References of "Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE]"
     in
Bookmark and Share    
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailInfluence de l'environnement et des pratiques culturales sur la productivité de Jatropha curcas L. en Afrique subsaharienne (synthèse bibliographique)
Minengu, Jean de Dieu; Mobambo, Patrick; Mergeai, Guy ULg

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2014), 18(2), 290-300

In most sub-Saharan African countries, the establishment of Jatropha curcas L. plantations preceded the scientific investigations necessary to optimize the production of this species. Consequently, the ... [more ▼]

In most sub-Saharan African countries, the establishment of Jatropha curcas L. plantations preceded the scientific investigations necessary to optimize the production of this species. Consequently, the development of the plants was low and yields during the first years of cultivation were mostly disappointing. The low yields obtained in marginal conditions led to the belief that the cultivation of Jatropha could only be profitable in areas with fertile soils and sufficiently humid climates, which would place the plants in direct competition with food production. This article analyzes the available scientific knowledge regarding the ecological and technical factors influencing the productivity of J. curcas and suggests possible solutions for improving its performance in sub-Saharan Africa. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 14 (4 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailUse of camera traps for wildlife studies: a review
Trolliet, Franck ULg; Vermeulen, Cédric ULg; Huynen, Marie-Claude ULg et al

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2014), 18(3), 446-454

As human threats continue to impact natural habitats, there is an increasing need to regularly monitor the trends in large vertebrate populations. Conservation efforts must be directed appropriately, but ... [more ▼]

As human threats continue to impact natural habitats, there is an increasing need to regularly monitor the trends in large vertebrate populations. Conservation efforts must be directed appropriately, but field work necessary for data collection is often limited by time and availability of people. Camera traps are used as an efficient method to insure permanent sampling and to work in difficult to access areas. In the present study, we illustrate the way the use of camera traps developed: firstly with the need to monitor tiger (Panthera tigris (Linnaeus 1758)) populations and later as an instrument serving a diverse field of studies, such as animal behaviour and fauna-flora interaction. By looking at the material and technical aspects of various models of camera trap for implementation in different field studies in animal ecology, we highlight the need to choose appropriate camera trap models for the target species and to set up solid sampling protocols in order to successfully achieve study objectives. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 181 (61 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailLes indicateurs de la pression du cerf élaphe sur la végétation du sous-bois en forêts feuillues tempérées : synthèse bibliographique
Lehaire, François ULg; Ligot, Gauthier ULg; Morelle, Kevin ULg et al

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2014), 18(2), 262-272

During the last decades, the populations of large herbivores have increased. Consequently, their pressure on forest vegetation has been exacerbated and has reached in some forests levels that reduced the ... [more ▼]

During the last decades, the populations of large herbivores have increased. Consequently, their pressure on forest vegetation has been exacerbated and has reached in some forests levels that reduced the diversity of forest ecosystem services. Assessing the balance between timber production and hunting remains a crucial question for forest users (foresters, hunters) and requires reliable tools such as ecological indicators. This paper reviews the ecological indicators that characterize the pressure of red deer (Cervus elaphus L.) on understory vegetation in temperate deciduous forest. Such indicators monitor the cover, height, stem density, biomass and species diversity of different indicator plant groups. These plant groups embrace species belonging to herbaceous stratum, forest regeneration or particular species such as bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) and bramble (Rubus fruticosus L.). The choice of indicator plants, as it affects considerably the performance of the ecological indicator of deer pressure on understory vegetation, must be carried out with caution taking into account plant abundance and palatability. The reviewed indicators help to understand the relationships between biodiversity, carrying capacity and deer populations. They are intended to forest managers that would like to monitor red deer pressure in regards to forest management goals and forest sustainability. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 43 (11 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailStudy of possible ways to improve cotton fiber fineness. A review.
Nakoulima, N. L.; Mergeai, Guy ULg

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2014), 18(4),

Detailed reference viewed: 15 (1 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailEffets d’amendements carbonatés et organiques sur la culture de deux légumes sur sol contaminé à Lubumbashi (RD Congo)
Mpundu Mubemba, Michel; Useni, Yannick; Nyembo, Lucien et al

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2014), 18(3), 367-375

Given the risks of contamination of the vegetables grown in gardens in the city of Lubumbashi due to soil pollution, agronomic solutions to reduce these risks have been experimented. The choice of ... [more ▼]

