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See detailDetection of a transit of the super-Earth 55 Cnc e with Warm Spitzer
Demory, B.-O.; Gillon, Michaël ULg; Deming, D. et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2011), 533

We report on the detection of a transit of the super-Earth 55 Cnc e with warm Spitzer in IRAC's 4.5 μm band. Our MCMC analysis includes an extensive modeling of the systematic effects affecting warm ... [more ▼]

We report on the detection of a transit of the super-Earth 55 Cnc e with warm Spitzer in IRAC's 4.5 μm band. Our MCMC analysis includes an extensive modeling of the systematic effects affecting warm Spitzer photometry, and yields a transit depth of 410 ± 63 ppm, which translates to a planetary radius of 2.08+0.16-0.17 R_oplus as measured in IRAC 4.5 μm channel. A planetary mass of 7.81-0.53+0.58 M_oplus is derived from an extensive set of radial-velocity data, yielding a mean planetary density of 4.78-1.20+1.31 g cm-3. Thanks to the brightness of its host star (V = 6, K = 4), 55 Cnc e is a unique target for the thorough characterization of a super-Earth orbiting around a solar-type star. [less ▲]

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See detailVariability in the CoRoT photometry of three hot O-type stars. HD 46223, HD 46150, and HD 46966
Blomme, R.; Mahy, Laurent ULg; Catala, C. et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2011), 533

Context. The detection of pulsational frequencies in stellar photometry is required as input for asteroseismological modelling. The second short run (SRa02) of the CoRoT mission has provided photometric ... [more ▼]

Context. The detection of pulsational frequencies in stellar photometry is required as input for asteroseismological modelling. The second short run (SRa02) of the CoRoT mission has provided photometric data of unprecedented quality and time-coverage for a number of O-type stars. <BR /> Aims: We analyse the CoRoT data corresponding to three hot O-type stars, describing the properties of their light curves and search for pulsational frequencies, which we then compare to theoretical model predictions. <BR /> Methods: We determine the amplitude spectrum of the data, using the Lomb-Scargle and a multifrequency HMM-like technique. Frequencies are extracted by prewhitening, and their significance is evaluated under the assumption that the light curve is dominated by red noise. We search for harmonics, linear combinations, and regular spacings among these frequencies. We use simulations with the same time sampling as the data as a powerful tool to judge the significance of our results. From the theoretical point of view, we use the MAD non-adiabatic pulsation code to determine the expected frequencies of excited modes. <BR /> Results: A substantial number of frequencies is listed, but none can be convincingly identified as being connected to pulsations. The amplitude spectrum is dominated by red noise. Theoretical modelling shows that all three O-type stars can have excited modes, but the relation between the theoretical frequencies and the observed spectrum is not obvious. <BR /> Conclusions: The dominant red noise component in the hot O-type stars studied here clearly points to a different origin than the pulsations seen in cooler O stars. The physical cause of this red noise is unclear, but we speculate on the possibility of sub-surface convection, granulation, or stellar wind inhomogeneities being responsible. The CoRoT space mission was developed and is operated by the French space agency CNES, with participation of ESA's RSSD and Science Programmes, Austria, Belgium, Brazil, Germany and Spain.Tables 2-4 are available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via <A href="http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/533/A4">http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/533/A4</A> [less ▲]

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See detailTransiting exoplanets from the CoRoT space mission. XVIII. CoRoT-18b: a massive hot Jupiter on a prograde, nearly aligned orbit
Hébrard, G.; Evans, T. M.; Alonso, R. et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2011), 533

We report the detection of CoRoT-18b, a massive hot Jupiter transiting in front of its host star with a period of 1.9000693 ± 0.0000028 days. This planet was discovered thanks to photometric data secured ... [more ▼]

We report the detection of CoRoT-18b, a massive hot Jupiter transiting in front of its host star with a period of 1.9000693 ± 0.0000028 days. This planet was discovered thanks to photometric data secured with the CoRoT satellite combined with spectroscopic and photometric ground-based follow-up observations. The planet has a mass M[SUB]p[/SUB] = 3.47 ± 0.38 M[SUB]Jup[/SUB], a radius R[SUB]p[/SUB] = 1.31 ± 0.18 R[SUB]Jup[/SUB], and a density ρ[SUB]p[/SUB] = 2.2 ± 0.8 g cm[SUP]-3[/SUP]. It orbits a G9V star with a mass M[SUB]⋆[/SUB] = 0.95 ± 0.15 M[SUB]&sun;[/SUB], a radius R[SUB]⋆[/SUB] = 1.00 ± 0.13 R[SUB]&sun;[/SUB], and arotation period P[SUB]rot[/SUB] = 5.4 ± 0.4 days. The age of the system remains uncertain, with stellar evolution models pointing either to a few tens Ma or several Ga, while gyrochronology and lithium abundance point towards ages of a few hundred Ma. This mismatch potentially points to a problem in our understanding of the evolution of young stars, with possibly significant implications for stellar physics and the interpretation of inferred sizes of exoplanets around young stars. We detected the Rossiter-McLaughlin anomaly in the CoRoT-18 system thanks to the spectroscopic observation of a transit. We measured the obliquity ψ = 20° ± 20° (sky-projected value λ = -10° ± 20°), indicating that the planet orbits in the same way as the star is rotating and that this prograde orbit is nearly aligned with the stellar equator. The CoRoT space mission, launched on 2006 December 27, has been developed and is operated by CNES, with the contribution of Austria, Belgium, Brazil, ESA (RSSD and Science Programme), Germany and Spain.Table 2 is available in electronic form at <A href="http://www.aanda.org">http://www.aanda.org</A> [less ▲]

