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See detailEpidémiologie des évènements rares chez les bovins en Belgique
Saegerman, Claude ULg

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (2006), 150(spécial), 4-9

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See detailEndocrinology of pregnancy in the cow: embryonic signals, placental hormones and proteins
Ayad, A.; Melo de Sousa, Noelita ULg; Hornick, Jean-Luc ULg et al

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (2006), 150(4), 212-226

The development, the establishment and the embryonic survival at early stages of gestation are depending on an intimate dialogue between the embryo and his mother. For the embryo part, it is especially ... [more ▼]

The development, the establishment and the embryonic survival at early stages of gestation are depending on an intimate dialogue between the embryo and his mother. For the embryo part, it is especially the trophoblast, or the future placenta, which plays a key role in initializing pregnancy. The placenta emits many signals of various chemical natures ( steroids, prostaglandins, peptides, proteins), some of them, e. g. the interferon tau, determine the maintenance of the corpus luteum at the beginning of gestation. Until now, although having raised many speculations, the earliest of these signals were not identified in peripheral circulation. Consequently, they cannot be used as a pregnancy diagnosis or to indicate embryonic mortality. However, since the eighties, the specific proteins "associated with pregnancy", produced by the trophoblastic cells are used as tool for breeding management. Most of these molecules are present in peripheral circulation. In this review, we will describe the major mechanisms associated with the maternal recognition of the gestation and their possible applications as pregnancy diagnosis tool in the cow. [less ▲]

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See detailInvasion intracellulaire des cellules non-phagocytaires par Staphylococcus aureus
Boulanger, Delphine; Bureau, Fabrice ULg; Lekeux, Pierre ULg

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (2006), 150(1), 27-42

Intracellular invasion of Staphyloccocus aureus in nonphagocytic cells Staphylococcus aureus often causes chronic diseases. It is now believed that recurrence of these infections could be related to the ... [more ▼]

Intracellular invasion of Staphyloccocus aureus in nonphagocytic cells Staphylococcus aureus often causes chronic diseases. It is now believed that recurrence of these infections could be related to the ability of S. aureus to invade and persist within nonphagocytic cells. Adherence to eucaryotic cells is crucial for S. aureus to invade and persist within invasion and depends on interactions between bacterial fibronectin-binding proteins, fibronectin and the host cell fibronectin receptor, integrin alpha(5)beta(1). It is currently established that fibronectin acts as a bridging molecule. Penetration of S. aureus in host cells requires also activation of protein tyrosine kinases that mediate signal transduction and actin polymerization leading to cytoskeletal rearrangements. After internalization, S. aureus either remains in membrane-bound vacuoles or appears free in the cytoplasm. After bacterial proliferation, S. aureus induces host cell apoptosis or persist inside cells as small colony variants, which represent a less virulent subpopulation of S. aureus that grows slower. Although numerous in vitro and in vivo studies have demonstrated the ability of S. aureus to invade nonphagocytic cells, additional experiments have to be realized to understand the relevance of intracellular localization in vivo. [less ▲]

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See detailLes interférons de type 1 et leur fonction antivirale
Leroy, Michael; Desmecht, Daniel ULg

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (2006), 150(2), 73-107

Type I interferons are part of the innate immune system involved in the first line defense against invasion, replication and spreading of pathogens such as viruses. Through specific membrane or ... [more ▼]

Type I interferons are part of the innate immune system involved in the first line defense against invasion, replication and spreading of pathogens such as viruses. Through specific membrane or intracellular receptors, virus entry induces the expression of type I interferons which stimulates the cells through an autocrine and paracrine manner. Interferons are polypeptides that stimulate cells through membrane receptors. They induce a cascade of events leading to the synthesis of many proteins some of which having specific antiviral properties. The most characterized are the MX proteins, the 2’5’ oligoadenylate synthetase/ ribonuclease L pathway and the double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase R system. Recently, the protein ISG20 has been involved in the specific antiviral function of type I interferons. The interferons act on multiple steps of the viral cycle including penetration, decapsidation, mRNA transcription, protein synthesis, genome replication, assembling and excretion of viral particles. Nowadays, due to their major efficiency, type I interferons are used in therapeutics against some viral infections and cancers. [less ▲]

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See detailTowards a better use of the rabbit as an experimental model: review and perspectives
Dewree, R.; Drion, Pierre ULg

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (2006), 150(3), 153-162

The rabbit is an essential model in scientific research, particularly in the study of cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension and atherosclerosis and for the investigation of the osteoarticular ... [more ▼]

