References of "Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE]"
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See detailValorisation de la Carte Numérique des Sols de Wallonie et d’une base de données disponible en analyse de sols, dans le cadre de l’évaluation du risque de pollution des eaux souterraines par les pesticides
Bah, Boubacar Billo ULg; Vanclooster, Marnik; Oger, Robert ULg et al

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2011), 15(S2), 709-726

This study shows how the Digital Soil Map of Wallonia and the associated soil database Aardewerk can be combined with the MetaPEARL model to assess the sensitivity of agricultural soils to pesticide ... [more ▼]

This study shows how the Digital Soil Map of Wallonia and the associated soil database Aardewerk can be combined with the MetaPEARL model to assess the sensitivity of agricultural soils to pesticide transfer into underground water tables in Wallonia (Southern Belgium). MetaPEARL is based on an analytical expression which describes the concentration of leached pesticides at the soil profile bottom depending on available data on soil characteristics, climate and pesticide properties. The results show an important soil sensitivity to pesticide transfer with a coefficient of retention on organic matter (Kom) very weak (about 10 dm3.kg-1) or with a relatively high half-life time (DT50 about 60 days). In this case, the pesticide is weakly retained by soil organic matter or slowly degraded and then stays available in the soil and can be quickly leached during rainfalls. In other respects, the pesticide sensitivity to leaching is strongly correlated with soil texture and its organic matter content. It is also observed that the concentration of leached pesticide is strongly depending of the rainfall surplus (water flux into the soil or hydrous balance). A sensitivity analysis has shown that the model is very sensitive to soil thickness, to organic matter content, to the bulk density of the mineral fraction by textural classes and of the organic matter. Therefore, these pedological variables have to be assessed with the highest precision to avoid adding further uncertainty to the predictions obtained. On the basis of the most sensitive soil variables, the analysis of “spatial” uncertainty related to the results delivered by MetaPEARL, due to the consideration of an unique representative value by soil type and by region (deterministic approach), shows that this approach tends to under-estimate the concentration of pesticide leached in the soil. And that compared to the use of a stochastic simulation (probabilistic approach) which takes into account the soil characteristic variability within a given soil type. This stochastic approach allows also the calculation of a more relevant threshold of risk probability (percentile) which can be compared to an imposed standard in view to enhance a sustainable management of natural resources. [less ▲]

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See detailApport de l'approche multicouche et du signal isotopique pour la compréhension de la respiration du sol en écosystème forestier
Goffin, Stéphanie ULg; Longdoz, Bernard; Aubinet, Marc ULg

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2011), 15(4), 575-584

Le flux de dioxyde de carbone émanant du sol participe de manière prépondérante au cycle du carbone. On estime son amplitude à 68 ± 4 Pg C/an. En forêt tempérée, il représente approximativement 60-80% des ... [more ▼]

Le flux de dioxyde de carbone émanant du sol participe de manière prépondérante au cycle du carbone. On estime son amplitude à 68 ± 4 Pg C/an. En forêt tempérée, il représente approximativement 60-80% des émissions totales de CO2 de l’écosystème (respiration de l’écosystème). Compte tenu de l’ampleur de ce flux et des conséquences qu’aurait une quelconque modification de son amplitude sur le chargement en dioxyde de carbone de l’atmosphère, il est primordial d’améliorer la connaissance des mécanismes qui le régissent et de connaître précisément l’influence des variables du milieu (édaphiques et climatiques). Cet article vise à montrer l’intérêt d’effectuer des analyses multicouches des mécanismes à l’origine de ce flux (transport et production) plutôt que de restreindre les études à la surface du sol. De plus, cet article souligne le bénéfice apporté par l’outil isotopique pour améliorer la compréhension mécaniste de ce flux. [less ▲]

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See detailKinetics of the hydrolysis of polysaccharide galacturonic acid and neutral sugars chains from flaxseed mucilage
Happi Emaga, Thomas; Rabetafika, Holy-Nadia ULg; Blecker, Christophe ULg et al

