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See detailJuxtamembrane Protein Segments That Contribute To Recruitment Of Cholesterol Into Domains
Epand, Rf.; Thomas, Annick ULg; Brasseur, Robert ULg et al

in Biochemistry (2006), 45(19), 6105-14

We investigated the properties of several peptides with sequences related to LWYIK, a segment found in the gp41 protein of HIV and believed to play a role in sequestering this protein to a cholesterol ... [more ▼]

We investigated the properties of several peptides with sequences related to LWYIK, a segment found in the gp41 protein of HIV and believed to play a role in sequestering this protein to a cholesterol-rich domain in the membrane. This segment fulfills the requirements to be classified as a CRAC motif that has been suggested to predict those proteins that will partition into cholesterol-rich regions of the membrane. All of the peptides were studied with the terminal amino and carboxyl groups blocked, i.e., as N-acetyl-peptide-amides. Effects of cholesterol on the intensity of W emission generally parallel DSC evidence of sequestration of cholesterol. Modeling studies indicate that all of these peptides tend to partition with their mass center at the membrane interface at the level of the hydroxyl of cholesterol. Interaction with cholesterol is dual: van der Waals interactions between mainly hydrophobic surfaces and electrostatic stabilization of the cholesterol OH group. Thus, both experiments and modeling studies indicate that the preference of CRAC motifs for cholesterol-rich domains might be related to a membrane interfacial preference of the motif, to a capacity to wrap and block the cholesterol polar OH group by H-bond interactions, and to a capacity for peptide aromatic side chains to stack with cholesterol. These results were supported by studies of single mutations in the gp41 protein of HIV-1, in which L(679) is replaced with I. Despite the similarity of the properties of these amino acid residues, this single substitution resulted in a marked attenuation of the ability of JC53-BL HeLa-based HIV-1 indicator cells to form syncytia. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Siv Tilted Peptide Induces Cylindrical Reverse Micelles In Supported Lipid Bilayers
El Kirat, K.; Dufrene, Yf.; Lins, Laurence ULg et al

in Biochemistry (2006), 45(30), 9336-41

Elucidation of the molecular mechanism leading to biomembrane fusion is a challenging issue in current biomedical research in view of its involvement in controlling cellular functions and in mediating ... [more ▼]

Elucidation of the molecular mechanism leading to biomembrane fusion is a challenging issue in current biomedical research in view of its involvement in controlling cellular functions and in mediating various important diseases. According to the generally admitted stalk mechanism described for membrane fusion, negatively curved lipids may play a central role during the early steps of the process. In this study, we used atomic force microscopy (AFM) to address the crucial question of whether negatively curved lipids influence the interaction of the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) fusion peptide with model membranes. To this end, dioleoylphosphatidylcholine/dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DOPC/DPPC) bilayers containing 0.5 mol % dioleoylphosphatidic acid (DOPA) were incubated with the SIV peptide and imaged in real time using AFM. After a short incubation time, we observed a 1.9 nm reduction in the thickness of the DPPC domains, reflecting either interdigitation or fluidization of lipids. After longer incubation times, these depressed DPPC domains evolved into elevated domains, composed of nanorod structures protruding several nanometers above the bilayer surface and attributed to cylindrical reverse micelles. Such DOPC/DPPC/DOPA bilayer modifications were never observed with nontilted peptides. Accordingly, this is the first time that AFM reveals the formation of cylindrical reverse micelles in lipid bilayers promoted by fusogenic peptides. [less ▲]

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See detailInhibitors of metallo-beta-lactamase generated from beta-lactam antibiotics.
Badarau, Adriana; Llinas, Antonio; Laws, Andrew P et al

in Biochemistry (2005), 44(24), 8578-89

The resistance of bacteria to the normally lethal action of beta-lactam antibiotics is largely due to the production of beta-lactamases that catalyze the hydrolysis of the beta-lactam. One class of these ... [more ▼]

The resistance of bacteria to the normally lethal action of beta-lactam antibiotics is largely due to the production of beta-lactamases that catalyze the hydrolysis of the beta-lactam. One class of these enzymes is a zinc-dependent metallo-beta-lactamase for which there are no clinically available inhibitors. The hydrolysis of cephalosporin beta-lactam antibiotics generates dihydrothiazines which subsequently undergo isomerization at C6 by C-S bond cleavage and through the intermediacy of a thiol. These thiols can be trapped by the beta-lactamase from Bacillus cereus, causing inhibition of the enzyme. The rate of production of the thiol corresponds to the rate of inhibition, and the inhibition constants are in the micromolar range but vary with the nature of the cephalosporin derivative. NMR studies have identified the structure of the thiols causing inhibition and also show that the thiol binds to the zinc ion, which in turn perturbs the metal-bound histidines. Inhibition is slowly removed as the thiol becomes oxidized or undergoes further degradation. The thiol intermediate generated from cephalothin is a slow binding inhibitor. There is no observed inhibition from the analogous degradation products from penicillins. [less ▲]

