References of "Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE]"
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See detailL’hydrologie, une partenaire de la géomorphopédologie pour une gestion transéchelle des grands enjeux environnementaux
Degre, Aurore ULg; Sohier, Catherine ULg; Colard, François ULg et al

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2011), S2(15), 699-707

Unsaturated soil and subsoil are often called “critical zone” considering their major interfacing role in our environment. Dealing with solute transfer or water and soil conservation, hydrologic research ... [more ▼]

Unsaturated soil and subsoil are often called “critical zone” considering their major interfacing role in our environment. Dealing with solute transfer or water and soil conservation, hydrologic research relies on pedologic descriptions. It is the case from micro to macro scale analysis. Hydrodynamic parameters are derived from pedologic information on soil. They allow hydrologists to quantify and spatially describe the dynamic exchanges between water, soil, crops and atmosphere. The modelling of water and solute transfer through soil and vadose zone also needs them. The paper presents some research highlights on soil behaviour, hydrological modelling and forecasting under climate change. Erosion is another major topic. Soil is a poorly renewable resource. Soil conservation and soft hydraulic management in watersheds deserve more attention. They can help limiting nutrient and sediment transfer to surface water. Again, pedologic information is the starting point of conceptualization and modelling. Furthermore, the Soil Map of Belgium includes information on geomorphology and landscape descriptions which date from decades. They are of first importance to calibrate and validate detachment, transport and sedimentation models. In the current context of high environmental concern, it is demonstrated how hydrology and pedology have to be partners in order to deal with such major issues. [less ▲]

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See detailEnjeux fonciers, exploitation des ressources naturelles et Forêts des Communautés Locales en périphérie de Kinshasa, RDC
Vermeulen, Cédric ULg; Dubiez, Emilien; Procès, Pierre et al

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2011), 15(4), 535-544

Peri-urban forests are under strong anthropic pressure. Any activity needs a previous identification of stakeholders, landscape perception, socio-economic trends in local communities and their ... [more ▼]

Peri-urban forests are under strong anthropic pressure. Any activity needs a previous identification of stakeholders, landscape perception, socio-economic trends in local communities and their relationships with land and natural resources. Kinshasa (capital of Democratic Republic of Congo, DRC) is a 10 millions inhabitants city with rapid growth and increasing impacts on surrounding villages linked with forest natural resources. This paper describes the relationship amongst local communities stakeholders and their relations with land areas and wood resources. Two areas surrounding Kinshasa (Bas-Congo and Bateke Plateaux) are considered as major fuel-wood and charcoal supply zones for the city. Those two areas are different in terms of land pressure (very high in Bas-Congo and focused on riparian forests on Bateke Plateaux), but show the same pattern of overuse of the forest and woody natural resources. In both areas, local management of forest resources by the traditional authorities (heads of village or lineage) has failed. Local population willingness for reforestation and forest restoration activities is much more important in Bas-Congo than on Bateke Plateaux. In both areas, shifting cultivation due to slash and burn practices for agricultural and charcoal practices are more and more quick. This has strong negative impact on the potential of regeneration process with local forest species. Sustainability of forest natural resources management by communities is discussed in regard to the on going negotiations on community based forest management regulations. [less ▲]

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See detailProduction potentielle de bioéthanol, de biométhane et de pellets à partir des déchets de biomasse lignocellulosique du bananier (Musa spp.) au Cameroun
Kamdem, Irenée ULg; Tomekpe, Kodjo; Thonart, Philippe ULg

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2011), 15(3), 471-483

Like most African countries who are producers and exporters of banana, Cameroon is facing a major energy deficit. Yet, the country is generating annually about 4,500,000 tons of fresh banana plant ... [more ▼]

Like most African countries who are producers and exporters of banana, Cameroon is facing a major energy deficit. Yet, the country is generating annually about 4,500,000 tons of fresh banana plant lignocellulosic waste biomass matter equivalent to 402,750 tons of dry matter. The dry matter contained about 80,57% organic matter which are not exploited. Under the sustainable development, which is linked to environmental protection, the biotransformation of these residues can potentially produce about 93,800; 92,133; 447,500 tons of bioethanol, biomethane and pellets respectively. The waste transformation could reduce the energy deficit and create jobs opportunities. Productions of this renewable energy or biofuel also constitute a new area which could assure an important source of income for the banana cultivators and the entire country. [less ▲]