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See detailWASP-50 b: a hot Jupiter transiting a moderately active solar-type star
Gillon, Michaël ULg; Doyle, A. P.; Lendl, M. et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2011), 533

We report the discovery by the WASP transit survey of a giant planet in a close orbit (0.0295 ± 0.0009 AU) around a moderately bright (V = 11.6, K = 10) G9 dwarf (0.89 ± 0.08 M[SUB]&sun;[/SUB], 0.84 ± 0 ... [more ▼]

We report the discovery by the WASP transit survey of a giant planet in a close orbit (0.0295 ± 0.0009 AU) around a moderately bright (V = 11.6, K = 10) G9 dwarf (0.89 ± 0.08 M[SUB]&sun;[/SUB], 0.84 ± 0.03 R[SUB]&sun;[/SUB]) in the Southern constellation Eridanus. Thanks to high-precision follow-up photometry and spectroscopy obtained by the telescopes TRAPPIST and Euler, the mass and size of this planet, WASP-50 b, are well constrained to 1.47 ± 0.09 M[SUB]Jup[/SUB] and 1.15 ± 0.05 R[SUB]Jup[/SUB], respectively. The transit ephemeris is 2 455 558.6120 (±0.0002) + N × 1.955096 (±0.000005) HJD[SUB]UTC[/SUB]. The size of the planet is consistent with basic models of irradiated giant planets. The chromospheric activity (log R'[SUB]HK = -4.67[/SUB]) and rotational period (P[SUB]rot[/SUB] = 16.3 ± 0.5 days) of the host star suggest an age of 0.8 ± 0.4 Gy that is discrepant with a stellar-evolution estimate based on the measured stellar parameters (ρ[SUB]∗[/SUB] = 1.48 ± 0.10 ρ[SUB]&sun;[/SUB], T[SUB]eff[/SUB] = 5400 ± 100 K, [Fe/H] = -0.12 ± 0.08) which favors an age of 7 ± 3.5 Gy. This discrepancy could be explained by the tidal and magnetic influence of the planet on the star, in good agreement with the observations that stars hosting hot Jupiters tend to show faster rotation and magnetic activity. We measure a stellar inclination of 84[SUB]-31[SUP]+6[/SUP][/SUB] deg, disfavoring a high stellar obliquity. Thanks to its large irradiation and the relatively small size of its host star, WASP-50 b is a good target for occultation spectrophotometry, making it able to constrain the relationship between hot Jupiters' atmospheric thermal profiles and the chromospheric activity of their host stars. The photometric time-series used in this work are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via <A href="http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/533/A88">http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/533/A88</A> [less ▲]

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See detailThe size of AB Doradus A from VLTI/AMBER interferometry
Guirado, J. C.; Marcaide, J. M.; Martí-Vidal, I. et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2011), 533

The pre-main sequence (PMS) star AB Dor A is the main component of the quadruple system AB Doradus. The precise determination of the mass and photometry of the close companion to AB Dor A, AB Dor C, has ... [more ▼]

The pre-main sequence (PMS) star AB Dor A is the main component of the quadruple system AB Doradus. The precise determination of the mass and photometry of the close companion to AB Dor A, AB Dor C, has provided an important benchmark for calibration of theoretical evolutionary models of low-mass stars. The limiting factor to the precision of this calibration is the age of the system, as both the mass and luminosity of AB Dor A and C are well monitored by other ongoing programs. In this paper we present VLTI/AMBER observations of AB Dor A which provide a direct measurement of the size of this star, 0.96 ± 0.06 R[SUB]&sun;[/SUB]. The latter estimate, combined with other fundamental parameters also measured for this star, allows a precise test of PMS evolutionary models using both H-R diagrams and mass-radius relationships. We have found that our radius measurement is larger than that predicted by the models, which we interpret as an evidence of the oversizing produced by the strong magnetic activity of AB Dor A. Considering, at least partially, this magnetic effect, theoretical isochrones have been used to derive constraints to the age of AB Dor A, favouring an age about 40-50 Myr for this system. Older ages are not completely excluded by our data. Based on observations made with ESO Telescopes at the Paranal Observatory under programme ID 384.C-1053. [less ▲]