The rabbit is an essential model in scientific research, particularly in the study of cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension and atherosclerosis and for the investigation of the osteoarticular system. Due to the fact that various factors (environmental, microbial, stress, pain.) can influence data obtained from experiments, special care must be given to housing conditions. Sensory enrichment (olfactive, auditive, visual or tactile stimuli) and physical enrichment (nutritional and social stimuli) allow rabbits to express specific behaviours and reduce stereotypies. This synthesis reminds of the importance of these factors and gives to the researcher some ways to control them. [less ▲]

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See detailLa mammite bovine : de l’initiation à la résolution
Boutet, Philippe ULg; Bureau, Fabrice ULg; Lekeux, Pierre ULg

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (2006), 150(1), 1-26

The bovine mastitis : from initiation to resolution The cure of a cow suffering from a bacterial mastitis relies on the balance between the eradication of the pathogen and the resolution of the ... [more ▼]

The bovine mastitis : from initiation to resolution The cure of a cow suffering from a bacterial mastitis relies on the balance between the eradication of the pathogen and the resolution of the inflammatory response, two processes that are essential to come back to a normal milk composition with low somatic cell count. The persistence of the inflammatory response, which main consequence is a reduction in milk yield, is a feature of chronic mastitis. This frequent disease depends on inappropriate host-pathogen interactions and is not yet well understood. This review resumes the main defence mechanisms of the bovine mammary gland, emphasizing the predominant roles played by the neutrophil, and brings some precisions on lipoxin implications in the resolution of inflammation. Reasons that may explain the persistence of the inflammatory reaction, a phenomenon found in the Staphylococcus aureus chronic mastitis, are also discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailLe lipopolysaccharide d’Escherichia coli : structure, biosynthèse et rôles
Szalo, Ioan Mihai ULg; Taminiau, Bernard ULg; Mainil, Jacques ULg

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (2006), 150(2), 108-124

The lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is a major component of the surface of the Gram negative bacteria. The LPS is composed of three separately synthesized entities: the lipid A, the core oligosaccharide and the ... [more ▼]

The lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is a major component of the surface of the Gram negative bacteria. The LPS is composed of three separately synthesized entities: the lipid A, the core oligosaccharide and the O antigen, that will be linked together after their respective synthesis. The lipid A, embedded inside the outer membrane, is the proximal part of the LPS and the core is the medial part, whereas the O antigen represents the distal part free in the external environment. Amongst the Enterobacteriaceae family, the lipid A is structurally highly conserved and the variation in the structure of the core oligosaccharide is limited whereas the O antigen is the hypervariable region. Diverse biological activities have been associated with LPS, amongst which the endotoxinic activity carried by the lipid A, and the strain immunogenic specificity carried by the O antigen. In this review manuscript we summarize the state of knowledge on the structures and biosynthesis of the different components of the LPS of Escherichia coli and on their respective roles in the virulence of pathogenic bacteria. [less ▲]

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See detailColonisation of the Mucosae - Adherence Factors and their Interaction with Host Cells
Mainil, Jacques ULg

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (2005), 149C(Special issue), 5-14

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See detailDevelopment of Disease - Bacterial Toxins and their Interaction with Host Cells
Mainil, Jacques ULg

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (2005), 149C(Special issue), 15-23

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See detailCaractérisation et maîtrise des paramètres de la reproduction et de la croissance des ovins Djallonké (Ovis amon aries)
Gbangboche, A. B.; Hornick, Jean-Luc ULg; Adamou-N'Diaye, M. et al

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (2005), 149(3), 148-160

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See detailGenetics and Regulation of Bacterial Virulence - Towards the Molecular Version of Koch’s Postulates
Mainil, Jacques ULg

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (2005), 149C(Special issue), 24-32

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See detailRegulation of Virulence Gene Expression by “Quorum-sensing” - Science or Science-fiction ?
Mainil, Jacques ULg

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (2005), 149C(Special issue), 33-40

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See detailSalmonella dans la viande et dans les oeufs : un danger pour le consommateur qui demande la mise en place d’un programme de lutte efficace
Van Immerseel, F.; De Buck, J.; Boyen, F. et al

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (2005), 149(1), 34-48

L’émergence de Salmonella Enteritidis dans l’industrie avicole a eu lieu dans tous les pays occidentaux entre 1965 et 1980. Depuis lors, ce sérotype est devenu le plus commun chez la volaille. Comme il se ... [more ▼]