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See detailInactivation of bacterial DD-peptidase by beta-sultams.
Llinas, Antonio; Ahmed, Naveed; Cordaro, Massimiliano et al

in Biochemistry (2005), 44(21), 7738-46

N-Acyl-beta-sultams are time-dependent, irreversible active site-directed inhibitors of Streptomyces R61 DD-peptidase. The rate of inactivation is first order with respect to beta-sultam concentration ... [more ▼]

N-Acyl-beta-sultams are time-dependent, irreversible active site-directed inhibitors of Streptomyces R61 DD-peptidase. The rate of inactivation is first order with respect to beta-sultam concentration, and the second-order rate constants show a dependence on pH similar to that for the hydrolysis of a substrate. Inactivation is due to the formation of a stable 1:1 enzyme-inhibitor complex as a result of the active site serine being sulfonylated by the beta-sultam as shown by ESI-MS analysis and by X-ray crystallography. A striking feature of the sulfonyl enzyme is that the inhibitor is not bound to the oxyanion hole but interacts extensively with the "roof" of the active site where the Arg 285 is located. [less ▲]

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See detailCrystal structure of the sensor domain of the BlaR penicillin receptor from Bacillus licheniformis
Kerff, Frédéric ULg; Charlier, Paulette ULg; Colombo, Maria Louisa et al

in Biochemistry (2003), 42(44), 12835-12843

As in several staphylococci, the synthesis of the Bacillus licheniformis 749/I beta-lactamase is an inducible phenomenon regulated by a signal-transducing membrane protein BlaR. The C-terminal domain of ... [more ▼]

As in several staphylococci, the synthesis of the Bacillus licheniformis 749/I beta-lactamase is an inducible phenomenon regulated by a signal-transducing membrane protein BlaR. The C-terminal domain of this multimodular protein is an extracellular domain which specifically recognizes beta-lactam antibiotics. When it binds a beta-lactam, a signal is transmitted by the transmembrane region to the intracellular loops. In response, the hydrolytic activity of the BlaR large cytoplasmic L3 loop is induced, and a cascade of reactions is generated, leading to the transcription of the beta-lactamase gene. Here, we describe the crystal structure of the extracellular penicillin-receptor domain of BlaR (residues 346-601) at 2.5 Angstrom resolution in order to understand why this domain, whose folding is very similar to that of class D beta-lactamases, behaves as a highly sensitive penicillin-binding protein rather than a beta-lactamase. Two residues of the BlaR C-terminal domain, Thr452 and Thr542, modify the hydrophobic characteristic of the class D beta-lactamase active site. Both residues seem to be in part responsible for the lack of beta-lactamase activity of the BlaR protein due to the stability of the acyl-enzyme. Although further experimental data are needed to fully understand the transmembrane induction process, the comparison of the BlaR sensor domain structure with those of class D beta-lactamase complexes and penicillin-binding proteins provides interesting elements to hypothesize on possible signal transmission mechanisms. [less ▲]

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See detailSelective interaction of ethidium derivatives with quadruplexes: An equilibrium dialysis and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry analysis
Rosu, Frédéric ULg; De Pauw, Edwin ULg; Guittat, Lionel et al

in Biochemistry (2003), 42(35), 10361-10371

The telomeric G-rich single-stranded DNA can adopt in vitro an intramolecular quadruplex structure, which has been shown to directly inhibit telomerase activity. The reactivation of this enzyme in ... [more ▼]

The telomeric G-rich single-stranded DNA can adopt in vitro an intramolecular quadruplex structure, which has been shown to directly inhibit telomerase activity. The reactivation of this enzyme in immortalized and most cancer cells suggests that telomerase is a relevant target in oncology, and telomerase inhibitors have been proposed as new potential anticancer agents. In this paper, we have analyzed the selectivity of four ethidium derivatives and ethidium itself toward different G-quadruplex species, with electrospray mass spectrometry and competitive equilibrium dialysis and evaluated their inhibitory properties against telomerase. A selectivity profile may be obtained through electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), which is in fair agreement with competitive equilibrium dialysis data. It also provides unambiguous data on the number of binding sites per nucleic acid (maximal number of two ethidium derivatives per quadruplex, in agreement with external stacking). Our experiments also demonstrate that one compound (4) is the most active and selective G-quadruplex ligand within this series and the most selective telomerase inhibitor in a modified TRAP-G4 assay. [less ▲]

