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See detailCOSMOGRAIL: the COSmological MOnitoring of GRAvItational Lenses. XV. Assessing the achievability and precision of time-delay measurements
Bonvin, V.; Tewes, M.; Courbin, F. et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2016), 585

COSMOGRAIL is a long-term photometric monitoring of gravitationally lensed quasars aimed at implementing Refsdal's time-delay method to measure cosmological parameters, in particular H[SUB]0[/SUB]. Given ... [more ▼]

COSMOGRAIL is a long-term photometric monitoring of gravitationally lensed quasars aimed at implementing Refsdal's time-delay method to measure cosmological parameters, in particular H[SUB]0[/SUB]. Given the long and well sampled light curves of strongly lensed quasars, time-delay measurements require numerical techniques whose quality must be assessed. To this end, and also in view of future monitoring programs or surveys such as the LSST, a blind signal processing competition named Time Delay Challenge 1 (TDC1) was held in 2014. The aim of the present paper, which is based on the simulated light curves from the TDC1, is double. First, we test the performance of the time-delay measurement techniques currently used in COSMOGRAIL. Second, we analyse the quantity and quality of the harvest of time delays obtained from the TDC1 simulations. To achieve these goals, we first discover time delays through a careful inspection of the light curves via a dedicated visual interface. Our measurement algorithms can then be applied to the data in an automated way. We show that our techniques have no significant biases, and yield adequate uncertainty estimates resulting in reduced χ[SUP]2[/SUP] values between 0.5 and 1.0. We provide estimates for the number and precision of time-delay measurements that can be expected from future time-delay monitoring campaigns as a function of the photometric signal-to-noise ratio and of the true time delay. We make our blind measurements on the TDC1 data publicly available. [less ▲]

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See detailAnalysis of luminosity distributions and shape parameters of strong gravitational lensing elliptical galaxies
Biernaux, Judith ULiege; Magain, Pierre ULiege; Sluse, Dominique ULiege et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2016), 585

Context. The luminosity profiles of galaxies acting as strong gravitational lenses can be tricky to study. Indeed, strong gravitational lensing images display several lensed components, both point-like ... [more ▼]

Context. The luminosity profiles of galaxies acting as strong gravitational lenses can be tricky to study. Indeed, strong gravitational lensing images display several lensed components, both point-like and diffuse, around the lensing galaxy. Those objects restrain the study of the galaxy luminosity to its inner parts. Therefore, the usual fitting methods perform rather badly on such images. Previous studies of strong lenses luminosity profiles using such codes and various PSF-determining methods have resulted in somewhat discrepant results. Aims. The present work aims at investigating the causes of those discrepancies, as well as at designing more robust techniques to study the morphology of early-type lensing galaxies, with the ability to subtract lensed signal from their luminosity profiles. Methods. Each shape parameter, namely, the position angle, ellipticity and half-light radius of the galaxy, are determined as independently from each other as possible. The half-light radius measurement method is based on the computation of isophotes. Its robustness regarding various specific aspects of gravitational lensing image processing is analysed and tested versus that of a widely used fitting code, GALFIT. Those techniques are then applied on a sample of systems from the CASTLES database. Results. Simulations show that, when restricted to small, inner parts of the lensing galaxy, the technique presented here is more robust than GALFIT. It gives unbiased results, while GALFIT leads to an overestimation of the half-light radius that can reach about 10%, depending, among others, on the SNR. It is therefore better-suited than GALFIT for gravitational lensing images. It is also able to study lensing galaxies that are not much larger than the PSF, as opposed to GALFIT. New values for the half-light radius of the objects in our sample are presented and compared to previous works. [less ▲]

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See detailThe XXL Survey: I. Scientific motivations - XMM-Newton observing plan - Follow-up observations and simulation programme
Pierre, M.; Pacaud, F.; Adami, C. et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2016), 592

Context. The quest for the cosmological parameters that describe our universe continues to motivate the scientific community to undertake very large survey initiatives across the electromagnetic spectrum ... [more ▼]