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See detailThe two components of the evolved massive binary LZ Cephei. Testing the effects of binarity on stellar evolution
Mahy, Laurent ULg; Martins, F.; Machado, C. et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2011)

Aims. We present an in-depth study of the two components of the binary system LZCep to constrain the effects of binarity on the evolution of massive stars. Methods. We analyzed a set of high-resolution ... [more ▼]

Aims. We present an in-depth study of the two components of the binary system LZCep to constrain the effects of binarity on the evolution of massive stars. Methods. We analyzed a set of high-resolution, high signal-to-noise ratio optical spectra obtained over the orbital period of the system to perform a spectroscopic disentangling and derive an orbital solution. We subsequently determine the stellar properties of each component by means of an analysis with the CMFGEN atmosphere code. Finally, with the derived stellar parameters, we model the Hipparcos photometric light curve using the program NIGHTFALL to obtain the orbit inclination and the stellar masses. Results. LZ Cep is a O9III+ON9.7V binary. It is as a semi-detached system in which either the primary or the secondary star almost fills up its Roche lobe. The dynamical masses are about 16.0 M (primary) and 6.5 M (secondary). The latter is lower than the typical mass of late-type O stars. The secondary component is chemically more evolved than the primary (which barely shows any sign of CNO processing), with strong helium and nitrogen enhancements as well as carbon and oxygen depletions. These properties (surface abundances and mass) are typical ofWolf-Rayet stars, although the spectral type is ON9.7V. The luminosity of the secondary is consistent with that of core He-burning objects. The preferred, tentative evolutionary scenario to explain the observed properties involves mass transfer from the secondary – which was initially more massive- towards the primary. The secondary is now almost a core He-burning object, probably with only a thin envelope of H-rich and CNO processed material. A very inefficient mass transfer is necessary to explain the chemical appearance of the primary. Alternative scenarios are discussed but they are affected by greater uncertainties. [less ▲]

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See detailMixed modes in red-giant stars observed with CoRoT
Mosser, B.; Barban, C.; Montalban Iglesias, Josefa ULg et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2011), 532

Context. The CoRoT mission has provided thousands of red-giant light curves. The analysis of their solar-like oscillations allows us to characterize their stellar properties. <BR /> Aims: Up to now, the ... [more ▼]

Context. The CoRoT mission has provided thousands of red-giant light curves. The analysis of their solar-like oscillations allows us to characterize their stellar properties. <BR /> Aims: Up to now, the global seismic parameters of the pressure modes have been unable to distinguish red-clump giants from members of the red-giant branch. As recently done with Kepler red giants, we intend to analyze and use the so-called mixed modes to determine the evolutionary status of the red giants observed with CoRoT. We also aim at deriving different seismic characteristics depending on evolution. <BR /> Methods: The complete identification of the pressure eigenmodes provided by the red-giant universal oscillation pattern allows us to aim at the mixed modes surrounding the ℓ = 1 expected eigenfrequencies. A dedicated method based on the envelope autocorrelation function is proposed to analyze their period separation. <BR /> Results: We have identified the mixed-mode signature separation thanks to their pattern that is compatible with the asymptotic law of gravity modes. We have shown that, independent of any modeling, the g-mode spacings help to distinguish the evolutionary status of a red-giant star. We then report the different seismic and fundamental properties of the stars, depending on their evolutionary status. In particular, we show that high-mass stars of the secondary clump present very specific seismic properties. We emphasize that stars belonging to the clump were affected by significant mass loss. We also note significant population and/or evolution differences in the different fields observed by CoRoT. The CoRoT space mission, launched 2006 December 27, was developed and is operated by the CNES, with participation of the Science Programs of ESA, ESAŠs RSSD, Austria, Belgium, Brazil, Germany, and Spain.Apeendix A is available in electronic form at <A href="http://www.aanda.org">http://www.aanda.org</A> [less ▲]

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See detailQuantitative estimates of the constraints on solar-like models imposed by observables
Ozel, Nesibe; Dupret, Marc-Antoine ULg; Baglin, A.