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See detailCatalytic mechanism of the Streptomyces K15 DD-transpeptidase/penicillin-binding protein probed by site-directed mutagenesis and structural analysis
Rhazi, Noureddine ULg; Charlier, Paulette ULg; Dehareng, Dominique ULg et al

in Biochemistry (2003), 42(10), 2895-2906

The Streptomyces K15 penicillin-binding DD-transpeptidase is presumed to be involved in peptide cross-linking during bacterial cell wall peptidoglycan assembly. To gain insight into the catalytic ... [more ▼]

The Streptomyces K15 penicillin-binding DD-transpeptidase is presumed to be involved in peptide cross-linking during bacterial cell wall peptidoglycan assembly. To gain insight into the catalytic mechanism, the roles of residues Lys38, Ser96, and Cys98, belonging to the structural elements defining the active site cleft, have been investigated by site-directed mutagenesis, biochemical studies, and X-ray diffraction analysis. The Lys38His and Ser96Ala mutations almost completely abolished the penicillin binding and severely impaired the transpeptidase activities while the geometry of the active site was essentially the same as in the wild-type enzyme. It is proposed that Lys38 acts as the catalytic base that abstracts a proton from the active serine Ser35 during nucleophilic attack and that Ser96 is a key intermediate in the proton transfer from the Ogamma of Ser35 to the substrate leaving group nitrogen. The role of these two residues should be conserved among penicillin-binding proteins containing the Ser-Xaa-Asn/Cys sequence in motif 2. Conversion of Cys98 into Asn decreased the transpeptidase activity and increased hydrolysis of the thiolester substrate and the acylation rate with most beta-lactam antibiotics. Cys98 is proposed to play the same role as Asn in motif 2 of other penicilloyl serine transferases in properly positioning the substrate for the catalytic process. [less ▲]

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See detailCrystal structures of the Bacillus licheniformis BS3 class A beta-lactamase and of the acyl-enzyme adduct formed with cefoxitin
Fonzé, Evelyne; Vanhove, Mac; Dive, Georges ULg et al

in Biochemistry (2002), 41(6), 1877-1885

The Bacillus licheniformis BS3 beta-lactamase catalyzes the hydrolysis of the beta-lactam ring of penicillins, cephalosporins, and related compounds. The production of beta-lactamases is the most common ... [more ▼]

The Bacillus licheniformis BS3 beta-lactamase catalyzes the hydrolysis of the beta-lactam ring of penicillins, cephalosporins, and related compounds. The production of beta-lactamases is the most common and thoroughly studied cause of antibiotic resistance. Although they escape the hydrolytic activity of the prototypical Staphylococcus aureus beta-lactamase, many cephems are good substrates for a large number of beta-lactamases. However, the introduction of a 7alpha-methoxy substituent, as in cefoxitin, extends their antibacterial spectrum to many cephalosporin-resistant Gram-negative bacteria. The 7alphamethoxy group selectively reduces the hydrolytic action of many beta-lactamases without having a significant effect on the affinity for the target enzymes, the membrane penicillin-binding proteins. We report here the crystallographic structures of the BS3 enzyme and its acyl-enzyme adduct with cefoxitin at 1.7 Angstrom resolution. The comparison of the two structures reveals a covalent acyl-enzyme adduct with perturbed active site geometry, involving a different conformation of the Omega-loop that bears the essential catalytic Glu166 residue. This deformation is induced by the cefoxitin side chain whose position is constrained by the presence of the alpha-methoxy group. The hydrolytic water molecule is also removed from the active site by the 7beta-carbonyl of the acyl intermediate. In light of the interactions and steric hindrances in the active site of the structure of the BS3-cefoxitin acyl-enzyme adduct, the crucial role of the conserved Asn132 residue is confirmed and a better understanding of the kinetic results emerges. [less ▲]

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See detailTranslocation Of The pAntp Peptide And Its Amphipathic Analogue Ap-2al
Drin, G.; Demene, H.; Temsamani, J. et al

in Biochemistry (2001), 40(6), 1824-34

The pAntp peptide, corresponding to the third helix of the homeodomain of the Antennapedia protein, enters by a receptor-independent process into eukaryotic cells. The interaction between the pAntp ... [more ▼]