Context. The quest for the cosmological parameters that describe our universe continues to motivate the scientific community to undertake very large survey initiatives across the electromagnetic spectrum. Over the past two decades, the Chandra and XMM-Newton observatories have supported numerous studies of X-ray-selected clusters of galaxies, active galactic nuclei (AGNs), and the X-ray background. The present paper is the first in a series reporting results of the XXL-XMM survey; it comes at a time when the Planck mission results are being finalised. Aims. We present the XXL Survey, the largest XMM programme totaling some 6.9 Ms to date and involving an international consortium of roughly 100 members. The XXL Survey covers two extragalactic areas of 25 deg2 each at a point-source sensitivity of ∼5 × 10-15 erg s-1 cm-2 in the [0.5-2] keV band (completeness limit). The survey's main goals are to provide constraints on the dark energy equation of state from the space-time distribution of clusters of galaxies and to serve as a pathfinder for future, wide-area X-ray missions. We review science objectives, including cluster studies, AGN evolution, and large-scale structure, that are being conducted with the support of approximately 30 follow-up programmes. Methods. We describe the 542 XMM observations along with the associated multi-λ and numerical simulation programmes. We give a detailed account of the X-ray processing steps and describe innovative tools being developed for the cosmological analysis. Results. The paper provides a thorough evaluation of the X-ray data, including quality controls, photon statistics, exposure and background maps, and sky coverage. Source catalogue construction and multi-λ associations are briefly described. This material will be the basis for the calculation of the cluster and AGN selection functions, critical elements of the cosmological and science analyses. Conclusions. The XXL multi-λ data set will have a unique lasting legacy value for cosmological and extragalactic studies and will serve as a calibration resource for future dark energy studies with clusters and other X-ray selected sources. With the present article, we release the XMM XXL photon and smoothed images along with the corresponding exposure maps. © ESO, 2016. [less ▲]

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See detailErratum: Estimating the parameters of globular cluster M 30 (NGC 7099) from time-series photometry (Astronomy and Astrophysics (2013) 555 (A36))
Kains, N.; Bramich, D. M.; Arellano Ferro, A. et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2016), 588

[No abstract available]

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See detailThe XXL Survey: XII. Optical spectroscopy of X-ray-selected clusters and the frequency of AGN in superclusters
Koulouridis, E.; Poggianti, B.; Altieri, B. et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2016), 592

Context. This article belongs to the first series of XXL publications. It presents multifibre spectroscopic observations of three 0.55 deg2 fields in the XXL Survey, which were selected on the basis of ... [more ▼]

Context. This article belongs to the first series of XXL publications. It presents multifibre spectroscopic observations of three 0.55 deg2 fields in the XXL Survey, which were selected on the basis of their high density of X-ray-detected clusters. The observations were obtained with the AutoFib2+WYFFOS (AF2) wide-field fibre spectrograph mounted on the 4.2 m William Herschel Telescope. Aims. The paper first describes the scientific rationale, the preparation, the data reduction, and the results of the observations, and then presents a study of active galactic nuclei (AGN) within three superclusters. Methods. To determine the redshift of galaxy clusters and AGN, we assign high priority to a) the brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs), b) the most probable cluster galaxy candidates, and c) the optical counterparts of X-ray point-like sources. We use the outcome of the observations to study the projected (2D) and the spatial (3D) overdensity of AGN in three superclusters. Results. We obtained redshifts for 455 galaxies in total, 56 of which are counterparts of X-ray point-like sources. We were able to determine the redshift of the merging supercluster XLSSC-e, which consists of six individual clusters at z ~ 0.43, and we confirmed the redshift of supercluster XLSSC-d at z ~ 0.3. More importantly, we discovered a new supercluster, XLSSC-f, that comprises three galaxy clusters also at z ~ 0.3. We find a significant 2D overdensity of X-ray point-like sources only around the supercluster XLSSC-f. This result is also supported by the spatial (3D) analysis of XLSSC-f, where we find four AGN with compatible spectroscopic redshifts and possibly one more with compatible photometric redshift. In addition, we find two AGN (3D analysis) at the redshift of XLSSC-e, but no AGN in XLSSC-d. Comparing these findings with the optical galaxy overdensity we conclude that the total number of AGN in the area of the three superclusters significantly exceeds the field expectations. All of the AGN found have luminosities below 7 × 1042 erg s-1. Conclusions. The difference in the AGN frequency between the three superclusters cannot be explained by the present study because of small number statistics. Further analysis of a larger number of superclusters within the 50 deg2 of the XXL is needed before any conclusions on the effect of the supercluster environment on AGN can be reached. © ESO, 2016. [less ▲]

