurs conséquences sur l'amélioration génétique
Diouf, F.B.H.; Mergeai, Guy ULg

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2012), 16(4), 499-508

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See detailSimulation de la croissance du blé à l’aide de modèles écophysiologiques : Synthèse bibliographique des méthodes, potentialités et limitations.
Dumont, Benjamin ULg; Vancutsem, Françoise ULg; Seutin, Benoit ULg et al

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2012), 16(3), 376-386

Crop models describe the growth and development of a crop interacting with its surrounding agro-environmental conditions (soil, climate and close conditions of the plant). However, the implementation of ... [more ▼]

Crop models describe the growth and development of a crop interacting with its surrounding agro-environmental conditions (soil, climate and close conditions of the plant). However, the implementation of such models remains difficult because of the high number of explanatory variables and parameters. It often happens that important discrepancies appear between measured and simulated values. This article aims to highlight the different sources of uncertainty related to the use of crop models, as well as the actual methods that allow to compensate or, at least, to consider these sources of error during the model result analysis. This article presents a literature review that firstly synthetises the general mathematical structure of crop models. The main criteria for evaluating crop models are then described. Finally, several methods used for improving models are given. Parameter estimation methods, including frequentist and Bayesian approaches, are presented and data assimilation methods are reviewed. [less ▲]

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See detailDevelopment and application of a microplate method to evaluate the efficacy of essential oils against Penicillium italicum Wehmer, Penicillium digitatum Sacc. and Colletotrichum musea (Berk. M.A. Curtis) Arx, three postharvest fungal pathogens of fruits
Kouassi, Kouadio Hugues Sosthène ULg; Bajji, M.; Brostaux, Yves ULg et al

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2012), 16(3), 325-336

A microbioassay was developed for evaluating the in vitro antifungal activity of 30 preselected essential oils. A template based on 10 serial dilutions with eight replicates per dilution arranged on two ... [more ▼]

A microbioassay was developed for evaluating the in vitro antifungal activity of 30 preselected essential oils. A template based on 10 serial dilutions with eight replicates per dilution arranged on two 96-well ELISA plates was used as a reproducible and standardized design to identify the in vitro effectiveness of these essential oils against Penicillium italicum Wehmer, Penicillium digitatum Sacc. and Colletotrichum musea (Berk. M.A. Curtis) Arx, three postharvest fungal pathogens, on fruits. Growth of mycelium was monitored by measuring optical density (492 nm). Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Cinnamomum verum and Eugenia caryophyllus were found to be still active against all the three pathogens even at 100 ppm. Compared to other methods, this microbioassay proved to be a rapid, reproducible, and efficient method for testing the efficacy of essential oils that inhibit spore germination in P. italicum, P. digitatum and C. musea. The assay requires relatively small amounts of essential oils. [less ▲]

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See detailProgramme de Gestion Durable de l'Azote en agriculture. Considérations pratiques et conceptuelles sur la méthodologie du contrôle public du reliquat d'azote nitrique dans le sol des exploitations agricoles wallonnes
Vandenberghe, Christophe ULg; Palm, Rodolphe ULg; Lambert, Richard et al

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2012), 16(1), 25-32

Within the Walloon Action Programme, transposition of the Nitrates Directive, the Administration organizes each year a control of the soil nitrate nitrogen residues in about 900 parcels located in ... [more ▼]

Within the Walloon Action Programme, transposition of the Nitrates Directive, the Administration organizes each year a control of the soil nitrate nitrogen residues in about 900 parcels located in vulnerable zone in order to verify if the practices of nitrogen spreading by the farmers are in accordance with the Walloon Action Programme. The current method is to yearly spot “suspects” by a control in three parcels in about 300 farms and to follow “suspects” by an observation programme wich leads after maximum six years to a penalty or to the end of this programme. The present statistical study means to assess the public control’s methodology: what is the probability to penalize a “good” farmer, to forget a “bad” farmer? This study is based on real data and on a theoretical approach. Both conclusions indicate that the official methodology is sufficiently appropriate. [less ▲]