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2011), 532

Context. Seismic parameters such as the large Δ[SUB]0[/SUB] and small δ[SUB]02[/SUB] frequency separations are now being measured in a very large number of stars and begin to be used to test the physics ... [more ▼]

Context. Seismic parameters such as the large Δ[SUB]0[/SUB] and small δ[SUB]02[/SUB] frequency separations are now being measured in a very large number of stars and begin to be used to test the physics of stellar models. <BR /> Aims: We estimate the influence of different observed quantities (oscillation frequencies, interferometry, etc.) and the impact of their accuracy in constraining stellar model parameters. <BR /> Methods: To relate the errors in observed quantities to the precision of the theoretical model parameters, we analyse the behaviour of the χ[SUP]2[/SUP] fitting function around its minimum using the singular value decomposition (SVD) formalism. A new indicator called "weighting" quantifies the relative importance of observational constraints on the determination of each physical parameter individually. These tools are applied to a grid of evolutionary sequences for solar-like stellar models with varying age and mass, and to a real case: HD 49933 - a typical case for which seismic observations are available from space using CoRoT. <BR /> Results: The mass ℳ is always the best determined parameter. The new indicator "weighting" allows us to rank the importance of the different constraints: the mean large separation Δ[SUB]0[/SUB], the radius R/R[SUB]&sun;[/SUB], the mean small separation δ[SUB]02[/SUB], the luminosity L/L[SUB]&sun;[/SUB], the effective temperature T[SUB]eff[/SUB]. If the metallicity and age parameters are known, for example in an open cluster, using either individual or mean frequency separations yields the same uncertainties for masses less than 1.1 M[SUB]&sun;[/SUB]. For HD 49933 the combination of ℳ and Y[SUB]0[/SUB]: ℳ[SUP]2[/SUP]Y[SUB]0[/SUB] is well determined because of their correlation. However, they are poorly constrained individually. The frequency difference δ[SUB]01[/SUB], if known with an error of about 0.3%, can determine the size of the convective core overshooting with about 3% accuracy. Appendices A and B are available in electronic form at <A href="http://www.aanda.org">http://www.aanda.org</A> [less ▲]

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See detailWASP-31b: a low-density planet transiting a metal-poor, late-F-type dwarf star
Anderson, D. R.; Collier Cameron, A.; Hellier, C. et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2011), 531

We report the discovery of the low-density, transiting giant planet WASP-31b. The planet is 0.47 Jupiter masses and 1.56 Jupiter radii. It is in a 3.4-day orbit around a 1-Gyr-old, late-F-type, V = 11.7 ... [more ▼]

We report the discovery of the low-density, transiting giant planet WASP-31b. The planet is 0.47 Jupiter masses and 1.56 Jupiter radii. It is in a 3.4-day orbit around a 1-Gyr-old, late-F-type, V = 11.7 star, which is a member of a common proper motion pair. In terms of its low density, WASP-31b is second only to WASP-17b, which is a more highly irradiated planet of similar mass. [less ▲]

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See detailTransiting exoplanets from the CoRoT space mission. XVII. The hot Jupiter CoRoT-17b: a very old planet
Csizmadia, Szilard; Moutou, C.; Deleuil, M. et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2011), 531

We report on the discovery of a hot Jupiter-type exoplanet, CoRoT-17b, detected by the CoRoT satellite. It has a mass of 2.43 ± 0.30 M[SUB]Jup[/SUB] and a radius of 1.02 ± 0.07 R[SUB]Jup[/SUB], while its ... [more ▼]

We report on the discovery of a hot Jupiter-type exoplanet, CoRoT-17b, detected by the CoRoT satellite. It has a mass of 2.43 ± 0.30 M[SUB]Jup[/SUB] and a radius of 1.02 ± 0.07 R[SUB]Jup[/SUB], while its mean density is 2.82 ± 0.38 g/cm[SUP]3[/SUP]. CoRoT-17b is in a circular orbit with a period of 3.7681 ± 0.0003 days. The host star is an old (10.7 ± 1.0 Gyr) main-sequence star, which makes it an intriguing object for planetary evolution studies. The planet's internal composition is not well constrained and can range from pure H/He to one that can contain ~380 earth masses of heavier elements. The CoRoT space mission, launched on December 27th 2006, has been developed and is operated by CNES, with the contribution of Austria, Belgium, Brazil, ESA (RSSD and Science Programme), Germany and Spain. Part of the observations were obtained at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) which is operated by the National Research Council of Canada, the Institut National des Sciences de l'Univers of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique of France, and the University of Hawaii. Based on observations made with HARPS spectrograph on the 3.6-m European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere telescope at La Silla Observatory, Chile (ESO program 184.C-0639). Based on observations made with the IAC80 telescope operated on the island of Tenerife by the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias in the Spanish Observatorio del Teide. Part of the data presented herein were obtained at the W.M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W.M. Keck Foundation. [less ▲]