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See detailExploring the crowded central region of ten Galactic globular clusters using EMCCDs: Variable star searches and new discoveries
Figuera Jaimes, R.; Bramich, D. M.; Skottfelt, J. et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2016), 588

Aims. We aim to obtain time-series photometry of the very crowded central regions of Galactic globular clusters; to obtain better angular resolution thanhas been previously achieved with conventional CCDs ... [more ▼]

Aims. We aim to obtain time-series photometry of the very crowded central regions of Galactic globular clusters; to obtain better angular resolution thanhas been previously achieved with conventional CCDs on ground-based telescopes; and to complete, or improve, the census of the variable star population in those stellar systems. Methods. Images were taken using the Danish 1.54-m Telescope at the ESO observatory at La Silla in Chile. The telescope was equipped with an electron-multiplying CCD, and the short-exposure-time images obtained (ten images per second) were stacked using the shift-and-add technique to produce the normal-exposure-time images (minutes). Photometry was performed via difference image analysis. Automatic detection of variable stars in the field was attempted. Results. The light curves of 12 541 stars in the cores of ten globular clusters were statistically analysed to automatically extract the variable stars. We obtained light curves for 31 previously known variable stars (3 long-period irregular, 2 semi-regular, 20 RR Lyrae, 1 SX Phoenicis, 3 cataclysmic variables, 1 W Ursae Majoris-type and 1 unclassified) and we discovered 30 new variables (16 long-period irregular, 7 semi-regular, 4 RR Lyrae, 1 SX Phoenicis and 2 unclassified). Fluxes and photometric measurements for these stars are available in electronic form through the Strasbourg astronomical Data Center. © ESO, 2016. [less ▲]

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See detailHigh-resolution Imaging of Transiting Extrasolar Planetary systems (HITEP): I. Lucky imaging observations of 101 systems in the southern hemisphere
Evans, D. F.; Southworth, J.; Maxted, P. F. L. et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2016), 589

Context. Wide binaries are a potential pathway for the formation of hot Jupiters. The binary fraction among host stars is an important discriminator between competing formation theories, but has not been ... [more ▼]

Context. Wide binaries are a potential pathway for the formation of hot Jupiters. The binary fraction among host stars is an important discriminator between competing formation theories, but has not been well characterised. Additionally, contaminating light from unresolved stars can significantly affect the accuracy of photometric and spectroscopic measurements in studies of transiting exoplanets. Aims. We observed 101 transiting exoplanet host systems in the Southern hemisphere in order to create a homogeneous catalogue of both bound companion stars and contaminating background stars, in an area of the sky where transiting exoplanetary systems have not been systematically searched for stellar companions. We investigate the binary fraction among the host stars in order to test theories for the formation of hot Jupiters. Methods. Lucky imaging observations from the Two Colour Instrument on the Danish 1.54 m telescope at La Silla were used to search for previously unresolved stars at small angular separations. The separations and relative magnitudes of all detected stars were measured. For 12 candidate companions to 10 host stars, previous astrometric measurements were used to evaluate how likely the companions are to be physically associated. Results. We provide measurements of 499 candidate companions within 20 arcsec of our sample of 101 planet host stars. 51 candidates are located within 5 arcsec of a host star, and we provide the first published measurements for 27 of these. Calibrations for the plate scale and colour performance of the Two Colour Instrument are presented. Conclusions. We find that the overall multiplicity rate of the host stars is 38-13 +17%, consistent with the rate among solar-type stars in our sensitivity range, suggesting that planet formation does not preferentially occur in long period binaries compared to a random sample of field stars. Long period stellar companions (P > 10 yr) appear to occur independently of short period companions, and so the population of close-in stellar companions is unconstrained by our study. © ESO, 2016. [less ▲]