L’émergence de Salmonella Enteritidis dans l’industrie avicole a eu lieu dans tous les pays occidentaux entre 1965 et 1980. Depuis lors, ce sérotype est devenu le plus commun chez la volaille. Comme il se transmet verticalement dans les oeufs, il constitue la cause principale de la pandémie de salmonellose non-typhoïde qui est observée chez l’homme. En outre, la bactérie se transmet aussi horizontalement dans les exploitations de volaille. Une fois qu’un bâtiment a hébergé des poules contaminées, il est très difficile d’éliminer cette contamination par les mesures hygiéniques classiques. Le mécanisme de transmission dans les oeufs n’est toujours pas complètement élucidé, ce qui constitue un obstacle majeur pour le développement de nouvelles mesures de prévention et de traitement. Les produits et mesures actuellement disponibles pour lutter contre Salmonella chez la volaille ont été largement développés sur base de méthodes empiriques. Néanmoins, la situation actuelle impose de prendre des mesures. Au niveau européen, de nouvelles dispositions législatives prévoient une série de mesures visant à réduire les taux de contamination de Salmonella tout au long de la chaîne de production, de transformation et de distribution des oeufs et de la viande de volaille. Il est évident que les contaminations des oeufs et de la viande sont fortement influencées respectivement par les conditions hygiéniques de l’abattage et par la réfrigération des oeufs. Au niveau belge, l’Agence fédérale pour la Sécurité de la chaîne alimentaire (AFSCA) va mettre en place un nouveau programme de lutte dans le secteur avicole. Cet article passe en revue les aspects les plus importants de l’épidémiologie, de la pathogenèse et décrit les mesures de prévention et de lutte qui sont disponibles à l’heure actuelle. [less ▲]

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See detailCharacterisation and control of the reproduction and growth parameters of Djallonke ovines (Ovis amon aries)
Gbangboche, Armand; Hornick, Jean-Luc ULg; Adamou-N'Diaye, Maman et al

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (2005), 149(3), 148-160

Plusieurs années d’efforts de recherches témoignent que l’élevage des ovins Djallonké est une activité majeure dans l’Afrique subsaharienne, si l’on en juge par la masse des connaissances produites. Les ... [more ▼]

Plusieurs années d’efforts de recherches témoignent que l’élevage des ovins Djallonké est une activité majeure dans l’Afrique subsaharienne, si l’on en juge par la masse des connaissances produites. Les auteurs, au travers d’un inventaire des différentes contributions scientifiques et techniques de 1967 à 2004, rapportent les performances de reproduction et de croissance des ovins Djallonké et les facteurs de leur variation. Les performances de reproduction ont été évaluées au travers de six critères zootechniques : cyclicité sexuelle annuelle, précocité sexuelle, intervalle entre agnelages, productions laitières, prolificité et mortalité des agneaux. Les performances de croissance ont été étudiées pendant deux périodes : la période d’allaitement naturel (croissance entre naissance et sevrage) et la période post sevrage. Les estimations des paramètres génétiques (héritabilité, corrélations génétiques et phénotypiques, répétabilité) de quelques caractères de reproduction et de croissance, ainsi que les résultats d’amélioration génétique, ont été passés en revue. Les conseils pratiques sont loin d’être uniformes étant donné la grande diversité des conditions d’expérimentation et d’analyse entre les différentes publications. [less ▲]

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See detailFinishing of the Belgian Blue double-muscled cull female: influence of age and dietary energy level
Cabaraux, Jean-François ULg

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (2005), 149(Sp. Iss. SI), 1-4

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See detailFacteurs influençant le comportement alimentaire et les performances du porc sevré: l'équipement d'alimentation.
Laitat, Martine ULg; Vandenheede, Marc ULg; Nicks, Baudouin ULg

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (2005), 149(2), 61-74

Among the most important elements of the nursery pen design, the feeder allows or not the optimisation of pigs' performance. Two principal design features can characterize a feeder : the way pigs will be ... [more ▼]

Among the most important elements of the nursery pen design, the feeder allows or not the optimisation of pigs' performance. Two principal design features can characterize a feeder : the way pigs will be fed ( wet, dry or wet/dry) and its capacity, which depends in turn on the trough length or the number of feeding spaces ( mono - or multi- space feeder and communal trough). To determine the number of pigs that can be accommodated per feeder, the daily time spent per pig at the feeder - depending on pig size and feed delivered - must be taken into account. Recommendations of 4 to 10 weaned pigs per feeding space are generally given. Pigs are able to adapt their eating behaviour when crowding occurs but suboptimal situations may reduce feed intake and productivity and even impair welfare. Some particularities of the feeder such as limited depth, feeder gap opening, lip height, side panels or protective crate can limit feed spillage and/ or agonistic interactions at the feeder. Feeder position in the pen should prevent pigs to be disturbed while eating and allow free movement of penmates. [less ▲]

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See detailAspects environnementaux et zootechniques de l’élevage de porcs charcutiers et de porcelets sevrés sur litières accumulées de sciure ou de paille
Nicks, Baudouin ULg