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See detailLe bioraffinage, une alternative prometteuse à la pétrochimie
Laurent, Pascal ULg; Roiz, Julie ULg; Wertz, Jean-Luc ULg et al

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2011), 15(4), 597-610

Because of the price increase of fossil resources, of their uncertain availability and because of environmental concerns, alternative solutions able to mitigate global warming, and reduce the consumption ... [more ▼]

Because of the price increase of fossil resources, of their uncertain availability and because of environmental concerns, alternative solutions able to mitigate global warming, and reduce the consumption of fossil fuels and carbon dioxide emissions should be promoted. The replacement of petroleum with biomass as raw material for bioenergy (biofuels, power and heat) and chemical production is an interesting option and is the driving force for the development of biorefinery complexes that will have a critical role to play in our common future. A biorefinery is a facility that integrates biomass conversion processes and equipment to produce fuels, power, heat and chemicals from biomass. In biorefinery, almost all types of biomass feedstocks can be converted to different classes of biofuels and biochemicals through various processes that maximize economic and environmental benefits, while minimizing waste and pollution. Through the integration of green chemistry into biorefineries, and the use of low environmental impact technologies, future sustainable production chains of biofuels and high value chemicals from biomass can therefore be established. Currently, the green biorefinery, the whole-crop biorefinery, the oilseed biorefinery and the lignocellulosic feedstock biorefinery are favoured in research, development and industrial implementation, essentially through fully integrated biorefinery complexes. [less ▲]

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See detailMéthodologie de constitution d'une collection d'échantillons de sols en relation avec les principaux matériaux parentaux en Wallonie (Belgique méridionale)
Legrain, Xavier ULg; Renneson, Malorie ULg; Genot, Valérie ULg et al

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2011), 15(S2), 683-697

Over the past few years, there has been growing concern about soils and their properties, thanks to greater environmental awareness. Consequently, existing documents on soil are valuable in risk ... [more ▼]

Over the past few years, there has been growing concern about soils and their properties, thanks to greater environmental awareness. Consequently, existing documents on soil are valuable in risk assessment and for the research of well-adapted solutions. In this context, this paper reviews the main stages of soil mapping in Belgium and presents current works to valorize the Digital Soil Map of Wallonia and update associated databases. Belgium is among the first countries to be completely covered by a detailed soil map (1:20,000). The origin of the Soil Map of Belgium, its realisation between 1947 and 1991, the principles and characteristics as well as the related products are described. But since its publication, due to the increasing need of soil information and thanks to the development of geographical information systems the Walloon part of the map was digitalised between 2000 and 2003 by the Digital Soil Map of Wallonia (DSMW) Project. From this early action at regional level, a selection of immediately derived products is presented and briefly commented. However, if these products go beyond the initial objective of agricultural production increase, they do not always meet the environmental challenges nor the future legislation at European, national and regional levels. To fill this gap, the recent tasks carried out by the DMSW team are presented through a description of their methodological and technical framework. The long-term objective is to build Regional Soil Information Systems based on the use of the Digital Soil Map of Wallonia as a tool of integration, structuring and referencing of pedological information. [less ▲]

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See detailUse of induced mutations in embryogenesis study in bean Phaseolus vulgaris L. and two model plants Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. and Zea mays L.
Silue, Souleymane ULg; Jacquemin, Jean-Marie; Baudoin, Jean-Pierre ULg

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2011), 15(1), 195-205

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See detailMéthode pragmatique d’évaluation de la réserve en eau des stations forestières et cartographie à l’échelle régionale (Wallonie, Belgique)
Ridremont, François ULg; Lejeune, Philippe ULg; Claessens, Hugues ULg

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2011), 15(S2), 727-741

The assessment of the forest sites water availability constitutes a growing concern following the awareness of the potential impact of climate change on the soil moisture regime. At the present time, the ... [more ▼]