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See detailMultiply imaged quasi-stellar objects in the Gaia survey
Finet, F.; Surdej, Jean ULiege

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2016), 590

Aims. We report a study on the statistical properties of the multiply imaged quasi-stellar objects (QSOs) to be detected within the Gaia survey. Methods. We considered two types of potential deflectors ... [more ▼]

Aims. We report a study on the statistical properties of the multiply imaged quasi-stellar objects (QSOs) to be detected within the Gaia survey. Methods. We considered two types of potential deflectors, the singular isothermal sphere (SIS) and the singular isothermal ellipsoid (SIE), to estimate the number of multiply imaged quasars as well as the normalized distributions of the redshifts of the lensed sources and of their associated deflectors. We also investigated the distribution of the lensing events as a function of their angular size and apparent magnitude. We compared the Gaia survey for multiply imaged quasars to typical ground-based surveys and to an ideal survey that would be carried out with a perfect instrument from space. Results. Of the 6.64 × 105 QSOs brighter than G = 20 to be detected by Gaia, we expect the discovery of about 2886 multiply imaged sources, 450 of which are expected to be produced by a late-type galaxy. We expect only ∼1600 of these multiply imaged quasars to have an angular separation between their images that is large enough to be resolved from seeing-limited observations, and ∼80 of them to have more than two lensed images. © ESO, 2016. [less ▲]

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See detailMany new variable stars discovered in the core of the globular cluster NGC 6715 (M 54) with EMCCD observations
Figuera Jaimes, R.; Bramich, D. M.; Kains, N. et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2016), 592

Context. We show the benefits of using electron-multiplying CCDs and the shift-and-add technique as a tool to minimise the effects of atmospheric turbulence, such as blending between stars in crowded ... [more ▼]

Context. We show the benefits of using electron-multiplying CCDs and the shift-and-add technique as a tool to minimise the effects of atmospheric turbulence, such as blending between stars in crowded fields, and to avoid saturated stars in the fields observed. We intend to complete, or improve on, the census of the variable star population in globular cluster NGC 6715. Aims. Our aim is to obtain high-precision time-series photometry of the very crowded central region of this stellar system via the collection of better angular resolution images than has been previously achieved with conventional CCDs on ground-based telescopes. Methods. Observations were carried out using the Danish 1.54-m telescope at the ESO La Silla observatory in Chile. The telescope is equipped with an electron-multiplying CCD that enables short-exposure-time images to be obtained (ten images per second) that were stacked using the shift-and-add technique to produce the normal-exposure-time images (minutes). The high precision photometry was performed via difference image analysis employing the DanDIA pipeline. We attempted automatic detection of variable stars in the field. Results. We statistically analysed the light curves of 1405 stars in the crowded central region of NGC 6715 to automatically identify the variable stars present in this cluster. We found light curves for 17 previously known variable stars near the edges of our reference image (16 RR Lyrae and 1 semi-regular) and we discovered 67 new variables (30 RR Lyrae, 21 irregular (long-period type), 3 semi-regular, 1 W Virginis, 1 eclipsing binary, and 11 unclassified). Photometric measurements for these stars are available in electronic form through the Strasbourg Astronomical Data Centre. © 2016 ESO. [less ▲]

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See detailOn the relation of optical obscuration and X-ray absorption in Seyfert galaxies
Burtscher, L.; Davies, R. I.; Graciá-Carpio, J. et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2016), 586

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See detailPrecise radial velocities of giant stars IX. HD 59686 Ab: a massive circumstellar planet orbiting a giant star in a \~13.6 au eccentric binary system
Ortiz, M.; Reffert, S.; Trifonov, T. et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2016), 595(A55), 14