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (2005), 149(Sp. Iss. SI), 31-36

Aspects environnementaux et zootechniques de l’élevage de porcs charcutiers et de porcelets sevrés sur litières accumulées de sciure ou de paille. Thèse de doctorat en sciences vétérinaires défendue le 27 ... [more ▼]

Aspects environnementaux et zootechniques de l’élevage de porcs charcutiers et de porcelets sevrés sur litières accumulées de sciure ou de paille. Thèse de doctorat en sciences vétérinaires défendue le 27 avril 2004. [less ▲]

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See detailOccurrence of the genotype of the receptor gene for ryanodine (Ryr1) associated with sensitivity to stress in 5 Belgian porcine production systems
China, Bernard; Leroy, Bernadette ULg; Dams, Lorène ULg et al

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (2005), 149(3), 161-165

Porcine stress syndrome is related to a point mutation in Ryr1 gene encoding the ryanodin receptor. This syndrome involves mortality after stress conditions or poor quality meat. Five hundred and five ... [more ▼]

Porcine stress syndrome is related to a point mutation in Ryr1 gene encoding the ryanodin receptor. This syndrome involves mortality after stress conditions or poor quality meat. Five hundred and five individuals among 5 Belgian production systems were genotyped. This genotyping was performed by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymophism (PCR-RFLP) or real time PCR. The results indicated that 22,4 % of the pigs were stress sensitive (TT genotype) and 77,6 % stress resistant (63,4 % CT heterozygotes and 14,2 % CC genotype). Statistical analysis allowed to split the production systems into two groups: the production system 1 and 2 presenting a high level of TT individuals (44 % and 52 % respectively) although production systems 3, 4 and 5 presented a high level of heterozygotes individuals (74 %, 92 % and 78 % respectively). At the technical level, real time PCR appeared to be a faster and an easier technique than PCR-RFLP. [less ▲]

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See detailBovine pepsinogen and Prochymosin : Current knowledge, applications and outlines in the management of gastrointestinal worms
Sidikou, I. D.; Remy, B.; Hornick, Jean-Luc ULg et al

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (2005), 149(4), 213-228

The characterization of the gastric aspartic proteases and the understanding of their mechanisms of activation led to several applications in many domains as the use of chymosin in cheese industries and ... [more ▼]

The characterization of the gastric aspartic proteases and the understanding of their mechanisms of activation led to several applications in many domains as the use of chymosin in cheese industries and the diagnostic of gastric diseases in humans and animals. Particularly, in cattle, the indirect measurement of pepsinogen activity is largely used for the diagnosis of ostertagiosis. Today, the gastric strongyloses are responsible for serious problems of management or the emergence of parasites resistence towards antihelminthics, and no immediate solution is available. Nevertheless, several tracks are proposed such as a more rational use of antihelminthics by the study of blood pepsinogen. This approach held our attention. The present review describes bovine pepsinogen and prochymosin, with an accent on the zymogen structure, their mechanisms of activation and the methods of blood levels measurement. The manuscript will end on the importance of the problems raised by gastric worms, and on the interest of the measurement of blood pepsinogen in the management of these diseases in cattle. [less ▲]

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See detailUrethral sphincter mechanism incompetence in the bitch. Review of the literature
Hamaide, Annick ULg; Balligand, Marc; Verstegen, John

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (2005), 149(2), 75-92

Urethral sphincter mechanism incompetence is characterized by unvoluntary urine leakage, worsening when the animal is recumbent or asleep, or during excitement. It mainly affects large breed dogs, and ... [more ▼]

Urethral sphincter mechanism incompetence is characterized by unvoluntary urine leakage, worsening when the animal is recumbent or asleep, or during excitement. It mainly affects large breed dogs, and mostly middle-aged spayed bitches. The aetiology of this condition is multifactorial and predisposing factors include a decrease urethral tone, an intrapelvic bladder neck position, a short urethra, sterilisation, obesity, and age. Diagnostic workup should include a vaginourethrography to identify possible vaginal abnormalities and to visualize the urethra and the position of the bladder neck, and urethral profilometry to demonstrate a decrease in maximal urethral pressure and functional profile length. Medical treatment with oestriol is an option. This short-acting oestrogen does not exhibit oestrogenic side effects. Unfortunately, its success rate is only of 65 % of complete continence. The a- adrenergic agents ( phenylpropanolamine and ephedrine) are more efficacious, with a success rate reaching 75 to 90 %, with very few side effects. In absence of response to the treatment, or if the animal becomes refractory, a colposuspension can be recommended, with a fairly good prognosis. [less ▲]

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