Given the risks of contamination of the vegetables grown in gardens in the city of Lubumbashi due to soil pollution, agronomic solutions to reduce these risks have been experimented. The choice of appropriate amendments (type and quantity) and the selection of plant varieties able to restrict transfers of trace metals (TM) from the soil to plant edible organs are part of the most conventional remediation techniques. Amaranth and spinach beet have been cultivated in pot trials according to randomized complete blocks with four replications on a contaminated soil that received different doses of liming and/or organic products and slightly contaminated soil. Along with an effect on soil chemistry, the amendments have been effective in reducing the transfer of trace metals from soil to plant. The lime-based treatments were more effective than compost. TM levels in plants however remained high whatever the application of amendments and the question of food chain contamination remains posed. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 43 (11 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailÉtat des lieux des flux céréaliers en Wallonie selon différentes filières d’utilisation
Delcour, Alice ULg; Van Stappen, Florence; Gheysens, Stéphanie et al

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2014), 18(2), 181-192

Survey on cereal resources in Wallonia according to their different uses. Survey on cereal resources in Wallonia according to their different uses. More than 60% of the arable cropped area in Wallonia is ... [more ▼]

Survey on cereal resources in Wallonia according to their different uses. Survey on cereal resources in Wallonia according to their different uses. More than 60% of the arable cropped area in Wallonia is dedicated to cereals. Cereal chains were initially aimed at ensuring food security but are now progressively oriented towards new non-food uses. Walloon cereal chains are now having to face up to new global challenges: to ensure the competitiveness and sustainability of vegetal and animal chains, to match society's expectations and to meet the biomass needs for energy uses and bio-based products. Within this framework, this research aims to evaluate the environmental and socio-economic sustainability of future scenarios of current and potential food and non-food uses for Walloon cereals. This paper, the first in a series of two, presents the current picture of Walloon cereal crops and their uses. Various steps are analyzed: production, collection, wholesale and processing. Four main uses characterize cereal processing: the so-called "4Fs", representing Food (human food uses), Feed (animal feed uses), Fuel (energy uses) and Fiber (material uses). Data collected from stakeholders in the Walloon cereal chain enabled us to assess cereal flows for the "4Fs", drawing a qualitative and a quantitative picture of Walloon cereal resources including the key elements of the cereal chains. This approach serves as a basis for a prospective exercise, described in a companion paper, which develops potential uses for Walloon cereal resources at the 2030 horizon. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 38 (4 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailNutritive value of Adenodolichos rhomboideus leaves compared with Leucaena leucocephala and Stylosanthes guianensis forages in indigenous goats in Lubumbashi (DR Congo).
Tshibangu, Muamba Innocent; Nsahlai, Ignatus Verla; Kiatoko, Mangeye Honoré et al

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2014), 18(2), 165-173

Forage from three species (Adenodolichos rhomboideus, Leucaena leucocephala, Stylosanthes guianensis) were evaluated by determining chemical composition, voluntary intake and apparent in vivo ... [more ▼]

Forage from three species (Adenodolichos rhomboideus, Leucaena leucocephala, Stylosanthes guianensis) were evaluated by determining chemical composition, voluntary intake and apparent in vivo digestibility of dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fibre (NDF) and acid detergent fibre (ADF). Six goats (17.1±0.7 kg) were used in 3 x 3 double latin square design to determine the digestibility and intake of the three forages. Forage from S. guianensis had lower (p<0.001) CP content than L. leucocephala forage and A. rhomboideus leaves. Fibres content (ADF and NDF) were lower (p<0.001) in L. leucocephala (35%) forage than A. rhomboideus (59.5%) leaves and S. guianensis forages (56.5%). L. leucocephala forage was superior in CP, Ash, EE concentrations, digestibility and voluntary intake of CP. A. rhomboideus leaves had lower (p<0.05) apparent digestibility and intake of DM. Digestible CP intake were similar between A. rhomboideus leaves and S. guianensis forages. Low digestibility and voluntary intake of A. rhomboideus leaves may be due to negative effect of anti-nutritional factor such as tannin. Digestible CP was similar for A. rhomboideus leaves and S. guianensis forage. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 39 (4 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailA review of inversion techniques related to the use of relationship matrices in animal breeding
Faux, Pierre ULg; Gengler, Nicolas ULg