Context. For over 12 yr, we have carried out a precise radial velocity (RV) survey of a sample of 373 G- and K-giant stars using the Hamilton Échelle Spectrograph at the Lick Observatory. There are, among ... [more ▼]

Context. For over 12 yr, we have carried out a precise radial velocity (RV) survey of a sample of 373 G- and K-giant stars using the Hamilton Échelle Spectrograph at the Lick Observatory. There are, among others, a number of multiple planetary systems in our sample as well as several planetary candidates in stellar binaries. Aims: We aim at detecting and characterizing substellar and stellar companions to the giant star HD 59686 A (HR 2877, HIP 36616). Methods: We obtained high-precision RV measurements of the star HD 59686 A. By fitting a Keplerian model to the periodic changes in the RVs, we can assess the nature of companions in the system. To distinguish between RV variations that are due to non-radial pulsation or stellar spots, we used infrared RVs taken with the CRIRES spectrograph at the Very Large Telescope. Additionally, to characterize the system in more detail, we obtained high-resolution images with LMIRCam at the Large Binocular Telescope. Results: We report the probable discovery of a giant planet with a mass of mp sin i = 6.92-0.24+0.18 MJup orbiting at ap = 1.0860-0.0007+0.0006 au from the giant star HD 59686 A. In addition to the planetary signal, we discovered an eccentric (eB = 0.729-0.003+0.004) binary companion with a mass of mB sin i = 0.5296-0.0008+0.0011 M⊙ orbiting at a close separation from the giant primary with a semi-major axis of aB = 13.56-0.14+0.18 au. Conclusions: The existence of the planet HD 59686 Ab in a tight eccentric binary system severely challenges standard giant planet formation theories and requires substantial improvements to such theories in tight binaries. Otherwise, alternative planet formation scenarios such as second-generation planets or dynamical interactions in an early phase of the system's lifetime need to be seriously considered to better understand the origin of this enigmatic planet. [less ▲]

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See detailRadiative rates for forbidden M1 and E2 transitions of astrophysical interest in doubly ionized iron peak elements
Fivet, V.; Quinet, Pascal ULiege; Bautista, M.A.

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2016), 585

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See detailStellar laboratories. VI. New Mo IV - VII oscillator strengths and the molybdenum abundance in the hot white dwarfs G191-B2B and RE0503-289
Rauch, T.; Quinet, Pascal ULiege; Hoyer, D. et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2016), 587

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See detailK-shell photoabsorption and photoionization of trace elements. I. Isoelectronic sequences with electron number 3 <= N <= 11
Palmeri, P.; Quinet, Pascal ULiege; Bautista, M.A. et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2016), 589

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See detailStellar laboratories. VII. New Kr IV - VII oscillator strengths and their validation in the hot hydrogen-deficient DO-type white dwarf RE0503-289
Rauch, T.; Quinet, Pascal ULiege; Hoyer, D. et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2016), 590

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See detailLong-term activity and outburst of comet C/2013 A1 (Siding Spring) from narrow-band photometry and long-slit spectroscopy
Opitom, Cyrielle ULiege; Guilbert-Lepoutre, A.; Jehin, Emmanuel ULiege et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2016), 589

In this paper, we present a unique data set of more than one year's worth of regular observations of comet C/2013 A1(Siding Spring) with TRAPPIST in Chile, along with low-resolution spectra obtained with ... [more ▼]

In this paper, we present a unique data set of more than one year's worth of regular observations of comet C/2013 A1(Siding Spring) with TRAPPIST in Chile, along with low-resolution spectra obtained with the ESO/VLT FORS 2 instrument. The comet made a close approach to Mars on October 19, 2014 and was then observed by many space and ground-based telescopes. We followed the evolution of the OH, NH, CN, $\mathrm{C_3}$, and $\mathrm{C_2}$ production rates as well as the $Af\rho$ parameter as a proxy for the dust production. We detected an outburst two weeks after perihelion, with gas and dust production rates being multiplied by a factor five within a few days. By modelling the shape of the CN and $\mathrm{C_2}$ radial profiles, we determined that the outburst happened around on November 10 around 15:30 UT ($\pm$ 5h) and measured a gas ejection velocity of $1.1\pm0.2$ km/s. We used a thermal evolution model to reproduce the activity pattern and outburst. Our results are consistent with the progressive formation of a dust mantle explaining the shallow dependence of gas production rates, which may be partially blown off during the outburst. We studied the evolution of gas composition, using various ratios such as CN/OH, $\mathrm{C_2}$/OH, or $\mathrm{C_3}$/OH, which showed little or no variation with heliocentric distance including at the time of the outburst. This indicates a relative level of homogeneity of the nucleus composition. [less ▲]