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2011), (2012 16(2)), 139-147



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See detailThe use of semiochemical slow-release devices in integrated pest management strategies
Heuskin, Stéphanie ULg; Verheggen, François ULg; Haubruge, Eric ULg et al

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2011), 15(3), 459-470

The development of integrated pest management (IPM) strategies is increasing since many problems appeared with the use of synthetic pesticides. Semiochemicals – informative molecules used in insect-insect ... [more ▼]

The development of integrated pest management (IPM) strategies is increasing since many problems appeared with the use of synthetic pesticides. Semiochemicals – informative molecules used in insect-insect or plant-insect interaction – are more and more considered within IPM strategies as alternative or complementary approach to insecticide treatments. Indeed, these species-specific compounds do not present any related adversely affectation of beneficial organisms and do not generate any risk of pest insect resistance as observed with insecticides. Because of their complex biological activity, their dispersion in the environment to be protected or monitored needs the elaboration of slow-release devices ensuring a controlled release of the biologically active volatile compounds. These sensitive molecules also need to be protected from degradation by UV light and oxygen. Many studies were conducted on estimation of release-rate from commercialized or experimental slow-release devices. The influence of climatic parameters and dispenser type were estimated by previous authors in order to provide indications about the on-field longevity of lures. The present review outlines a list of slow-release studies conducted by many authors followed by a critical analysis of these studies. [less ▲]

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See detailBiosensors in Forensic Sciences
Frederickx, Christine ULg; Verheggen, François ULg; Haubruge, Eric ULg

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2011), 15(3), 449-458

A biosensor is a device that uses biological materials to monitor the presence of specific chemicals in an area. Traditional methods of volatile detection used by the law enforcement agencies and rescue ... [more ▼]

A biosensor is a device that uses biological materials to monitor the presence of specific chemicals in an area. Traditional methods of volatile detection used by the law enforcement agencies and rescue teams consist in the canine olfaction. This concept of using dogs to detect specific substances is quite old. However, dogs have some limitations such as cost of training, time of conditioning. Thus, the possibility of using other organisms as biosensors including rats, dolphins, honeybees, parasitic wasps in detection of explosives, narcotics and cadavers has been developed. But, insects have several advantages unshared by mammalians. Insects are very sensitive, cheap to produce and can be conditioned with impressive speed for a specific chemical-detection task. Moreover, insects might be a preferred sensing method in scenarios that are deemed too dangerous to use mammalian. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of the biosensors used in forensic sciences [less ▲]

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See detailCulture in vitro de Jatropha curcas L.
Medza Mve, Samson Daudet ULg; Mergeai, Guy ULg; Baudoin, Jean-Pierre ULg et al

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2011), 15(4), 567-574

The extension of Jatropha curcas L. cultivation as a biofuel feedstock species requires the distribution of a very large number of plants to the producers in a very short period of time. These plants have ... [more ▼]

The extension of Jatropha curcas L. cultivation as a biofuel feedstock species requires the distribution of a very large number of plants to the producers in a very short period of time. These plants have to be able to give a high oil yield and be morphologically and phenotypically homogeneous to facilitate cultural operations. If high oil content can be obtained by varietal selection, the achievement of homogeneous material passes by the in vitro propagation. Various methods of mass production of plant material by axenic culture have been published. This study reviews the protocols published for in vitro propagation of J. curcas and discusses their applicability to an industrial scale. [less ▲]

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See detailLutte contre les ravageurs des stocks de céréales et de légumineuses au Sénégal et en Afrique occidentale : synthèse bibliographique
Gueye, Momar Talla; Seck, Dogo; Wathelet, Jean-Paul ULg et al

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2011), 15(1), 183-194

Post-harvest losses of cereals and legumes are a major problem in Senegal and West Africa. The solutions to eliminate insects, major pests of stored products were mainly chemical. However, due to ... [more ▼]