The pAntp peptide, corresponding to the third helix of the homeodomain of the Antennapedia protein, enters by a receptor-independent process into eukaryotic cells. The interaction between the pAntp peptide and the phospholipid matrix of the plasma membrane seems to be the first step involved in the translocation mechanism. However, the mechanism by which the peptide translocates through the cell membrane is still not well established. We have investigated the translocation ability of pAntp through a protein-free phospholipid membrane in comparison with a more amphipathic analogue. We show by fluorescence spectroscopy, circular dichroism, NMR spectroscopy, and molecular modeling that pAntp is not sufficiently helically amphipathic to cross a phospholipid membrane of a model system. Due to its primary sequence related to its DNA binding ability in the Antennapedia homeodomain-DNA complex, the pAntp peptide does not belong to the amphipathic alpha-helical peptide family whose members are able to translocate by pore formation. [less ▲]

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See detailCharacterization of recombinant wild type and site-directed mutations of apolipoprotein C-III: lipid binding, displacement of ApoE, and inhibition of lipoprotein lipase.
Liu, H.; Talmud, P. J.; Lins, Laurence ULg et al

in Biochemistry (2000), 39(31), 9201-12

The physicochemical properties of recombinant wild type and three site-directed mutants of apolipoprotein C-III (apoC-III), designed by molecular modeling to alter specific amino acid residues implicated ... [more ▼]

The physicochemical properties of recombinant wild type and three site-directed mutants of apolipoprotein C-III (apoC-III), designed by molecular modeling to alter specific amino acid residues implicated in lipid binding (L9T/T20L, F64A/W65A) or LPL inhibition (K21A), were compared. Relative lipid binding efficiencies to dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) were L9T/T20L > WT >K21A > F64A/W65A with an inverse correlation with size of the discoidal complexes formed. Physicochemical analysis (Trp fluorescence, circular dichroism, and GdnHCl denaturation) suggests that L9T/T20L forms tighter and more stable lipid complexes with phospholipids, while F64A/W65A associates less tightly. Lipid displacement properties were tested by gel-filtrating apoE:dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) discoidal complexes mixed with the various apoC-III variants. All apoC-III proteins bound to the apoE:DPPC complexes; the amount of apoE displaced from the complex was dependent on the apoC-III lipid binding affinity. All apoC-III proteins inhibited LPL in the presence or absence of apoC-II, with F64A/W65A displaying the most inhibition, suggesting that apoC-III inhibition of LPL is independent of lipid binding and therefore of apoC-II displacement. Taken together. these data suggest that the hydrophobic residues F64 and W65 are crucial for the lipid binding properties of apoC-III and that redistribution of the N-terminal helix of apoC-III (L9T/T20L) enhances the stability of the lipid-bound protein, while LPL inhibition by apoC-III is likely to be due to protein:protein interactions. [less ▲]

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See detailThermodynamic Stability of a Cold-Active Alpha-Amylase from the Antarctic Bacterium Alteromonas Haloplanctis
Feller, Georges ULg; d'Amico, D.; Gerday, Charles ULg

in Biochemistry (1999), 38(14), 4613-9

The thermal stability of the cold-active alpha-amylase (AHA) secreted by the Antarctic bacterium Alteromonas haloplanctis has been investigated by intrinsic fluorescence, circular dichroism, and ... [more ▼]

The thermal stability of the cold-active alpha-amylase (AHA) secreted by the Antarctic bacterium Alteromonas haloplanctis has been investigated by intrinsic fluorescence, circular dichroism, and differential scanning calorimetry. It was found that this heat-labile enzyme is the largest known multidomain protein exhibiting a reversible two-state unfolding, as demonstrated by the recovery of DeltaHcal values after consecutive calorimetric transitions, a DeltaHcal/DeltaHeff ratio close to unity, and the independence of unfolding thermodynamic parameters of scan rates. By contrast, the mesophilic alpha-amylases investigated here (from porcine pancreas, human salivary glands, yellow meal beetle, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, and Bacillus licheniformis) unfold irreversibly according to a non-two-state mechanism. Unlike mesophilic alpha-amylases, the melting point of AHA is independent of calcium and chloride binding while the allosteric and structural functions of these ions are conserved. The thermostability of AHA at optimal conditions is characterized by a Tm of 43.7 degrees C, a DeltaHcal of 238 kcal mol-1, and a DeltaCp of 8.47 kcal mol-1 K-1. These values were used to calculate the Gibbs free energy of unfolding over a wide range of temperatures. This stability curve shows that (a) the specific DeltaGmax of AHA [22 cal (mol of residue)-1] is 4 times lower than that of mesophilic alpha-amylases, (b) group hydration plays a crucial role in the enzyme flexibility at low temperatures, (c) the temperature of cold unfolding closely corresponds to the lower limit of bacterial growth, and (d) the recombinant heat-labile enzyme can be expressed in mesophilic hosts at moderate temperatures. It is also argued that the cold-active alpha-amylase has evolved toward the lowest possible conformational stability of its native state. [less ▲]