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2014), 18(3), 319-468

In animal breeding, prediction of genetic effects is usually obtained through the use of mixed models. For any of these genetic effects, mixed models require the inversion of the covariance matrix ... [more ▼]

In animal breeding, prediction of genetic effects is usually obtained through the use of mixed models. For any of these genetic effects, mixed models require the inversion of the covariance matrix associated to that effect, which is equal to the associated relationship matrix times the associated component of the genetic variance. Given the size of many genetic evaluation systems, computing the inverses of these relationship matrices is not trivial. In this review, we aim to cover computational techniques that ease inversion of relationship matrices used in animal breeding for prediction of the following different types of genetic effects: additive effect, gametic effect, effect due to presence of marked quantitative trait loci, dominance effect and different epistasis effects. Construction rules and inversion algorithms are detailed for each relationship matrix. In the final discussion, we draw up a common theoretical frame to most of the reviewed techniques. Two computational constraints come out of this theoretical frame: setting up the matrix of dependencies between levels of the effect and setting up some parts (diagonal or block-diagonal elements) of the relationship matrix to be inverted. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 28 (8 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailL’intérêt de la spectroscopie proche infrarouge en analyse de terre (synthèse bibliographique)
Genot, Valérie ULg; Bock, Laurent ULg; Dardenne, Pierre et al

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2014), 18(2),

Detailed reference viewed: 25 (5 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailMacrolophus pygmaeus (Rambur) as an efficient predator of the tomato leafminer Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) in Europe. A review
De Backer, Lara ULg; Caparros Megido, Rudy ULg; Haubruge, Eric ULg et al

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2014)

The tomato leafminer, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick), originates from South America, and remains one of the main tomato pests in this continent. Since its introduction to Europe in 2006, Mediterranean countries ... [more ▼]

The tomato leafminer, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick), originates from South America, and remains one of the main tomato pests in this continent. Since its introduction to Europe in 2006, Mediterranean countries have also been exposed to this pest. Because of the endophytic habits of the larvae and ability of adults to reproduce parthenogenetically, chemicals and sexual pheromone- based control methods generate poor results. Recently, the use of biocontrol agents, such as Macrolophus pygmaeus Rambur (Heteroptera: Miridae), has been investigated as an alternative means of control, the results of which are presented in this review. Macrolophus pygmaeus is a mirid bug that is widely used to control different phytophagous insects in integrated pest management strategies through Europe. Several studies have confirmed the high predation potential of M. pygmaeus on T. absoluta under laboratory and semi-field conditions. This predator spontaneously colonizes tomato greenhouses in the southern Mediterranean countries. The use of banker plants (i.e., plants that provide a habitat to the predator) improves the colonization ability of this natural enemy. Hence, if the local population size is low, an augmentative strategy could be adopted. Predators may be released before or after the onset of pest infestation, with recommendations varying depending on natural population densities of both the pest and predator. The efficiency of M. pygmaeus has also been evaluated when used in combination with other biocontrol agents or with chemicals. This work presents an overview of different types of control strategies using M. pygmaeus against the tomato leafminer, T. absoluta. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 21 (4 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailConcepts d’efficience et de productivité de l’eau (synthèse bibliographique)
Kambou, Donkora ULg; Xanthoulis, Dimitri ULg; Ouattara, Korodjouma et al

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2014), 18(1),

Water efficiency and productivity indicators are used in many scientific disciplines, usually to account for water losses that occur during its use, or products generated per unit of water consumed. The ... [more ▼]

Water efficiency and productivity indicators are used in many scientific disciplines, usually to account for water losses that occur during its use, or products generated per unit of water consumed. The interpretation of these indicators is very diverse in the literature. However, the majority of definitions consider water efficiency as a measure of the effectiveness of irrigation, and view water productivity as a measure of the effectiveness of the physiological processes of both biomass production and crop yield formation, linked to the actual consumption of water by the crops. Thus, the consensus seems to be for water application efficiency (Ea) to be considered as the ratio of actual evapotranspiration to the water applied and productivity as the ratio of yield to actual evapotranspiration. The point of divergence relates fundamentally to the understanding of the constituent expressions of productivity (PE, product/“water consumed”) and efficiency of water application (Ea, “water consumed”/“applied water”). Indeed, the term “water consumed” is referred to variously by several authors as “actual evapotranspiration”, “gross irrigation plus rainfall”, “evapotranspiration plus water lost at the plot but beneficial to other users”, etc. Furthermore, while providing more details on the concepts of efficiency and water productivity, this review shows that the factors affecting these indicators have not yet been sufficiently elucidated. Thus, one of the axes of investigation could be to model the application efficiency of water firstly, according to water management practices and secondly, in terms of productivity levels in relation to the crop establishment period. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 70 (5 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailReprésentation du couvert forestier dans la modélisation hydrologique : Comparaison de dix modèles
Deraedt, Deborah ULg; Colinet, Gilles ULg; Claessens, Hugues ULg et al