Post-harvest losses of cereals and legumes are a major problem in Senegal and West Africa. The solutions to eliminate insects, major pests of stored products were mainly chemical. However, due to pollution associated with pesticides use, selection of resistant strains, environmental pollution, poisoning, the search for alternatives is needed. It is reported on different methods of protecting stocks performed alternatively or in combination with pesticides. The major pest species encountered, particularly Prostephanus truncatus (Horn), insect emerging in Senegal, could be controlled by alternative methods including specially the use of insecticide plants. Different aspects related to this alternative way to chemical pesticides are reviewed herein. Keywords. Cereals, pulses, post-harvest, control, pesticides, insecticide plants. [less ▲]

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See detailPredictive modelling of the combined effect of temperature and water activity (aw) on the in vitro growth of Erwinia spp infecting potato tubers in Belgium
Moh, Augustin; Massart, Sébastien ULg; Lahlali, Rachid et al

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2011), 15(3), 378-386

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See detailÉnergie nécessaire au broyage de la biomasse et des produits densifiés
Temmerman, Michaël ULg

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2011)

La littérature concernant la consommation énergétique du broyage dans les industries minières montre que cette problématique a été, et est encore, étudiée par de nombreux auteurs. Différents modèles de ... [more ▼]

La littérature concernant la consommation énergétique du broyage dans les industries minières montre que cette problématique a été, et est encore, étudiée par de nombreux auteurs. Différents modèles de broyage sont donc disponibles pour ces industries, en particulier pour le broyage des minerais. Les principaux modèles et certaines de leurs évolutions sont repris dans la présente revue. Le broyage de la biomasse quant à lui a été bien moins étudié. Quelques études ont néanmoins porté sur la mesure des consommations énergétiques engendrées par le broyage de biomasses particulières, dans des systèmes particuliers. Rares sont celles qui prennent en compte suffisamment de paramètres relatifs à la matière entrante et sortante (granulométrie, humidité, origine, etc.) ou les caractéristiques du système de broyage. Pratiquement, aucun modèle de broyage de la biomasse n’a donc été proposé. Concernant le broyage des produits densifiés, aucune donnée ne semble disponible. À la lueur des théories de broyage de l’industrie minière, cette étude propose donc les paramètres à prendre en compte pour une éventuelle modélisation du broyage de la biomasse et des produits densifiés. Mots-clés. Broyage, biomasse, pellets, briquettes, théories [less ▲]

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See detailBeneficial effect of the rhizosphere microbial community for plant growth and health.
Nihorimbere, V.; Ongena, Marc ULg; Smargiassi, M. et al

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2011), 15(2), 327-337

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See detailLes oligosaccharides pectiques: production et applications possibles
Combo, Agnan Marie Michel ULg; Mario, Aguedo ULg; Paquot, Michel ULg

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2011), 15(1), 153-164

Les oligosaccharides pectiques ou POS sont des fragments de composition complexe issus de la dégradation chimique, physique ou enzymatique de la pectine. Du fait de l’intérêt de leurs propriétés ... [more ▼]

Les oligosaccharides pectiques ou POS sont des fragments de composition complexe issus de la dégradation chimique, physique ou enzymatique de la pectine. Du fait de l’intérêt de leurs propriétés biologiques, les oligosaccharides pectiques font l’objet de nombreuses études et trouvent aujourd’hui des applications dans des domaines aussi différents que la médecine, l’agriculture et l’industrie agro-alimentaire. Cet écrit présente la structure des pectines ainsi que les différents modes de production des POS en insistant particulièrement sur les différentes enzymes microbiennes permettant de les obtenir et sur les applications possibles de ces POS. [less ▲]

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See detailPrincipaux modèles utilisés en régression logistique
Gillet, Adeline; Brostaux, Yves ULg; Palm, Rodolphe ULg

