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See detailLe diagnostic des carences en Iode et Sélénium chez les bovins
Guyot, Hugues ULg; Rollin, Frédéric ULg

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (2007), 151

Selenium and iodine deficiencies are frequently present in cattle in Europe with a negative impact on animal health, reproduction and production. Deficiencies in animals also influence human health owing ... [more ▼]

Selenium and iodine deficiencies are frequently present in cattle in Europe with a negative impact on animal health, reproduction and production. Deficiencies in animals also influence human health owing to consumption of their products. These deficiencies must be correctly diagnosed in order to avoid lack of diagnosis or wrong diagnosis. Since there are many interactions between nutrients, a nutritional approach only is of limited interest. Therefore, the diagnosis based on samples obtained on the animals is more reliable. Clinical signs of selenium and iodine deficiencies are rarely pathognomonic. Laboratory analyses are thus necessary to confirm the diagnosis. The present review relates the principal clinical signs of selenium and iodine deficiencies and the confirmation of the deficiency by the measurements of different nutritional and functional markers available for cattle, either on blood, milk, urine or tissues. Finally, a protocol for the diagnosis of selenium and iodine deficiencies is proposed [less ▲]

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See detailLa tumeur faciale transmissible du Diable de Tasmanie
Vanherberghen, Morgane ULg; Desmecht, Daniel ULg

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (2007), 151

The Tasmanian Devil is the largest carnivorous marsupial of Australia. Since 1996, this species faces an emerging transmissible and fatal disease that is characterized by eruption of tumors on the face ... [more ▼]

The Tasmanian Devil is the largest carnivorous marsupial of Australia. Since 1996, this species faces an emerging transmissible and fatal disease that is characterized by eruption of tumors on the face and the neck. Having carried 75.000 animals off in only 8 years, the Tasmanian Devil’s transmissible tumor dramatically threatens the survival of the species, which would have disastrous ecological consequences because of its key role as a predator and as a scavenger. The following text gathers the information available on the features of the disease and brings to the light its astonishing etiology and mode of transmission [less ▲]

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See detailParamètres influençant la structure et la fonction du globule rouge chez le cheval
Portier, Karine; Kirschvink, Nathalie; Fellmann, Nicole et al

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (2007), 151(2), 101-106

The erythrocyte, as an oxygen carrier, is submitted to areas where oxidative stress is important. The maintenance of the structure and fluidity of its membrane is essential to its function. Indeed, oxygen ... [more ▼]

The erythrocyte, as an oxygen carrier, is submitted to areas where oxidative stress is important. The maintenance of the structure and fluidity of its membrane is essential to its function. Indeed, oxygen must diffuse through the membrane and the deformability of the cell is essential to its progression through capillaries. The structure and, as a consequence, the fluidity of the membrane influence these properties. The red blood cell presents antioxydant capacities, but in some cases, free radical production is increased and exceeds antiradical defences leading to irreversible defects of the membrane, and, as a consequence, of its function. Horse erythrocyte seems to be more sensitive to oxidative stress than other species and resulting hemorheological changes could have tissular and organic consequences. [less ▲]

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See detailLes mécanismes d'adhérence des champignons responsables de mycoses superficielles
Baldo, Aline ULg; Mathy, Anne ULg; Vermout, S. et al

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (2007), 151

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See detailNouveaux animaux de compagnie : infections à Salmonella enterica et état sanitaire
Huybens, Nathalie ULg; Delleur, Valéry; Poulipoulis, Anastassios ULg et al

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (2006), 150(4), 241-246

Human transmission of Salmonella enterica from new companion animals is usually suspected even though very few data according Salmonella infections in these animal species are available. The prevalence of ... [more ▼]

Human transmission of Salmonella enterica from new companion animals is usually suspected even though very few data according Salmonella infections in these animal species are available. The prevalence of Salmonella enterica infections in the digestive tract of 450 new companion animals ( 45 ferrets, 7 birds, 308 rodents, 82 rabbits and 8 reptiles) coming from pet shops or individual owners was determined by bacteriological examinations of anal swabs or pooled fresh faeces. Only one Salmonella Enteritidis strain was isolated from a ferret in a pet shop. The symptomatic or asymptomatic Salmonella carriage in ferrets, rodents and rabbits is thus not as frequent as what was suspected. [less ▲]

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See detailCaractéristiques morphologiques des juments de Trait belge
Nicks, Baudouin ULg; Delfontaine, Béatrice; Canart, Bernard et al