The assessment of the forest sites water availability constitutes a growing concern following the awareness of the potential impact of climate change on the soil moisture regime. At the present time, the forest managers lack tools for a quantitative estimation of the soil water reserve. This paper presents a simple estimation method that can be adopted on field by foresters. A map of this soil water reserve at the forest site scale has been established for the Southern Belgium. After the inventory of the possible techniques, the “textural method”, based on the pedotransfert classes of Jamagne et al. (1977), has been used. The soil profiles from the Aardewerk database have eased the translation of the Jamagne et al. (1977)’s results in the Belgian textural system. Moreover, the geodatabase of the Digital Soil Map of Wallonia (DSMW), through the typology of the major soil types, has been used as mapping support of the water reserve at the regional scale. Like a first attempt of validation, the result has been compared with the bioindicator character of forest understory vegetation. The regression results show a significant relationship between the soil water reserve and the vegetation estimate, but they also indicate that the water reserve does not explain alone the moisture level expressed by the flora. It emerges that the characterization of the Walloon parent materials will constitute an undeniable support for the development of the proposed method, the transposition of foreign results leading to some bias. The use prospects of this thematic map are multiple: integration as inputs for the autecological modelling, assessment of the moisture regime for the water availability of forest sites and building of sites catalogs; as many tools to guide forest managers in their planning measures. [less ▲]

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See detailUtilisation des mutations induites pour l'étude de l'embryogenèse chez le haricot Phaseolus vulgaris L. et deux plantes modèles, Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. et Zea mays L.
Silué, Souleymane; Jacquemin, Jean-Marie; Baudoin, Jean-Pierre ULg

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2011), 15(1), 195-205

L'amélioration du haricot commun Phaseolus vulgaris L. par hybridations interspécifiques avec les espèces Phaseolus coccineus L. et Phaseolus polyanthus Greenm. utilisées comme parents femelles se solde ... [more ▼]

L'amélioration du haricot commun Phaseolus vulgaris L. par hybridations interspécifiques avec les espèces Phaseolus coccineus L. et Phaseolus polyanthus Greenm. utilisées comme parents femelles se solde généralement par l'avortement des embryons hybrides. L'identification des gènes intervenant dans le développement normal des embryons permettrait d'expliquer en partie l'avortement des embryons hybrides ; les mutations induites pourraient donc être une alternative chez Phaseolus pour identifier les gènes clés de l'embryogenèse. cette étude présente quelques exemples d'utilisation des mutations induites dans l'identification des gènes indispensables au bon déroulement de l'embryogenèse chez Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heyhn. et Zea mays L., plantes modèles de l'étude de l'embryogenèse chez les dicotylédones et les monocotylédones, respectivement. Chez ces deux espèces, des mutants du développement embryonnaire ont été identifiés en utilisant la mutagenèse insertionnelle et la mutagenèse chimique à l'Ethyl Méthane Sulfonate (EMS). Chez Arabidopsis, les mutants sont affectés dans la polarité apico-basale, l'organisation radiale et les étapes post-embryonnaires et certains embryons mutants sont affectés dans la signalisation de l'auxine. Chez le maïs, les mutants defective kernel (dek), altérés au niveau de l'embryon et de l'albumen, et les mutants emb pour lequels seul l'embryon est affecté, ont été identifiés. Chez le haricot commun, des plantes déficientes dans la formation des graines ont été identifiées suite à la mutagenèse à l'EMS. Les embryons des graines de ces plantes arrêtent de croître à différents stades de développement et présentent des anomalies principalement au niveau du suspenseur et des cotylédons. [less ▲]

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See detailIntérêt des cartes des sols pour l'élaboration d'une stratégie d'échantillonnage en sols contaminés par retombées atmosphériques : application à l'étude de l'effet sol sur le devenir des éléments traces métalliques
Liénard, Amandine ULg; Bock, Laurent ULg; Colinet, Gilles ULg

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2011), 15(2), 669-682

As a result of pollution from atmospheric dusts, some sites of Wallonia (Belgium) are contaminated by metallic trace elements (MTE) such as cadmium, lead and zinc. These metalliferous soils are called ... [more ▼]