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2011), 15(3), 425-433

Regression is a commonly used technique for describing the relationship between a response variable and one or more explanatory variables. When the response variable is a categorical variable, usual ... [more ▼]

Regression is a commonly used technique for describing the relationship between a response variable and one or more explanatory variables. When the response variable is a categorical variable, usual regression based on ordinary least squares should be replaced by logistic regression. Binary logistic regression should be used to perform a regression on a dichotomous response. Nominal polytomous logistic regression applies to a categorical response variable that has more than two levels with a natural ordering. And ordinal polytomous logistic regression is used when the response is a categorical variable that has more than two levels with a natural ordering. This note gives an overview of these logistic regression methods and describes three models commonly used when performing ordinal logistic regression. These models are illustrated by an example related to oak decline in the Walloon Region (Belgium). [less ▲]

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See detailCell wall polysaccharides hydrolysis of malting barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) : a review
Jamar, Catherine ULg; du Jardin, Patrick ULg; Fauconnier, Marie-Laure ULg

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2011), 15(2), 301-313

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See detailCiterne d’eau de pluie et effet sur le débit à l’exutoire du bassin versant de l’Orneau dans la région de Gembloux (Belgique
Xanthoulis, Dimitri ULg; Debauche, Olivier ULg; Fonder, Nathalie et al

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2011), 15(2), 239-249

This study participates to the quantitative balance of rain water domestic use. It aims towards an optimal design of rain barrels volume, the feasibility of soil infiltration techniques with excess of ... [more ▼]

This study participates to the quantitative balance of rain water domestic use. It aims towards an optimal design of rain barrels volume, the feasibility of soil infiltration techniques with excess of water and the impact assessment of rain barrel on the decrease of peak flow in a pilot rural watershed of 9 km², considering the chronology of precipitation events. The parameters that are considered are the roofs area, the number of inhabitants in the house, the average daily rainfall water consumption, and the local pluviometry. In order to design the infiltration structure associated with the rain barrel, the volume of rainfall excess from the rain barrel needs to be evaluated. Afterwards, the infiltration structure may be dimensioned according to the soil infiltration characteristics. We assume that 75 litres, out of the 115 litres daily consumed by each inhabitant, are coming from the rain barrel and the remainder (40 litres) is drawn from the drinking water distribution network. Calculations are carried out for roofs of 100, 135, 170 and 200 m², for a consumption of water ranging between 150 and 1150 L.day-1.house-1 and for rain barrels of 5, 10 and 20 m³. It appears that if correctly designed private rain barrel allow an opportune water use in households, the effect on flood reduction is, however, limited considering the relative low importance of the collecting surface (1.3% of the watershed surface). [less ▲]

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See detailStructure de l’amidon de maïs et principaux phénomènes impliqués dans sa modification thermique
Malumba Kamba, Paul ULg; Janas, Sébastien ULg; Deroanne, Claude et al

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2011), 15(2), 315-326

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See detailRevue bibliographique : la prise en compte des transferts horizontaux dans les modèles hydrologiques
Beckers, Eléonore ULg; Degre, Aurore ULg

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2011), 15(1), 143-151

This bibliographical review sums up the different schemes in hydrological modelling. Moreover, it underlines how the interflows are taken into account and draws the first lines to improve their physically ... [more ▼]

This bibliographical review sums up the different schemes in hydrological modelling. Moreover, it underlines how the interflows are taken into account and draws the first lines to improve their physically based representation. In the mood of the change in agricultural practices, especially concerning the conventional tillage reduction in support of conservational tillage, it seems to be necessary to propose a better description of decisive parameters like horizontal hydraulic conductivity. More precisely, the dependence of this parameter with the water retention curve has to be described in order to represent fluxes at the plot scale and at the watershed scale. Under these circumstances, an approach with in situ measurements and physically based modelling is suggested. [less ▲]