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (2006), 150(4), 247-252

Belgian draft mares were measured when visiting their owners. The mean wither height of at least 4-year-old mares (n = 207) was 1.64 m and the girth circumference 2.22 m. Compared with the wither height ... [more ▼]

Belgian draft mares were measured when visiting their owners. The mean wither height of at least 4-year-old mares (n = 207) was 1.64 m and the girth circumference 2.22 m. Compared with the wither height, the hip height was 1 % higher (1.655 m) and the body length 8 % higher (1.775 m). The mean cannon circumference was about 30 cm. The wither height, the body length and the girth circumference of the 2-year-old mares ( n = 39) represented respectively 98 %, 96 % and 94 % of the corresponding measurements of the group of older mares ( at least 4 years old). The morphological characteristics of these last ones, compared with results published about 50 years ago, show that the wither height remained identical whereas body length and width seem to have slightly increased. [less ▲]

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See detailDegenerative osteoarthropathy in horses: pathogeny and diagnostic
Lejeune, Jean-Philippe ULg; Schneider, Nicole ULg; Henrotin, Yves ULg et al

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (2006), 150(3), 173-192

This work presents some important features of the normal articular structures and a definition of the degenerative osteo-arthropathy that points the involvement of all the joint structures. The pathogeny ... [more ▼]

This work presents some important features of the normal articular structures and a definition of the degenerative osteo-arthropathy that points the involvement of all the joint structures. The pathogeny of the pathology is tackled by the potential risk factors and by the cartilage-cartilage, synovium-cartilage and bone-cartilage cycles that lay particular emphasis on the interaction between the different joint structures. The diagnostic tools of the degenerative osteo-arthropathy like the conventional or recent imaging techniques (magnetic resonance imaging, scintigraphy and tomography) and the biomarkers of the cartilage and bone metabolisms are listed. The pathogeny of the degenerative osteo-arthropathy is complex and involves different factors. This disease is characterised by an imbalance between the anabolic and catabolic processes of the cartilage metabolism. Inflammation is also present and lead to the clinical signs. The synovitis, the liberation of degradation mediators, the mechanical stresses and/or the subchondral bone are part of the pathogeny at different degrees. The development of recent imaging techniques and the biomarkers of the cartilage and bone metabolisms allow the precise description of the lesions and give some additional information on the pathogeny of the osteo-arthropathy. These recent techniques raise new questions and allow the in-depth analysis of the study of the osteo-arthropathy. [less ▲]

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See detailInfluence of diet form and feeding equipment on feeding behaviour and performance of weaned pigs
Laitat, Martine ULg

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (2006), 150(Sp. Iss. SI), 36-39

Influence of diet form and feeding equipment on feeding behaviour and performance of weaned pigs

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See detailResidual and contaminants of alimentary commodity: 25 years of their analysis progress. 2. Biological methods of detection
Scippo, Marie-Louise ULg; Maghuin-Rogister, Guy ULg

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (2006), 150(2), 125-130

This article presents a synthesis of the various biological methods used to detect residues or contaminants in foods, by insisting on their evolution during these last 25 years and by illustrating with ... [more ▼]

This article presents a synthesis of the various biological methods used to detect residues or contaminants in foods, by insisting on their evolution during these last 25 years and by illustrating with numerous examples. The biological methods are based on the detection of a biological effect of the analyte of interest. In the years 60-70, this effect was detected by means of histology. At present, the biological tests use cells in culture genetically modified to contain a reporter gene, activated when the analyte of interest is present in the culture medium. [less ▲]

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See detailTableau clinique et mécanismes physiopathologiques des principales maladies inflammatoires chroniques des voies respiratoires du cheval
Mesnil, Claire ULg; Bureau, Fabrice ULg; Lekeux, Pierre ULg

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (2006), 150(4), 227-240

The respiratory tract of the horse can be the seat of several chronic inflammatory diseases whose principal ones are the recurrent airway obstruction, the inflammatory airway disease, the summer pasture ... [more ▼]

The respiratory tract of the horse can be the seat of several chronic inflammatory diseases whose principal ones are the recurrent airway obstruction, the inflammatory airway disease, the summer pasture-associated obstructive pulmonary disease and the follicular pharyngitis. These diseases can have an important impact on horses’ health and on their sports performances. A good knowledge of their aetiologies and their physiopathological mechanisms would allow a better control of these affections. However, even if many studies were made on this subject, there are currently very few certainties as for the inflammatory mechanisms governing these diseases. This article aims to make an inventory of knowledge and deficiencies concerning these four chronic inflammatory diseases [less ▲]