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See detailTheoretical seismic properties of pre-main sequence γ Doradus pulsators
Bouabid, M*-P; Montalban Iglesias, Josefa ULg; Miglio, Andrea ULg et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2011), 531

Context. The late A and F-type γ Doradus (γ Dor) stars pulsate with high-order gravity modes (g-modes). The existence of different evolutionary phases crossing the γ Dor instability strip raises the ... [more ▼]

Context. The late A and F-type γ Doradus (γ Dor) stars pulsate with high-order gravity modes (g-modes). The existence of different evolutionary phases crossing the γ Dor instability strip raises the question whether pre-main sequence (PMS) γ Dor stars exist. <BR /> Aims: We intend to study the differences between the asteroseismic behaviour of PMS and main sequence (MS) γ Dor pulsators as predicted by the current theory of stellar evolution and stability. <BR /> Methods: We explore the adiabatic and non-adiabatic properties of high-order g-modes in a grid of PMS and MS models covering the mass range 1.2 M[SUB]&sun;[/SUB] < M[SUB]∗[/SUB] < 2.5 M[SUB]&sun;[/SUB]. <BR /> Results: We have derived the theoretical instability strip (IS) for the PMS γ Dor pulsators. This IS covers the same effective temperature range as the MS γ Dor one. Nevertheless, the frequency domain of unstable modes in PMS models with a fully radiative core is greater than in MS models, even if they present the same number of unstable modes. Moreover, the differences between MS and PMS internal structures are reflected in the average values of the period spacing, as well as in the dependence of the period spacing on the radial order of the modes, opening the window to determination of the evolutionary phase of γ Dor stars from their pulsation spectra. [less ▲]

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See detailWASP-23b: a transiting hot Jupiter around a K dwarf and its Rossiter-McLaughlin effect
Triaud, A H M J; Queloz, D.; Hellier, C. et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2011), 531

We report the discovery of a new transiting planet in the southern hemisphere. It was found by the WASP-south transit survey and confirmed photometrically and spectroscopically by the 1.2 m Swiss Euler ... [more ▼]

We report the discovery of a new transiting planet in the southern hemisphere. It was found by the WASP-south transit survey and confirmed photometrically and spectroscopically by the 1.2 m Swiss Euler telescope, LCOGT 2m Faulkes South Telescope, the 60 cm TRAPPIST telescope, and the ESO 3.6 m telescope. The orbital period of the planet is 2.94 days. We find that it is a gas giant with a mass of 0.88 ± 0.10 M[SUB]J[/SUB] and an estimated radius of 0.96 ± 0.05 R[SUB]J[/SUB]. We obtained spectra during transit with the HARPS spectrograph and detect the Rossiter-McLaughlin effect despite its small amplitude. Because of the low signal-to-noise ratio of the effect and a small impact parameter, we cannot place a strong constraint on the projected spin-orbit angle. We find two conflicting values for the stellar rotation. We find, via spectral line broadening, that v sin I = 2.2 ± 0.3 km s[SUP]-1[/SUP], while applying another method, based on the activity level using the index log R'_HK, gives an equatorial rotation velocity of only v = 1.35 ± 0.20 km s[SUP]-1[/SUP]. Using these as priors in our analysis, the planet might be either misaligned or aligned. This result raises doubts about the use of such priors. There is evidence of neither eccentricity nor any radial velocity drift with time. Using WASP-South photometric observations confirmed with LCOGT Faulkes South Telescope, the 60 cm TRAPPIST telescope, the CORALIE spectrograph and the camera from the Swiss 1.2 m Euler Telescope placed at La Silla, Chile, as well as with the HARPS spectrograph, mounted on the ESO 3.6 m, also at La Silla, under proposal 084.C-0185. The data is publicly available at the CDS Strasbourg and on demand to the main author.RV data is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via <A href="http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/531/A24">http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/531/A24</A>Appendix is available in electronic form at <A href="http://www.aanda.org">http://www.aanda.org</A> [less ▲]

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See detailThe strong magnetic field of the large-amplitude β Cephei pulsator V1449 Aquilae
Hubrig, S.; Ilyin, I.; Briquet, Maryline ULg et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2011), 531

<BR /> Aims: Only for very few β Cephei stars has the behaviour of the magnetic field been studied over the rotation cycle. During the past two years we have obtained multi-epoch polarimetric spectra of ... [more ▼]