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See detailEssai de cartographie des classes d'infiltrabilité des sols de Wallonie
Demarcin, Pierre ULg; Sohier, Catherine ULg; Mokadem, Abdel Ilah et al

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2011), 15(1), 119-128

On the basis of the digital soil map of Wallonia (1/20000), a decision tree is proposed for attributing infiltration class to each soil type. The proposition takes into account soil texture, drainage ... [more ▼]

On the basis of the digital soil map of Wallonia (1/20000), a decision tree is proposed for attributing infiltration class to each soil type. The proposition takes into account soil texture, drainage characteristics, substratum and, when appropriate, percentage of stoniness. The so defined infiltration classes are coherent with SCS methodology for abstraction computation (continuous or event based modelling). There are four groups named A, B, C and D from higher to lower basic infiltration rate. The map produced is a raster with a ground resolution of 10 meters, covering Wallonia (16900 km²), readily usable in hydrological distributed models. The paper deals with the classification and its inherent limitations. [less ▲]

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See detailTechniques de séchage des starters lactiques et mécanismes affectant la viabilité cellulaire suite à la lyophilisation
Coulibaly, Ibourahema ULg; Dubois Dauphin, Robin ULg; Danthine, Sabine ULg et al

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2011), 15(2), 287-299

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See detailLarge carrion beetles (Coleoptera, Silphidae) in Western Europe: a review
Dekeirsschieter, Jessica ULg; Verheggen, François ULg; Lognay, Georges ULg et al

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2011), 15(3), 425-437

This review focuses on carrion beetles (Coleoptera, Silphidae) of the Western Palearctic and their potential use in forensic entomology as bioindicators. Few studies have looked at Silphidae in forensic ... [more ▼]

This review focuses on carrion beetles (Coleoptera, Silphidae) of the Western Palearctic and their potential use in forensic entomology as bioindicators. Few studies have looked at Silphidae in forensic context and investigations. However, some Silphidae present the desirable characteristics of some Diptera used in postmortem estimates and thus may extend the minimum postmortem interval (PMImin). We review here the taxonomy and distribution of Western Palearctic Silphidae. The anatomical and morphological characteristics of both subfamilies are described for adults and larvae. The biology and ecology of silphids are also summarized for Silphinae and Nicrophorinae. A specific chapter gives an overview of the current uses of Silphidae in forensic entomology as postmortem indicator. [less ▲]

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See detailL’hydrologie, une partenaire de la géomorphopédologie pour une gestion transéchelle des grands enjeux environnementaux
Degre, Aurore ULg; Sohier, Catherine ULg; Colard, François ULg et al

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2011), S2(15), 699-707

Unsaturated soil and subsoil are often called “critical zone” considering their major interfacing role in our environment. Dealing with solute transfer or water and soil conservation, hydrologic research ... [more ▼]

Unsaturated soil and subsoil are often called “critical zone” considering their major interfacing role in our environment. Dealing with solute transfer or water and soil conservation, hydrologic research relies on pedologic descriptions. It is the case from micro to macro scale analysis. Hydrodynamic parameters are derived from pedologic information on soil. They allow hydrologists to quantify and spatially describe the dynamic exchanges between water, soil, crops and atmosphere. The modelling of water and solute transfer through soil and vadose zone also needs them. The paper presents some research highlights on soil behaviour, hydrological modelling and forecasting under climate change. Erosion is another major topic. Soil is a poorly renewable resource. Soil conservation and soft hydraulic management in watersheds deserve more attention. They can help limiting nutrient and sediment transfer to surface water. Again, pedologic information is the starting point of conceptualization and modelling. Furthermore, the Soil Map of Belgium includes information on geomorphology and landscape descriptions which date from decades. They are of first importance to calibrate and validate detachment, transport and sedimentation models. In the current context of high environmental concern, it is demonstrated how hydrology and pedology have to be partners in order to deal with such major issues. [less ▲]

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