As a result of pollution from atmospheric dusts, some sites of Wallonia (Belgium) are contaminated by metallic trace elements (MTE) such as cadmium, lead and zinc. These metalliferous soils are called ‘calaminary sites’. The major aim of this study concerns the multi-scalar characterization of MTE distribution in these contaminated soils and landscapes. The strategy of sampling described in this paper is based on the influence of soil type and its land use on the fate of MTE. After analysis of collected samples, it will be possible to have an idea of the distribution of MTE among soil components, and therefore, to evaluate the risks caused by environmental changes such as an agricultural use of afforested areas. [less ▲]

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See detailLes monoterpènes : sources et implications dans la qualité de l’air intérieur
Marlet, Christelle ULg; Lognay, Georges ULg

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2011), 15(4), 611-622

Terpenes are recurrent in indoor environments. Their sources, biogenic or anthropological origin, are very varied: plants, wooden building materials, household products and furnishings, paints, air ... [more ▼]

Terpenes are recurrent in indoor environments. Their sources, biogenic or anthropological origin, are very varied: plants, wooden building materials, household products and furnishings, paints, air fresheners, perfumed candles. However, in spite of their natural character, these compounds can have significant effects on occupant’s health. Indeed, some monoterpenes are recognized as irritating or allergenic. Furthermore, they react with the other molecules to form potentially more harmful secondary products such as formaldehyde. Numerous studies demonstrated that reactions between monoterpenes and ozone produced airborne particulate matter as well as secondary pollutants among which formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and acetone. However, few studies were realized in the indoor to demonstrate the terpenes and secondary pollutants evolution. The most frequently used technique for the monoterpenes analysis is the TD-GC-MS. The sampling mode depends on the sample introduction system, either the sampling on sorbent tube, or the sampling in a tank. The attraction for the wooden constructions and ecological materials leads to higher indoor monoterpenes concentrations. Does this occurrence have to arouse our interest? The present article has the objective to review the knowledge relative to terpenes, and more exactly on the monoterpenes sources in indoor and their implication in its quality. [less ▲]

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See detailCartographie des sols en Belgique : aperçu historique et présentation des travaux actuels de valorisation et de révision de la Carte Numérique des Sols de Wallonie
Legrain, Xavier ULg; Demarcin, Pierre ULg; Colinet, Gilles ULg et al

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2011), 15(S2), 647-656

Over the past few years, there has been growing concern about soils and their properties, thanks to greater environmental awareness. Consequently, existing documents on soil are valuable in risk ... [more ▼]

Over the past few years, there has been growing concern about soils and their properties, thanks to greater environmental awareness. Consequently, existing documents on soil are valuable in risk assessment and for the research of well-adapted solutions. In this context, this paper reviews the main stages of soil mapping in Belgium and presents current works to valorize the Digital Soil Map of Wallonia and update associated databases. Belgium is among the first countries to be completely covered by a detailed soil map (1:20,000). The origin of the Soil Map of Belgium, its realisation between 1947 and 1991, the principles and characteristics as well as the related products are described. But since its publication, due to the increasing need of soil information and thanks to the development of geographical information systems the Walloon part of the map was digitalised between 2000 and 2003 by the Digital Soil Map of Wallonia (DSMW) Project. From this early action at regional level, a selection of immediately derived products is presented and briefly commented. However, if these products go beyond the initial objective of agricultural production increase, they do not always meet the environmental challenges nor the future legislation at European, national and regional levels. To fill this gap, the recent tasks carried out by the DMSW team are presented through a description of their methodological and technical framework. The long-term objective is to build Regional Soil Information Systems based on the use of the Digital Soil Map of Wallonia as a tool of integration, structuring and referencing of pedological information. [less ▲]

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See detailPour un échantillonnage et un conseil agronomique raisonné, les outils d'aide à la décision
Genot, Valérie ULg; Buffet, Dominique; Legrain, Xavier ULg et al

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2011), 15(S2), 657-668

Environmental and agronomic issues require always more well thought and suited farmer management of agricultural inputs; soil analysis is therefore an essential tool to support decision. However, for a ... [more ▼]