<BR /> Aims: Only for very few β Cephei stars has the behaviour of the magnetic field been studied over the rotation cycle. During the past two years we have obtained multi-epoch polarimetric spectra of the β Cephei star V1449 Aql with SOFIN at the Nordic Optical Telescope to search for a rotation period and to constrain the geometry of the magnetic field. <BR /> Methods: The mean longitudinal magnetic field is measured at 13 different epochs. The new measurements, together with the previous FORS 1 measurements, have been used for the frequency analysis and the characterization of the magnetic field. <BR /> Results: V1449 Aql so far possesses the strongest longitudinal magnetic field of up to 700 G among the β Cephei stars. The resulting periodogram displays three dominant peaks with the highest peak at f = 0.0720 d[SUP]-1[/SUP] corresponding to a period P = 13ḍ893. The magnetic field geometry can likely be described by a centred dipole with a polar magnetic field strength B[SUB]d[/SUB] around 3 kG and an inclination angle β of the magnetic axis to the rotation axis of 76 ± 4°. As of today, the strongest longitudinal magnetic fields are detected in the β Cephei stars V1449 Aql and ξ[SUP]1[/SUP] CMa with large radial velocity amplitudes. Their peak-to-peak amplitudes reach ~90 km s[SUP]-1[/SUP] and ~33 km s[SUP]-1[/SUP], respectively. Concluding, we briefly discuss the position of the currently known eight magnetic β Cephei and candidate β Cephei stars in the Hertzsprung-Russell (H-R) diagram. Based on observations obtained at the 2.56-m Nordic Optical Telescope on La Palma and ESO Prgs. 077.D-0311 and 178.D-0361.Appendix A is available in electronic form at <A href="http://www.aanda.org">http://www.aanda.org</A> [less ▲]

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See detailSpin-orbit measurements and refined parameters for the exoplanet systems WASP-22 and WASP-26
Anderson, D. R.; Collier Cameron, A.; Gillon, Michaël ULg et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2011), 534

We report on spectroscopic and photometric observations through transits of the exoplanets WASP-22b and WASP-26b, intended to determine the systems' spin-orbit angles. We combine these data with existing ... [more ▼]

We report on spectroscopic and photometric observations through transits of the exoplanets WASP-22b and WASP-26b, intended to determine the systems' spin-orbit angles. We combine these data with existing data to refine the system parameters. We measure a sky-projected spin-orbit angle of 22 ± 16° for WASP-22b, showing the planet's orbit to be prograde and, perhaps, slightly misaligned. We do not detect the Rossiter-McLaughlin effect of WASP-26b due to its low amplitude and observation noise. We place 3-σ upper limits on orbital eccentricity of 0.063 for WASP-22b and 0.050 for WASP-26b. After refining the drift in the systemic velocity of WASP-22 found by Maxted et al. (2010, AJ, 140, 2007), we find the third body in the system to have a minimum-mass of 5.3 ± 0.3 MJup (a3 / 5 AU)2, where a3 is the orbital distance of the third body. [less ▲]

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See detailInvestigating the X-ray emission from the massive WR+O binary WR 22 using 3D hydrodynamical models
Parkin, E. R.; Gosset, Eric ULg

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2011), 530

<BR /> Aims: We examine the dependence of the wind-wind collision and subsequent X-ray emission from the massive WR+O star binary WR 22 on the acceleration of the stellar winds, radiative cooling, and ... [more ▼]

<BR /> Aims: We examine the dependence of the wind-wind collision and subsequent X-ray emission from the massive WR+O star binary WR 22 on the acceleration of the stellar winds, radiative cooling, and orbital motion. <BR /> Methods: Three dimensional (3D) adaptive-mesh refinement (AMR) simulations are presented that include radiative driving, gravity, optically-thin radiative cooling, and orbital motion. Simulations were performed with instantaneously accelerated and radiatively driven stellar winds. Radiative transfer calculations were performed on the simulation output to generate synthetic X-ray data, which are used to conduct a detailed comparison against observations. <BR /> Results: When instantaneously accelerated stellar winds are adopted in the simulation, a stable wind-wind collision region (WCR) is established at all orbital phases. In contrast, when the stellar winds are radiatively driven, and thus the acceleration regions of the winds are accounted for, the WCR is far more unstable. As the stars approach periastron, the ram pressure of the WR's wind overwhelms the O star's and, following a significant disruption of the shocks by non-linear thin-shell instabilities (NTSIs), the WCR collapses onto the O star. X-ray calculations reveal that when a stable WCR exists the models over-predict the observed X-ray flux by more than two orders of magnitude. The collapse of the WCR onto the O star substantially reduces the discrepancy in the 2-10keV flux to a factor of ≃ 6 at φ = 0.994. However, the observed spectrum is not well matched by the models. <BR /> Conclusions: We conclude that the agreement between the models and observations could be improved by increasing the ratio of the mass-loss rates in favour of the WR star to the extent that a normal wind ram pressure balance does not occur at any orbital phase, potentially leading to a sustained collapse of the WCR onto the O star. Radiative braking may then play a significant rôle for the WCR dynamics and resulting X-ray emission. [less ▲]