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See detailEffect of water stress on growth, water consumption and yield of silage maize under flood irrigation in a semi-arid climate of Tadla (Morocco)
BOUAZZAMA, Bassou ULg

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2012), 16(4), 468-477

The field study of crop response to water stress is important to maximize yield and improve agricultural water use efficiency in areas where water resources are limited. This study was carried out during ... [more ▼]

The field study of crop response to water stress is important to maximize yield and improve agricultural water use efficiency in areas where water resources are limited. This study was carried out during two growing periods in 2009 and 2010 in order to study the effect of water stress on crop growth, water consumption and dry matter yield of silage maize (Zea mays L.) supplied with flood irrigation under the semi-arid climate of Tadla in Morocco. Four to five irrigation treatments were applied at the rates of 100, 80, 60, 40 and 20% crop evapotranspiration (ETc) of maize. Soil water status, crop growth, leaf area index and above-ground biomass were measured. Results showed that irrigation deficit affected plant height growth, accelerated the senescence of the leaves and reduced the leaf area index. The maximum values of this parameter reached at flowering under the full irrigation treatment (100% ETc) were 5.1 and 4.8 in 2009 and 2010, respectively. Dry matter yields varied from 5.3 t.ha-1 under T4 (40% ETc) to 16.4 t.ha-1 under T1 (100% ETc) in 2009, whereas in 2010, it oscillated between 3.9 t.ha-1 under T5 (20% ETc) to 12.5 t.ha-1 under T1 (100% ETc). The establishment of the water budget by growth phase showed that the water use efficiency was higher during the linear phase of growth. Water use efficiency calculated at harvest varied between 2.99 kg.m-3 under T1 to 1.84 kg.m-3 under T5. The actual evapotranspiration under T1 (100% ETc) was 478 mm and 463 mm in 2009 and 2010, respectively. Using the averaged values of the two years, linear relationships were evaluated between dry matter yield and water consumption ETa. The yield response factor (Ky) for the silage maize for both growth seasons was 1.12. Under the Tadla semi-arid climate, it is proposed that silage maize should be irrigated as a priority before other crops with a Ky lower than 1.12. It is also recommended that, under limited water supplies, irrigation be applied during the linear phase of growth of this crop. [less ▲]

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See detailLes crèmes végétales : une alternative aux crèmes laitières
Anihouvi, Prudent; Danthine, Sabine ULg; Karamoko, Gaoussou ULg et al

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2012), 16(3), 344-359

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See detailHow to count elephants in West African savannahs? Synthesis and comparison of main gamecount methods
Bouché, Philippe ULg; Lejeune, Philippe ULg; Vermeulen, Cédric ULg

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2012), 16(1), 77-91

The comparison of some elephants count methods – aerial sampling count, aerial total count and direct foot count – has been presented through surveys’ study cases implemented in Benin, Burkina Faso and ... [more ▼]

The comparison of some elephants count methods – aerial sampling count, aerial total count and direct foot count – has been presented through surveys’ study cases implemented in Benin, Burkina Faso and Niger. We compare them in terms of effort and cost to survey an area (sampling efficiency), efficiency in data collection (detection efficiency) as well as accuracy and precision. Aerial sampling count returns low sampling and detection efficiency and very low precision and accuracy figures when counting elephants populations below 0.5 elephant.km-2. Precision can partly be improved by stratification. Direct foot count returns the best sampling and detection efficiency but insufficient data number to produce reliable estimates. Therefore some authors often produced no results for elephants. Aerial total count is a costly method in absolute value. It requires important logistic and no measure of error is possible. However it provides relatively good sampling and detection efficiency as well as relatively accurate figures appreciated by wildlife managers if technical requirements are respected. Aerial total count could be recommended to survey small population of West African elephants each 3 to 5 years to minimize yearly count costs. [less ▲]

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