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See detailStimulation of topoisomerase II-mediated DNA cleavage by three DNA-intercalating plant alkaloids: cryptolepine, matadine, and serpentine.
Dassonneville, L.; Bonjean, K.; De Pauw, Marie-Claire ULg et al

in Biochemistry (1999), 38(24), 7719-26

Cryptolepine, matadine, and serpentine are three indoloquinoline alkaloids isolated from the roots of African plants: Cryptolepis sanguinolenta, Strychnos gossweileri, and Rauwolfia serpentina ... [more ▼]

Cryptolepine, matadine, and serpentine are three indoloquinoline alkaloids isolated from the roots of African plants: Cryptolepis sanguinolenta, Strychnos gossweileri, and Rauwolfia serpentina, respectively. For a long time, these alkaloids have been used in African folk medicine in the form of plant extracts for the treatment of multiple diseases, in particular as antimalarial drugs. To date, the molecular basis for their diverse biological effects remains poorly understood. To elucidate their mechanism of action, we studied their interaction with DNA and their effects on topoisomerase II. The strength and mode of binding to DNA of the three alkaloids were investigated by spectroscopy. The alkaloids bind tightly to DNA and behave as typical intercalating agents. All three compounds stabilize the topoisomerase II-DNA covalent complex and stimulate the cutting of DNA by topoisomerase II. The poisoning effect is more pronounced with cryptolepine than with matadine and serpentine, but none of the drugs exhibit a preference for cutting at a specific base. Cryptolepine which binds 10-fold more tightly to DNA than the two related alkaloids proves to be much more cytotoxic toward B16 melanoma cells than matadine and serpentine. The cellular consequences of the inhibition of topoisomerase II by cryptolepine were investigated using the HL60 leukemia cell line. The flow cytometry analysis shows that the drug alters the cell cycle distribution, but no sign of drug-induced apoptosis was detected when evaluating the internucleosomal fragmentation of DNA in cells. Cryptolepine-treated cells probably die via necrosis rather than via apoptosis. The results provide evidence that DNA and topoisomerase II are the primary targets of cryptolepine, matadine, and serpentine. [less ▲]

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See detailThe DNA intercalating alkaloid cryptolepine interferes with topoisomerase II and inhibits primarily DNA synthesis in B16 melanoma cells.
Bonjean, K.; De Pauw, Marie-Claire ULg; Defresne, Marie-Paule ULg et al

in Biochemistry (1998), 37(15), 5136-46

Cryptolepine hydrochloride is an indoloquinoline alkaloid isolated from the roots of Cryptolepis sanguinolenta. It is characterized by a multiplicity of host-mediated biological activities, including ... [more ▼]

Cryptolepine hydrochloride is an indoloquinoline alkaloid isolated from the roots of Cryptolepis sanguinolenta. It is characterized by a multiplicity of host-mediated biological activities, including antibacterial, antiviral, and antimalarial properties. To date, the molecular basis for its diverse biological effects remains largely uncertain. Several lines of evidence strongly suggest that DNA might correspond to its principal cellular target. Consequently, we studied the strength and mode of binding to DNA of cryptolepine by means of absorption, fluorescence, circular, and linear dichroism, as well as by a relaxation assay using DNA topoisomerases. The results of various optical and gel electrophoresis techniques converge to reveal that the alkaloid binds tightly to DNA and behaves as a typical intercalating agent. In DNAase I footprinting experiments it was found that the drug interacts preferentially with GC-rich sequences and discriminates against homo-oligomeric runs of A and T. This study has also led to the discovery that cryptolepine is a potent topoisomerase II inhibitor and a promising antitumor agent. It stabilizes topoisomerase II-DNA covalent complexes and stimulates the cutting of DNA at a subset of preexisting topoisomerase II cleavage sites. Taking advantage of the fluorescence of the indoloquinoline chromophore, fluorescence microscopy was used to map cellular uptake of the drug. Cryptolepine easily crosses the cell membranes and accumulates selectively into the nuclei rather than in the cytoplasm of B16 melanoma cells. Quantitative analyses of DNA in cells after Feulgen reaction and image cytometry reveal that the drug blocks the cell cycle in G2/M phases. It is also shown that the alkaloid is more potent at inhibiting DNA synthesis rather than RNA and protein synthesis. Altogether, the results provide direct evidence that DNA is the primary target of cryptolepine and suggest that this alkaloid is a valid candidate for the development of tumor active compounds. [less ▲]