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See detailLe sélénium dans la reproduction des oiseaux
Schoonheere, Nicolas ULg; Istasse, Louis ULg

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (2006), 150(4), 203-211

Selenium is a trace element of importance for antioxidant defence in birds. It is essential for the correct selenoprotein functions implicated in many physiological processes. So, glutathione peroxidase ... [more ▼]

Selenium is a trace element of importance for antioxidant defence in birds. It is essential for the correct selenoprotein functions implicated in many physiological processes. So, glutathione peroxidase plays a central role in the antioxidant defence of the cells owing to its capacity to eliminate free radicals and to the sparing effect on other cell antioxidants. Embryo tissues and spermatozoa are particularly sensitive to oxidative attacks due to their high content in polyunsaturated fatty acids. They require thus an efficient antioxidant system during the reproduction period. A dietary selenium deficiency results in many reproduction disorders, such as, decreases of fertility and of hatchability of fertile eggs. On the other hand, excess of selenium is toxic. There is, however, a large difference between toxic dose and minimal requirements for adequate reproduction processes. Dietary selenium supplementation is thus considered as a major measure to improve reproduction parameters. [less ▲]

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See detailApplication of ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging in the evaluation of the equine podotrochlear apparatus
Busoni, Valeria ULg

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (2006), 150(Sp. Iss. SI), 10-14

Summary of a PhD thesis including main results

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See detailComparaison des performances zootechniques et du contenu en azote de l'effluent lors de l'élevage de porcs charcutiers sur caillebotis ou sur litière de paille accumulée.
Philippe, François-Xavier ULg; Laitat, Martine ULg; Vandenheede, Marc ULg et al

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (2006), 150(2), 137-144

Two identical rooms were arranged to house fattening pigs on a fully-slatted floor in one and on a straw-based deep litter in the other one. Each room was ventilated with an exhausted fan and the ... [more ▼]

Two identical rooms were arranged to house fattening pigs on a fully-slatted floor in one and on a straw-based deep litter in the other one. Each room was ventilated with an exhausted fan and the ventilation rates were adapted to have the same temperatures in the two rooms. Six successive batches of 16 pigs per pen were raised. The slurry pit was emptied and the litter removed after each fattening period. The mean daily weight gains of the pigs raised on slatted floor and on deep litter were of 742 and 729 g/day, the food conversion ratios 3.0 and 3.1 kg/kg, the lean meat percentages 59.8 and 60.0 % and the prices at slaughter 1.06 and 1.04 E/kg live weight, respectively. None of the differences was statistically significant. The amounts of slurry and manure produced were 290 and 187 kg per fattening pig, corresponding to 3.04 and 2.06 kg nitrogen per fattening pig, respectively. These differences were significant. [less ▲]

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See detailEpidémiosurveillance des événements rares chez les bovins en Belgique
Saegerman, Claude ULg

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (2006), 150(Sp. Iss. SI), 4-9

Epidémiosurveillance des événements rares chez les bovins en Belgique. Thèse de doctorat en sciences vétérinaires défendue le 29 septembre 2004.

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See detailEpidémiologie des évènements rares chez les bovins en Belgique
Saegerman, Claude ULg

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (2006), 150(spécial), 4-9

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See detailLe lipopolysaccharide d’Escherichia coli : structure, biosynthèse et rôles
Szalo, Ioan Mihai ULg; Taminiau, Bernard ULg; Mainil, Jacques ULg

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (2006), 150(2), 108-124

The lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is a major component of the surface of the Gram negative bacteria. The LPS is composed of three separately synthesized entities: the lipid A, the core oligosaccharide and the ... [more ▼]

The lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is a major component of the surface of the Gram negative bacteria. The LPS is composed of three separately synthesized entities: the lipid A, the core oligosaccharide and the O antigen, that will be linked together after their respective synthesis. The lipid A, embedded inside the outer membrane, is the proximal part of the LPS and the core is the medial part, whereas the O antigen represents the distal part free in the external environment. Amongst the Enterobacteriaceae family, the lipid A is structurally highly conserved and the variation in the structure of the core oligosaccharide is limited whereas the O antigen is the hypervariable region. Diverse biological activities have been associated with LPS, amongst which the endotoxinic activity carried by the lipid A, and the strain immunogenic specificity carried by the O antigen. In this review manuscript we summarize the state of knowledge on the structures and biosynthesis of the different components of the LPS of Escherichia coli and on their respective roles in the virulence of pathogenic bacteria. [less ▲]