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See detailConstraints on the structure of 16 Cygni A and 16 Cygni B using inversion techniques
Buldgen, Gaël ULiege; Reese, Daniel; Dupret, Marc-Antoine ULiege

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2016)

Abstract Constraining mixing processes and chemical composition is a central problem in stellar physics as their impact on stellar age determinations leads to biases in our studies of stellar evolution ... [more ▼]

Abstract Constraining mixing processes and chemical composition is a central problem in stellar physics as their impact on stellar age determinations leads to biases in our studies of stellar evolution, galactic history and exoplanetary systems. In two previous papers, we showed how seismic inversion techniques could offer strong constraints on such processes by pointing out weaknesses in theoretical models. We now apply our technique to the solar analogues 16CygA and 16CygB, being amongst the best targets in the Kepler field to test the diagnostic potential of seismic inversions. The combination of various seismic indicators helps to provide more constrained and accurate fundamendal parameters for these stars. We use the latest seismic, spectroscopic and interferometric observational constraints in the litterature for this system to determine reference models independently for both stars. We carry out seismic inversions of the acoustic radius, the mean density and a core conditions indicator. We note that a degeneracy exists for the reference models. Namely, changing the diffusion coefficient or the chemical composition within the observational values leads to 5% changes in mass, 3% changes in radius and up to 8% changes in age. We use acoustic radius and mean density inversions to improve our reference models then carry out inversions for a core conditions indicator. Thanks to its sensitivity to microscopic diffusion and chemical composition mismatches, we are able to reduce the mass dispersion to 2%, namely [0.96, 1.0] M_sun, the radius dispersion to 1%, namely [1.188, 1.200] R_sun and the age dispersion to 3%, namely [7.0, 7.4] Gy, for 16CygA. For 16CygB, we can check the consistency of the models but not reduce independently the age dispersion. Nonetheless, assuming consistency with the age of 16CygA helps to further constrain its mass and radius. [less ▲]

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See detailThe HARPS-N Rocky Planet Search. I. HD 219134 b: A transiting rocky planet in a multi-planet system at 6.5 pc from the Sun
Motalebi, F.; Udry, S.; Gillon, Michaël ULiege et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2015), 584

We know now from radial velocity surveys and transit space missions that planets only a few times more massive than our Earth are frequent around solar-type stars. Fundamental questions about their ... [more ▼]

We know now from radial velocity surveys and transit space missions that planets only a few times more massive than our Earth are frequent around solar-type stars. Fundamental questions about their formation history, physical properties, internal structure, and atmosphere composition are, however, still to be solved. We present here the detection of a system of four low-mass planets around the bright (V = 5.5) and close-by (6.5 pc) star HD 219134. This is the first result of the Rocky Planet Search programme with HARPS-N on the Telescopio Nazionale Galileo in La Palma. The inner planet orbits the star in 3.0935 ± 0.0003 days, on a quasi-circular orbit with a semi-major axis of 0.0382 ± 0.0003 AU. Spitzer observations allowed us to detect the transit of the planet in front of the star making HD 219134 b the nearest known transiting planet to date. From the amplitude of the radial velocity variation (2.25 ± 0.22 ms[SUP]-1[/SUP]) and observed depth of the transit (359 ± 38 ppm), the planet mass and radius are estimated to be 4.36 ± 0.44 M[SUB]⊕[/SUB] and 1.606 ± 0.086 R[SUB]⊕[/SUB], leading to a mean density of 5.76 ± 1.09 g cm[SUP]-3[/SUP], suggesting a rocky composition. One additional planet with minimum-mass of 2.78 ± 0.65 M[SUB]⊕[/SUB] moves on a close-in, quasi-circular orbit with a period of 6.767 ± 0.004 days. The third planet in the system has a period of 46.66 ± 0.08 days and a minimum-mass of 8.94 ± 1.13 M[SUB]⊕[/SUB], at 0.233 ± 0.002 AU from the star. Its eccentricity is 0.46 ± 0.11. The period of this planet is close to the rotational period of the star estimated from variations of activity indicators (42.3 ± 0.1 days). The planetary origin of the signal is, however, thepreferred solution as no indication of variation at the corresponding frequency is observed for activity-sensitive parameters. Finally, a fourth additional longer-period planet of mass of 71 M[SUB]⊕[/SUB] orbits the star in 1842 days, on an eccentric orbit (e = 0.34 ± 0.17) at a distance of 2.56 AU. The photometric time series and radial velocities used in this work are available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to <A href="http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr">http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr</A> (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via <A href="http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/584/A72">http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/584/A72</A> [less ▲]