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See detailA collapsed intermediate with nonnative packing of hydrophobic residues in the folding of TEM-1 beta-lactamase
Vanhove, M.; Lejeune, Annabelle ULg; GUILLAUME, G. et al

in Biochemistry (1998), 37(7), 1941-1950

The kinetics of refolding of TEM-1 beta-lactamase from solution in guanidine hydrochloride have been investigated on the manual and stopped-flow mixing time scales. The kinetics of change of far-UV ... [more ▼]

The kinetics of refolding of TEM-1 beta-lactamase from solution in guanidine hydrochloride have been investigated on the manual and stopped-flow mixing time scales. The kinetics of change of far-UV circular dichroism and of intrinsic and ANS fluorescence have been compared with changes in the quenching of fluorescence by acrylamide as a probe of the accessibility of solvent to tryptophan. The binding of ANS points to hydrophobic collapse in the very early stages of folding which take place in the burst phase. This is accompanied by regain of 60-65% of-native ellipticity, indicating formation of a significant proportion of secondary structure, Also in the burst phase, the tryptophan residues, which are largely exposed to solvent in the native protein, become less accessible to acrylamide, and the intrinsic fluorescence increases markedly. An early intermediate is thus formed in which tryptophan is more buried than in the native protein. Further intermediates are formed over the next 20 s. Quenching by acrylamide increases during this period, as the transient nonnative state is disrupted and the tryptophan residue(s) become(s) reexposed to solvent, The two slowest phases are determined by the isomerization of incorrect prolyl isomers, but double jump tryptophan fluorescence and acrylamide quenching experiments show little, if any, effect of proline isomerization on the earlier phases, Hydrophobic collapse thus occurs to a folding intermediate in which there is a nonnative element of structure which has to rearrange in the later steps of folding, resulting in a nonhierarchical folding pathway. The C-terminal W290 is suggested as being involved in the nonnative intermediate. beta-Lactamase provides further evidence for the occurrence of nonnative intermediates in protein folding. [less ▲]

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See detailStabilization of human triosephosphate isomerase by improvement of the stability of individual alpha-helices in dimeric as well as monomeric forms of the protein
Mainfroid, Véronique; Mande, Shekhar C; Hol, Wim G J et al

in Biochemistry (1996), 35(13), 4110-7

Human triosephosphate isomerase (hTIM) is a dimeric enzyme of identical subunits, adopting the alpha/beta-barrel fold. In a previous work, a monomeric mutant of hTIM was engineered in which Met14 and ... [more ▼]

Human triosephosphate isomerase (hTIM) is a dimeric enzyme of identical subunits, adopting the alpha/beta-barrel fold. In a previous work, a monomeric mutant of hTIM was engineered in which Met14 and Arg98, two interface residues, were changed to glutamine. Analysis of equilibrium denaturation of this monomeric mutant, named M14Q/R98Q, revealed that its conformational stability, 2.5kcal/mol, is low as compared to the stability of dimeric hTIM (19.3 kcal/mol). The fact that this value is also lower than the conformational stabilities usually found for monomeric proteins suggests that the hTIM monomers are thermodynamically unstable. In the present work, we attempted to stabilize the M14Q/R98Q mutant by introducing stabilizing mutations in alpha-helices of the protein. Five mutations were proposed, designed to increase alpha-helix propensity by introducing alanines at solvent-exposed sites (Q179A, K193A), to introduce favorable interactions with helix dipoles (Q179D, S105D), or to reduce the conformational entropy of unfolding by introducing proline residues at the "N-cap" position of alpha-helices (A215P). Three replacements (Q179D, K193A, and A215P) were found to increase the stability of the native dimeric hTIM and the monomeric M14Q/R98Q. These results suggest that the monomeric hTIM mutant can be stabilized to a considerable extent by following well-established rules for protein stabilization. A comparison of the stabilizing effect performed by the mutations on the dimeric hTIM and the monomeric M14Q/R98Q allowed us to reinforce a model of equilibrium denaturation proposed for both proteins. [less ▲]