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See detailEndocrinology of pregnancy in the cow: embryonic signals, placental hormones and proteins
Ayad, A.; Melo de Sousa, Noelita ULg; Hornick, Jean-Luc ULg et al

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (2006), 150(4), 212-226

The development, the establishment and the embryonic survival at early stages of gestation are depending on an intimate dialogue between the embryo and his mother. For the embryo part, it is especially ... [more ▼]

The development, the establishment and the embryonic survival at early stages of gestation are depending on an intimate dialogue between the embryo and his mother. For the embryo part, it is especially the trophoblast, or the future placenta, which plays a key role in initializing pregnancy. The placenta emits many signals of various chemical natures ( steroids, prostaglandins, peptides, proteins), some of them, e. g. the interferon tau, determine the maintenance of the corpus luteum at the beginning of gestation. Until now, although having raised many speculations, the earliest of these signals were not identified in peripheral circulation. Consequently, they cannot be used as a pregnancy diagnosis or to indicate embryonic mortality. However, since the eighties, the specific proteins "associated with pregnancy", produced by the trophoblastic cells are used as tool for breeding management. Most of these molecules are present in peripheral circulation. In this review, we will describe the major mechanisms associated with the maternal recognition of the gestation and their possible applications as pregnancy diagnosis tool in the cow. [less ▲]

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See detailInvasion intracellulaire des cellules non-phagocytaires par Staphylococcus aureus
Boulanger, Delphine; Bureau, Fabrice ULg; Lekeux, Pierre ULg

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (2006), 150(1), 27-42

Intracellular invasion of Staphyloccocus aureus in nonphagocytic cells Staphylococcus aureus often causes chronic diseases. It is now believed that recurrence of these infections could be related to the ... [more ▼]

Intracellular invasion of Staphyloccocus aureus in nonphagocytic cells Staphylococcus aureus often causes chronic diseases. It is now believed that recurrence of these infections could be related to the ability of S. aureus to invade and persist within nonphagocytic cells. Adherence to eucaryotic cells is crucial for S. aureus to invade and persist within invasion and depends on interactions between bacterial fibronectin-binding proteins, fibronectin and the host cell fibronectin receptor, integrin alpha(5)beta(1). It is currently established that fibronectin acts as a bridging molecule. Penetration of S. aureus in host cells requires also activation of protein tyrosine kinases that mediate signal transduction and actin polymerization leading to cytoskeletal rearrangements. After internalization, S. aureus either remains in membrane-bound vacuoles or appears free in the cytoplasm. After bacterial proliferation, S. aureus induces host cell apoptosis or persist inside cells as small colony variants, which represent a less virulent subpopulation of S. aureus that grows slower. Although numerous in vitro and in vivo studies have demonstrated the ability of S. aureus to invade nonphagocytic cells, additional experiments have to be realized to understand the relevance of intracellular localization in vivo. [less ▲]

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See detailLes interférons de type 1 et leur fonction antivirale
Leroy, Michael; Desmecht, Daniel ULg

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (2006), 150(2), 73-107

Type I interferons are part of the innate immune system involved in the first line defense against invasion, replication and spreading of pathogens such as viruses. Through specific membrane or ... [more ▼]

Type I interferons are part of the innate immune system involved in the first line defense against invasion, replication and spreading of pathogens such as viruses. Through specific membrane or intracellular receptors, virus entry induces the expression of type I interferons which stimulates the cells through an autocrine and paracrine manner. Interferons are polypeptides that stimulate cells through membrane receptors. They induce a cascade of events leading to the synthesis of many proteins some of which having specific antiviral properties. The most characterized are the MX proteins, the 2’5’ oligoadenylate synthetase/ ribonuclease L pathway and the double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase R system. Recently, the protein ISG20 has been involved in the specific antiviral function of type I interferons. The interferons act on multiple steps of the viral cycle including penetration, decapsidation, mRNA transcription, protein synthesis, genome replication, assembling and excretion of viral particles. Nowadays, due to their major efficiency, type I interferons are used in therapeutics against some viral infections and cancers. [less ▲]

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