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See detailTRAPPIST photometry and imaging monitoring of comet C/2013 R1 (Lovejoy): Implications for the origin of daughter species
Opitom, Cyrielle ULiege; Jehin, Emmanuel ULiege; Manfroid, Jean ULiege et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2015), 584

We report the results of the narrow-band photometry and imaging monitoring of comet C/2013 R1 (Lovejoy) with the robotic telescope TRAPPIST (La Silla observatory). We gathered around 400 images over 8 ... [more ▼]

We report the results of the narrow-band photometry and imaging monitoring of comet C/2013 R1 (Lovejoy) with the robotic telescope TRAPPIST (La Silla observatory). We gathered around 400 images over 8 months pre- and post-perihelion between September 12, 2013 and July 6, 2014. We followed the evolution of the OH, NH, CN, C[SUB]3[/SUB], and C[SUB]2[/SUB] production rates computed with the Haser model, as well as the evolution of the dust production. All five gas species display an asymmetry about perihelion, since the rate of brightening is steeper than the rate of fading. The study of the coma morphology reveals gas and dust jets that indicate one or several active zone(s) on the nucleus. The dust, C[SUB]2[/SUB], and C[SUB]3[/SUB] morphologies present some similarities, while the CN morphology is different. OH and NH are enhanced in the tail direction. The study of the evolution of the comet activity shows that the OH, NH, and C[SUB]2[/SUB] production rate evolution with the heliocentric distance is correlated to the dust evolution. The CN and, to a lesser extent, the C[SUB]3[/SUB] do not display such a correlation with the dust. This evidence and the comparison with parent species production rates indicate that C[SUB]2[/SUB] and C[SUB]3[/SUB], on one hand, and OH and NH, on the other, could be - at least partially - released from organic - rich grains and icy grains. On the contrary, all evidences point to HCN being the main parent of CN in this comet. [less ▲]

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See detailPolarization microlensing in the quadruply imaged broad absorption line quasar H1413+117
Hutsemekers, Damien ULiege; Sluse, Dominique ULiege; Braibant, Lorraine ULiege et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2015), 584

We have obtained spectropolarimetric observations of the four images of the gravitationally lensed broad absorption line quasar H1413+117. The polarization of the microlensed image D is significantly ... [more ▼]

We have obtained spectropolarimetric observations of the four images of the gravitationally lensed broad absorption line quasar H1413+117. The polarization of the microlensed image D is significantly different, both in the continuum and in the broad lines, from the polarization of image A, which is essentially unaffected by microlensing. The observations suggest that the continuum is scattered off two regions, spatially separated, and producing roughly perpendicular polarizations. These results are compatible with a model in which the microlensed polarized continuum comes from a compact region located in the equatorial plane close to the accretion disk and the non-microlensed continuum from an extended region located along the polar axis. Based on observations made with ESO Telescopes at the Paranal Observatory (Chile). ESO program ID: 386.B-0337. [less ▲]

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