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See detailPhospholipid-Binding And Lecithin-Cholesterol Acyltransferase Activation Properties Of Apolipoprotein-A-I Mutants
Holvoet, P.; Zhao, Za.; Vanloo, B. et al

in Biochemistry (1995), 34(41), 13334-42

Recombinant human apolipoprotein A-I (apo A-I) and three deletion mutants: apo A-I(delta Leu44-Leu126), apo A-I(delta Glu139-Leu170), and apo A-I(delta Ala190-Gln243), purified from the periplasmic space ... [more ▼]

Recombinant human apolipoprotein A-I (apo A-I) and three deletion mutants: apo A-I(delta Leu44-Leu126), apo A-I(delta Glu139-Leu170), and apo A-I(delta Ala190-Gln243), purified from the periplasmic space of Escherichia coli, were studied. The rate of turbidity decrease following mixing of apo A-I(delta Ala190-Gln243) with dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) vesicles at 23 degrees C was 10-fold lower than that of the other apo A-I proteins, confirming that the carboxy-terminal region of apo A-I plays a role in rapid lipid binding. The Stokes radii of reconstituted high-density lipoproteins (rHDL), containing dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine and cholesterol, were larger for the three apo A-I mutants [6.3 nm for apo A-I(delta Leu44-Leu126), 6.1 nm for apo A-I(delta Glu139-Leu170), and 6.5 nm for apo A-I(delta Ala190-Gln243)] than for intact apo A-I (5.0 nm). The mutant rHDL all contained 4 apo A-I molecules per particle as compared to 2 for intact apo A-I. Circular dichroism measurements revealed 8 alpha-helices per apo A-I molecule, 5 per apo A-I(delta Leu44-Leu126), 6 per apo A-I(delta Glu139-Leu170), and 4 per apo A-I(delta Ala190-Gln243) molecule as compared to predicted values of 8, 5, 6, and 6 alpha-helices, respectively. [less ▲]

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See detailSpecific inhibition of expression of a human collagen gene (COL1A1) with modified antisense oligonucleotides. The most effective target sites are clustered in double-stranded regions of the predicted secondary structure for the mRNA.
Laptev, A. V.; Lu, Z.; Colige, Alain ULg et al

in Biochemistry (1994), 33(36), 11033-9

A series of antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) were synthesized and tested to define the best target sites within an RNA transcript of collagen for effective inhibition of expression. The test system ... [more ▼]

A series of antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) were synthesized and tested to define the best target sites within an RNA transcript of collagen for effective inhibition of expression. The test system consisted of mouse NIH 3T3 fibroblasts that were stably transfected with a human minigene for procollagen I so that the cells simultaneously synthesized full-length mouse pro alpha 1 (I) chains and internally deleted human pro alpha 1 (I) chains. The sequences of the transcripts from both genes were compared, and a series of 28 ASOs were designed to target sites in which there were at least two base differences within a 20-nucleotide sequence between the human and mouse transcripts. Six of the ASOs specifically decreased the levels of pro alpha 1 (I) chain synthesized from the human gene without a decrease in the levels of pro alpha 1 (I) chains from the mouse endogenous gene. The most effective ASOs reduced the intracellular levels of human pro alpha 1 (I) chains relative to the mouse pro alpha 1 (I) chains to 37-67% of the control values. Combined addition of two effective ASOs or a second administration of the same effective ASO did not produce any additive effect. The results did not support previous suggestions that the best target sites for ASOs were sequences around initiation codons for translation, at intron-exon boundaries, or in single-stranded loops in hairpin structures. Also, the results did not support previous suggestions that the most effective ASOs are those with the highest affinities for their target sequences. Instead, the most consistent pattern in the data was that the most effective ASOs were those targeted to sequences that were predicted to form clustered double-stranded structures in RNA transcripts. [less ▲]

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See detailDestruction of Stearic Acid Nitroxyl Radicals Mediated by Photoexcited Merocyanine 540 in Liposomal and Micellar Systems
Hoebeke, Maryse ULg; Seret, Alain ULg; Piette, Jacques ULg et al

in Biochemistry (1993), 32(10), 2730-2736

Fatty acid spin labels have been included into liposomes and micelles, in order to study the photochemical behavior of merocyanine 540 toward nitroxyl radicals situated at various depths in the bilayer or ... [more ▼]