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2014), 18(1), 83-96

There are many hydrological models, some of which can be used for forested environments. This review aims to compare ten of them (BILJOU, EPIC, BROOK90, SWAT, RHESSys, MIKE SHE, SHETRAN, WaSiM ETH, DHSVM ... [more ▼]

There are many hydrological models, some of which can be used for forested environments. This review aims to compare ten of them (BILJOU, EPIC, BROOK90, SWAT, RHESSys, MIKE SHE, SHETRAN, WaSiM ETH, DHSVM et Hydrus) to guide the choice. The compared fluxes are the interception, the transpiration and the root water uptake, the root distribution, the undercover effect, the tree growth and the model validation. The review underlines that each model deals with the forest fluxes in different ways. Most of the time, interception is similarly dealt by the models and the root distribution is used in the process of root water uptake. Understory and growth are seldom considered. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 152 (65 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailSynthese bibliographique de l'influence du procédé d'extraction et de purification sur les caractéristiques et les propriétés d'une gomme de caroube
Gillet, Sébastien ULg; Simon, mathilde; Paquot, Michel ULg et al

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2014), 18(1),

The carob tree is a species cultivated, in mediterranean countries, for its seeds. These seeds contain an endosperm rich in galactomannans used by the food industry for its texturing properties. After ... [more ▼]

The carob tree is a species cultivated, in mediterranean countries, for its seeds. These seeds contain an endosperm rich in galactomannans used by the food industry for its texturing properties. After harvesting, the seeds pass through a decutilation and a degermination. Cleaned endosperms are then milled to give crude locust bean gum. The purification step consists in a flour solubilization and then a precipitation of the galactomannans. Purification influences the characteristics of the resulting gum. The solubilization temperature is the parameter that affects the most on the final characteristics of the product. If it is hot or cold, galactomannans with different structural characteristics (and thus very different physical properties in aqueous solutions) will be selected. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 30 (10 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailUn complexe d’espèces d’Afzelia des forêts africaines d’intérêt économique et écologique (synthèse bibliographique)
Donkpegan, Segbedji ULg; Hardy, J. Olivier; Lejeune, Philippe ULg et al

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2014), 18(2),

The purpose of this review is to provide a knowledge update and a comprehensive literature review of the genus Afzelia, a complex of sister species exploited for their timber in Central Africa. The ... [more ▼]

The purpose of this review is to provide a knowledge update and a comprehensive literature review of the genus Afzelia, a complex of sister species exploited for their timber in Central Africa. The distribution of Afzelia species in Africa suggests that the tree has made various adaptations due to ecological factors. However, on the basis of only vegetative criteria, it is difficult to distinguish species in forest inventory, and this could compromise the sustainable management approach promoted by the populations of Central African countries. We show that the genus remains generally understudied, although some of its species are considered by the IUCN as being under threat. Therefore, the ecological and genetic aspects of our investigations should prove relevant to the future cultivation of Afzelia. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 40 (13 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailSynthèse bibliographique : le modèle numérique de terrainde haute résolution, ses erreurs et leur propagation
Ouedraogo, Mohamar ULg; Degré, Aurore ULg; Debouche, Charles ULg

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2014), 18(3), 407

Detailed reference viewed: 21 (9 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailA review of soils and crops in the Bukidnon Highlands of Northern Mindanao, The Philippines
Calalang, Guadalupe ULg; Colinet, Gilles ULg

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2014), 18

Detailed reference viewed: 14 (0 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailImpact du séchage sur la viabilité de Pseudomonas fluorescens (synthèse bibliographique)
Mputu Kanyinda, Jean-Noël ULg

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2014), 18(1), 134-141

The drying Pseudomonas fluorescens makes more economical storage, transportation and marketing. It aims to stop and to stabilize all biological activities for an optimal storage, compatible with the ... [more ▼]