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See detailThe underlying physical meaning of the νmax - νc relation
Belkacem, K.; Goupil, M. J.; Dupret, Marc-Antoine ULg et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2011), 530

Asteroseismology of stars that exhibit solar-like oscillations are enjoying a growing interest with the wealth of observational results obtained with the CoRoT and Kepler missions. In this framework ... [more ▼]

Asteroseismology of stars that exhibit solar-like oscillations are enjoying a growing interest with the wealth of observational results obtained with the CoRoT and Kepler missions. In this framework, scaling laws between asteroseismic quantities and stellar parameters are becoming essential tools to study a rich variety of stars. However, the physical underlying mechanisms of those scaling laws are still poorly known. Our objective is to provide a theoretical basis for the scaling between the frequency of the maximum in the power spectrum (ν[SUB]max[/SUB]) of solar-like oscillations and the cut-off frequency (ν[SUB]c[/SUB]). Using the SoHO GOLF observations together with theoretical considerations, we first confirm that the maximum of the height in oscillation power spectrum is determined by the so-called plateau of the damping rates. The physical origin of the plateau can be traced to the destabilizing effect of the Lagrangian perturbation of entropy in the upper-most layers, which becomes important when the modal period and the local thermal relaxation time-scale are comparable. Based on this analysis, we then find a linear relation between ν[SUB]max[/SUB] and ν[SUB]c[/SUB], with a coefficient that depends on the ratio of the Mach number of the exciting turbulence to the third power to the mixing-length parameter. [less ▲]

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See detailOptimized fringe sensors for the VLTI next generation instruments
Blind, N.; Absil, Olivier ULg; Le Bouquin, J.-B. et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2011), 530

Context. With the arrival of the next generation of ground-based imaging interferometers combining from four to possibly six telescopes simultaneously, there is also a strong need for a new generation of ... [more ▼]

Context. With the arrival of the next generation of ground-based imaging interferometers combining from four to possibly six telescopes simultaneously, there is also a strong need for a new generation of fringe trackers able to cophase these arrays. These instruments have to be very sensitive and to provide robust operations in quickly varying observational conditions. <BR /> Aims: We aim at defining the optimal characteristics of fringe sensor concepts operating with four or six telescopes. The current detector limitations lead us to consider solutions based on co-axial pairwise combination schemes. <BR /> Methods: We independently study several aspects of the fringe sensing process: 1) how to measure the phase and the group delay, and 2) how to combine the telescopes to ensure a precise and robust fringe tracking in real conditions. Thanks to analytical developments and numerical simulations, we define the optimal fringe-sensor concepts and compute the expected performance of the four-telescope one with our dedicated end-to-end simulation tool sim2GFT. <BR /> Results: We first show that measuring the phase and the group delay by obtaining the data in several steps (i.e. by temporally modulating the optical path difference) is extremely sensitive to atmospheric turbulence and therefore conclude that it is better to obtain the fringe position with a set of data obtained simultaneously. Subsequently, we show that among all co-axial pairwise schemes, moderately redundant concepts increase the sensitivity as well as the robustness in various atmospheric or observing conditions. Merging all these results, end-to-end simulations show that our four-telescope fringe sensor concept is able to track fringes at least 90% of the time up to limiting magnitudes of 7.5 and 9.5 for the 1.8- and 8.2-meter VLTI telescopes respectively. [less ▲]

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See detailDeep asteroseismic sounding of the compact hot B subdwarf pulsator KIC02697388 from Kepler time series photometry
Charpinet, Stéphane; Van Grootel, Valérie ULg; Fontaine, Gilles et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2011), 530

Context. Contemporary high precision photometry from space provided by the Kepler and CoRoT satellites generates significant breakthroughs in terms of exploiting the long-period, g-mode pulsating hot B ... [more ▼]