Fatty acid spin labels have been included into liposomes and micelles, in order to study the photochemical behavior of merocyanine 540 toward nitroxyl radicals situated at various depths in the bilayer or the surfactant layer. Visible illumination of the dye, either free in ethanol or bound to liposomes or micelles, leads to the reduction of the electron spin resonance signal of the label. The efficiency of the interaction between merocyanine 540 and spin labels depends on the depth at which the nitroxyl moiety is localized in the micelle or vesicle. Fluorescence measurements indicate that the first excited singlet state of merocyanine 540 is not directly implicated in the reaction mechanism. Flash photolysis experiments conducted in aqueous solutions of hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide micelles show that the presence of nitroxyl radical decreases the rate constant of triplet decay in a concentration-dependent fashion. The corresponding quenching rate constant (kq) is determined for the different spin labels. The kq values and the reduction rates of ESR signal show the same dependence on the localization of the nitroxyl moiety in the micelles. [less ▲]

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See detailUse of an antisense oligonucleotide to inhibit expression of a mutated human procollagen gene (COL1A1) in transfected mouse 3T3 cells.
Colige, Alain ULg; Sokolov, B. P.; Nugent, P. et al

in Biochemistry (1993), 32(1), 7-11

A series of antisense oligonucleotides were developed to inhibit specifically expression of a mutated exogenous gene for collagen without inhibiting expression of an endogenous gene for the same protein ... [more ▼]

A series of antisense oligonucleotides were developed to inhibit specifically expression of a mutated exogenous gene for collagen without inhibiting expression of an endogenous gene for the same protein. The test system consisted of mouse NIH 3T3 cells that were stably transfected with an internally deleted construct of the human gene for the pro alpha 1(I) chain of type I procollagen [Olsen et al. (1991) J. Biol. Chem. 266, 1117]. The target site was a region at the 3' end of exon 1 and the first few nucleotides of intron 1 of the exogenous human gene that differed in sequence by nine nucleotides from the sequence of the endogenous mouse gene. Expression of the two genes was assayed by Western blot with cross-reacting antibodies and by steady-state levels of mRNAs. None of the oligonucleotides were effective in concentrations up to 25 microM when administered without any carrier. However, when administered with 5 or 10 micrograms/mL lipofectin, one of the oligonucleotides in concentrations of 0.1-0.2 microM inhibited expression of the exogenous gene from 50% to 80% without significant inhibition of expression of the endogenous gene. Also, a missense version of the same oligonucleotide had no significant effect, and the inhibition observed with the most effective oligonucleotide was abolished by a single base change. Time course experiments indicated that, after a 4-h treatment, inhibition appeared at 8 h and persisted for at least 22 h.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) [less ▲]

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See detailEvidence for a precursor of the high-affinity metastasis-associated murine laminin receptor.
Rao, C. N.; Castronovo, Vincenzo ULg; Schmitt, M. C. et al

in Biochemistry (1989), 28(18), 7476-86

The high-affinity cellular receptor for the basement membrane component laminin is differentially expressed during tumor invasion and metastasis. A cDNA clone encoding the murine laminin receptor was ... [more ▼]

The high-affinity cellular receptor for the basement membrane component laminin is differentially expressed during tumor invasion and metastasis. A cDNA clone encoding the murine laminin receptor was isolated and identified on the basis of sequence homology to the human laminin receptor [Wewer et al. (1986) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 83, 7137-7141]. Primer extension experiments demonstrated that the clone contained the complete 5' sequence of the murine laminin receptor mRNA. RNA blot data demonstrated a single-sized laminin receptor mRNA, approximately 1400 bases long, in human, mouse, and rat. The nascent laminin receptor predicted from the cDNA sequence is 295 amino acids long, with a molecular weight of 33,000, and contains one intradisulfide bridge, a short putative transmembrane domain, and an extracellular carboxy-terminal region which has abundant glutamic acid residues and multiple repeat sequences. The precursor of the laminin receptor is apparently smaller than the 67-kilodalton protein isolated from tissue. The apparent molecular weight on SDS-polyacrylamide gels of the rabbit reticulocyte cell-free translation product of selectively hybridized laminin receptor mRNA is 37,000. Antisera to three different domains of the cDNA-predicted receptor were used to study the relationship between the 37- and 67-kilodalton polypeptides. Antisera to cDNA-deduced synthetic peptides of the receptor immunoprecipitated a 37-kilodalton band both from cell-free translation products and from pulse-labeled cell extracts. On immunoblots of cell extracts, one antisynthetic peptide antiserum recognized only the 67-kilodalton receptor, while another antiserum identified both 37- and 67-kilodalton polypeptides, suggesting a precursor-product relationship between the two polypeptides. [less ▲]

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