Environmental and agronomic issues require always more well thought and suited farmer management of agricultural inputs; soil analysis is therefore an essential tool to support decision. However, for a soil analysis to provide valuable information, it is essential for the sample to be representative of the studied field. Without this representativeness, an analytical result, as accurate as it could be, would not be of interest if it could mislead the farmer. In practice, the main difficulty for the sampler is the recognition of soil criteria which are essential to provide a fertility advice, especially in Wallonia (Belgium) where soil variability is very important. With the Digital Soil Map of Wallonia (DSMW), drowned at the scale 1/5,000, it seems appropriate to give these information to the samplers in an useful form for routine works. That is why a mapping tool for decision support, named REQUACARTO, was designed to be used for soil analysis by provincial laboratories, members of the REQUASUD laboratories network. This tool responds to a real requirement in Wallonia: achieving a quality sampling for the development of personalized soil fertility advice. [less ▲]

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See detailSynthèse des connaissances sur la déshydratation osmotique
Bchir, Brahim; Besbes, Souhail; Giet, Jean-Michel et al

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2011), 15(1), 129-142

Parmi les procédés de conservation des produits végétaux, la déshydratation osmotique présente un intérêt économique et nutritionnel certain. Cette technique, économe en énergie, est susceptible de ... [more ▼]

Parmi les procédés de conservation des produits végétaux, la déshydratation osmotique présente un intérêt économique et nutritionnel certain. Cette technique, économe en énergie, est susceptible de prolonger la période de disponibilité des produits alimentaires et leur confère des propriétés sensorielles nouvelles et appréciées. Elle permet ainsi aux acteurs de la filière agro-alimentaire d’écouler leurs productions à de meilleurs prix et aux consommateurs d’en disposer tout au long de l’année. Cette technique est un outil facile à mettre en place, surtout dans les pays en voie de développement, en raison de son faible cout. Le présent article a pour objectif de présenter une synthèse de la littérature concernant la technique de déshydratation osmotique afin d’en rappeler les bases théoriques et pratiques, mais aussi d’en préciser les nouvelles tendances et voies de recherches récentes. [less ▲]

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See detailValorisation of a water hyacinth in vermicomposting using an epigeic earthworm Perionyx excavatus in Central Vietnam
Zirbes, Lara ULg; Renard, Quentin; Dufey, Joseph et al

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2011), 15(1)

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See detailLa vision artificielle: une méthode d'avenir pour la reconnaissance automatisée des plantes adventices?
Piron, Alexis; Dumont, Benjamin ULg; Destain, Marie-France ULg

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2011), 15(4), 597-610

Weeds compete with crop plants for sunlight, moisture and nutrients and can have a detrimental impact on crop yields and quality if uncontrolled. They are destroyed by chemical, non chemical and ... [more ▼]

Weeds compete with crop plants for sunlight, moisture and nutrients and can have a detrimental impact on crop yields and quality if uncontrolled. They are destroyed by chemical, non chemical and integrated methods. To perform a site-specific weeds destruction, combination of these techniques with ground-based machine vision technology has high potential. Several methods exist to differentiate weeds from soil, between the rows. The more complicated problem is encountered when weeds are mixed to crops within the rows. Algorithms based on colorimetric or shape features are widely dependant on the variability of weeds and crops and are difficult to transpose from one situation to another. Measurement of plant height is a promising method, since at low spatial scale, the growthing speed is more uniform for the plants than for the weeds. This growing speed is function of the height and of a characteristic time, such as the number of days after sowing. To implement this method, active stereoscopy combined to an accurate measurement of the soil microrelief is required. [less ▲]

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See detailDimensionnement et extrapolation des bioréacteurs sur base de paramètres physiologiques : cas de la production de lipase par Yarrowia lipolytica
Kar, Tambi ULg; Delvigne, Frank ULg; Destain, Jacqueline ULg et al

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2011), 15(4), 585-595

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See detailIn vitro culture of Jatropha curcas L (Culture in vitro de Jatropha curcas L.)
Medza Mve, S.D.; Mergeai, Guy ULg; Baudoin, Jean-Pierre ULg et al