Context. Contemporary high precision photometry from space provided by the Kepler and CoRoT satellites generates significant breakthroughs in terms of exploiting the long-period, g-mode pulsating hot B subdwarf (sdBVs) stars with asteroseismology. Aims: We present a detailed asteroseismic study of the sdBVs star KIC02697388 monitored with Kepler, using the rich pulsation spectrum uncovered during the ~27-day-long exploratory run Q2.3. Methods: We analyse new high-S/N spectroscopy of KIC02697388 using appropriate NLTE model atmospheres to provide accurate atmospheric parameters for this star. We also reanalyse the Kepler light curve using standard prewhitening techniques. On this basis, we apply a forward modelling technique using our latest generation of sdB models. The simultaneous match of the independent periods observed in KIC02697388 with those of models leads objectively to the identification of the pulsation modes and, more importantly, to the determination of some of the parameters of the star. Results: The light curve analysis reveals 43 independent frequencies that can be associated with oscillation modes. All the modulations observed in this star correspond to g-mode pulsations except one high-frequency signal, which is typical of a p-mode oscillation. Although the presence of this p-mode is surprising considering the atmospheric parameters that we derive for this cool sdB star (Teff = 25 395 ± 227 K, log g = 5.500 ± 0.031 (cgs), and log N(He) /N(H) = -2.767 ± 0.122), we show that this mode can be accounted for particularly well by our optimal seismic models, both in terms of frequency match and nonadiabatic properties. The seismic analysis leads us to identify two model solutions that can both account for the observed pulsation properties of KIC02697388. Despite this remaining ambiguity, several key parameters of the star can be derived with stringent constraints, such as its mass, its H-rich envelope mass, its radius, and its luminosity. We derive the properties of the core proposing that it is a relatively young sdB star that has burnt less than ~34% (in mass) of its central helium and has a relatively large mixed He/C/O core. This latter measurement is in line with the trend already uncovered for two other g-mode sdB pulsators analysed with asteroseismology and suggests that extra mixing is occurring quite early in the evolution of He cores on the horizontal branch. Conclusions: Additional monitoring with Kepler of this particularly interesting sdB star should reveal the inner properties of KIC02697388 and provide important information about the mode driving mechanism and the helium core properties. [less ▲]

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See detailA Herschel resolved far-infrared dust ring around HD 207129
Marshall, J. P.; Löhne, T.; Montesinos, B. et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2011), 529

Context. Dusty debris discs around main sequence stars are thought to be the result of continuous collisional grinding of planetesimals in the system. The majority of these systems are unresolved and ... [more ▼]

Context. Dusty debris discs around main sequence stars are thought to be the result of continuous collisional grinding of planetesimals in the system. The majority of these systems are unresolved and analysis of the dust properties is limited by the lack of information regarding the dust location. <BR /> Aims: The Herschel DUNES key program is observing 133 nearby, Sun-like stars (<20 pc, FGK spectral type) in a volume limited survey to constrain the absolute incidence of cold dust around these stars by detection of far infrared excess emission at flux levels comparable to the Edgeworth-Kuiper belt (EKB). <BR /> Methods: We have observed the Sun-like star HD 207129 with Herschel PACS and SPIRE. In all three PACS bands we resolve a ring-like structure consistent with scattered light observations. Using α Boötis as a reference point spread function (PSF), we deconvolved the images, clearly resolving the inner gap in the disc at both 70 and 100 μm. <BR /> Results: We have resolved the dust-producing planetesimal belt of a debris disc at 100 μm for the first time. We measure the radial profile and fractional luminosity of the disc, and compare the values to those of discs around stars of similar age and/or spectral type, placing this disc in context of other resolved discs observed by Herschel/DUNES. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA. [less ▲]

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See detailMOA-2009-BLG-387Lb: a massive planet orbiting an M dwarf
Batista, V.; Gould, A.; Dieters, S. et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2011), 529

<BR /> Aims: We report the discovery of a planet with a high planet-to-star mass ratio in the microlensing event MOA-2009-BLG-387, which exhibited pronounced deviations over a 12-day interval, one of the ... [more ▼]

<BR /> Aims: We report the discovery of a planet with a high planet-to-star mass ratio in the microlensing event MOA-2009-BLG-387, which exhibited pronounced deviations over a 12-day interval, one of the longest for any planetary event. The host is an M dwarf, with a mass in the range 0.07 M[SUB]&sun;[/SUB] < M[SUB]host[/SUB] < 0.49 M[SUB]&sun;[/SUB] at 90% confidence. The planet-star mass ratio q = 0.0132 ± 0.003 has been measured extremely well, so at the best-estimated host mass, the planet mass is m[SUB]p[/SUB] = 2.6 Jupiter masses for the median host mass, M = 0.19 M[SUB]&sun;[/SUB]. <BR /> Methods: The host mass is determined from two "higher order" microlensing parameters. One of these, the angular Einstein radius θ[SUB]E[/SUB] = 0.31 ± 0.03 mas has been accurately measured, but the other (the microlens parallax π[SUB]E[/SUB], which is due to the Earth's orbital motion) is highly degenerate with the orbital motion of the planet. We statistically resolve the degeneracy between Earth and planet orbital effects by imposing priors from a Galactic model that specifies the positions and velocities of lenses and sources and a Kepler model of orbits. <BR /> Results: The 90% confidence intervals for the distance, semi-major axis, and period of the planet are 3.5 kpc < D[SUB]L[/SUB] < 7.9 kpc, 1.1 AU < a < 2.7 AU, and 3.8 yr < P < 7.6 yr, respectively. Photometric data is only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via <A href="http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/529/A102">http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/529/A102</A> [less ▲]

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