The drying Pseudomonas fluorescens makes more economical storage, transportation and marketing. It aims to stop and to stabilize all biological activities for an optimal storage, compatible with the conservation of maximum viability of microorganisms desired. The viability of bacteria after drying depends on the operating conditions of the latter. One of the most important criteria to consider during the drying of biologically active products is the quality of the final dried product. Freeze-drying is the most drying method used for Pseudomonas. But temperature changes it induced are not without consequence for the cells. They are responsible for cell damage (peroxidation of fatty acids) and genetic (proteins and DNA oxidation). However, use of protective compounds during freeze-drying and during storage increases significantly the rate of cell viability. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 28 (4 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailVOC emissions and protein expression mediated by the interactions between herbivorous insects and Arabidopsis plant. A review
Hien, Truong Thi Dieu ULg; Heuskin, Stéphanie ULg; Delaplace, Pierre ULg et al

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2014), 18(3), 455-464

Herbivorous insects, such as phloem-sap feeders and chewers, induce resistance response in plants. There is a long-standing hypothesis that herbivores increase the emission of volatile organic compounds ... [more ▼]

Herbivorous insects, such as phloem-sap feeders and chewers, induce resistance response in plants. There is a long-standing hypothesis that herbivores increase the emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the Arabidopsis plant model. However, most works were restricted to the study of the regulation of plant VOC emissions and only in some cases to the effects of insects on such emissions. Often these investigations do not establish a link between quantitative and qualitative emission of plant VOCs with actual damages caused by insects. Moreover, information remain limited about the processes that occur at the protein level encoded of the host plant under stress conditions. Here, we briefly summarize the effects of specific chewing and phloem-sap feeding insects on the emission of VOCs by Arabidopsis thaliana Col-0, and review some predictions about pathogenesis-related proteins, based on current evolutionary hypotheses. Further investigation of the effects of herbivorous insects on VOC emissions and protein expression is expected to improve our knowledge about their patterns and functions in plant responses to stresses. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 59 (6 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailPreliminary description of the diet of Hippopotamus amphibius L. in Loango National Park (Gabon)
Michez, Adrien ULg; Doucet, Jean-Louis ULg; Dendocker, Nicolas et al

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2013), 17(4), 580-583

Due to the paucity of suitable habitat, hippos are very rare in the Congo Bassin. Compared to East-African populations, Central African populations of hippos have been less studied. Information found in ... [more ▼]

Due to the paucity of suitable habitat, hippos are very rare in the Congo Bassin. Compared to East-African populations, Central African populations of hippos have been less studied. Information found in the literature regarding the animal’s basic ecology is limited. This study focuses on the description of the diet of an isolated hippo population in Loango National Park (Gabon), comparing faecal analysis with a reference collection ofherbaceous species from the savannas. The effectiveness of using faecal analysis versus using the floristic description of hippos’ pastures was demonstrated. The most frequent herbaceous species identified in faeces samples were Paspalum vaginatum, Axonopus compressus, Stenotaphrum secundatum (Poaceae) and Desmodium triflorum (Fabaceae). The voluntary consumption of a dicotyledonous species (Desmodium triflorum) is novel for this species. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 84 (29 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailSoil model systems used to assess fouling, soil adherence and surface cleanability in the laboratory: a review
Toure, Yetioman ULg; Mabon, Nicolas; Sindic, Marianne ULg

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2013), 17(3), 527-539

Surface fouling is a chronic problem in processing industries. The hygienic state of surfaces is thus a critical parameter with respect to the performance of the production process and to the final ... [more ▼]

Surface fouling is a chronic problem in processing industries. The hygienic state of surfaces is thus a critical parameter with respect to the performance of the production process and to the final quality of the product. For this reason, cleaning and disinfection are essential. The most important first step in implementing a fouling mitigation strategy through cleaning and disinfection is to understand the mechanisms of fouling. This allows ways to be found to reduce, even to eliminate fouling, or to improve the effectiveness of cleaning and disinfection. This paper reviews the relevant literature and summarizes a selection of soil model systems used to aid such improvements. Organic, mineral, microbial, particulate, and composite soil model systems are presented. These soil model systems are of particular relevance in the study of fouling, cleaning or soil adhesion onto solid surfaces in the laboratory environment. The key features of the models, as well as their practical advantages and disadvantages, are described and discussed. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 20 (1 ULg)