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2011), 15(4), 567-574

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See detailLe Noisetier d'Afrique (Coula edulis Baill.). Un produit forestier non ligneux méconnu
Moupela, Christian ULg; Vermeulen, Cédric ULg; Daïnou, Kasso ULg et al

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2011), 15(3), 485-495

Non-timber forest product (NTFP) are of significant nutritional, economic and cultural importance for the people of central Africa. However, many products have not yet been the subject of scientific ... [more ▼]

Non-timber forest product (NTFP) are of significant nutritional, economic and cultural importance for the people of central Africa. However, many products have not yet been the subject of scientific studies; such is the case of Coula edulis. Although very little is known about this species, it has many uses and its fruits are regulary eaten and marketed by various communities. Cultivation of this tree species remains however very limited, mainly because of the low germination potentiel of its seeds. Its wood, renowned for its termite resistance, is used locally for construction. Mechanical tests conducted on the timber have put its technological aptitudes to the fore; it has indeed the potential to become one of the most sought-after commercial species. As in the future, Coula edulis could be managed for its wood as well as its non-timber forest product, in-depth studies aiming at the sustainable development of this natural ressource need to be implemented. [less ▲]

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See detailLa respiration hétérotrophe dans les sols agricoles :description des facteurs importants et comparaison de modèles semi-mécanistes existants.
Buysse, Pauline ULg; Aubinet, Marc ULg

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2010), 14(4), 707-717

Soil heterotrophic respiration is a complex process which is governed by many biotic and abiotic factors. More specifically, in the agricultural ecosystems the influence of cultural practices and residue ... [more ▼]

Soil heterotrophic respiration is a complex process which is governed by many biotic and abiotic factors. More specifically, in the agricultural ecosystems the influence of cultural practices and residue management techniques is important. Global change impacts on the phenomenon are still unclear. Some studies suggest that a positive feedback may occur. Therefore, it is necessary to get to a better knowledge of the mechanisms involved. To reach this goal, many semimechanistic models have been developed. Compared to empiric models, they allow a better understanding of soil carbon dynamics by distributing total soil carbon content into several pools. This carbon allocation is based on carbon decomposition constants. However, these models work at very different spatial and temporal scales and many differences exist between them. These ones are put forward in this paper and the main biotic and abiotic soil heterotrophic respiration factors are also described. [less ▲]

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See detailComparaison d’un modèle empirique et d’un modèle physique de séchage de grains de maïs en lit fluidisé
Janas, Sébastien ULg; Malumba Kamba, Paul ULg; Deroanne, Claude et al

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2010), 14(3), 389-398

Dans cet article, deux modèles prévisionnels de la température et de la teneur en eau de grains de maïs durant leur séchage en lit fluidisé sont comparés. Le premier modèle est un modèle empirique, où les ... [more ▼]

Dans cet article, deux modèles prévisionnels de la température et de la teneur en eau de grains de maïs durant leur séchage en lit fluidisé sont comparés. Le premier modèle est un modèle empirique, où les phénomènes physiques impliqués dans le processus ne sont pas décrits. Ses équations peuvent être résolues à l’aide de logiciels gratuits disponibles sur Internet. Le second est un modèle plus complexe, basé sur les lois physiques régissant les transferts de chaleur et de masse au sein du produit. Sa résolution nécessite l’utilisation de logiciels commerciaux de calcul par éléments finis. Les deux modèles sont paramétrés sur des séchages à température constante, puis validés sur des séchages à température variable et un séchage discontinu. Les deux modèles permettent de décrire avec une précision acceptable les évolutions de teneurs en eau au cours des séchages continus et de prévoir les évolutions de teneurs en eau lors des séchages à température variable et du séchage discontinu. Le modèle empirique ne permet pas de décrire l’évolution de la température des grains lors de séchages à température variable avec une précision meilleure qu’1 °C. Si cette précision est suffisante, l’exploitation du modèle empirique permettra de réduire considérablement les couts en temps et en licence de logiciels pour la modélisation du séchage du maïs en lit fluidisé. [less ▲]

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