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See detailDiagnostic et surveillance épidémiologique de Neospora caninum
Ghalmi, F.; China, B.; Losson, Bertrand ULg

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (2007), 151

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See detailLes kystes ovariens dans l'espèce bovine. 1. Définitions, symptômes et diagnostic
Hanzen, Christian ULg; Bascon, F.; Theron, Léonard ULg et al

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (2007), 151

An ovarian cyst is classically defined as a fluid-filled space larger than 24 mm, that can persist for more than 7 to 10 days in the absence of a corpus luteum. The frequenc y of this pathology is between ... [more ▼]

An ovarian cyst is classically defined as a fluid-filled space larger than 24 mm, that can persist for more than 7 to 10 days in the absence of a corpus luteum. The frequenc y of this pathology is between 7 to 15%. Contrary to the follicular cyst, the luteinised follicular cyst is characterized by the presence in its periphery of a luteal tissue. The ovarian cyst is a dynamic structure. Its presence doesn't interfere with the follicular waves but can modify their characteristics. An ovarian cyst results from or induces an absence of ovulation. Ovarian cyst diagnosis and especially the differential diagnosis between follicular and luteal cysts necessarily imply the use of ultrasonography to clearly identified their diameter and thickeness. The ultrasonography sensibility is better than that of transrectal palpation. Progesteronemia interpretation supposes the preliminary definition of a threshold. Behavioural(anoestrus or nymphomany), uterine(tonicity of the uterine horns) or vaginal (mucus) abnormalities can help to direct the diagnosis. [less ▲]

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See detailEndocrine disruptors in food: potential impact on human health
Scippo, Marie-Louise ULg; Maghuin-Rogister, Guy ULg

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (2007), 151(1), 44-54

Several scientific studies revealed that substances with hormonal (or antihormonal) activity are widely distributed in the environment as well as in food, either as natural constituents (as phytoestrogens ... [more ▼]

Several scientific studies revealed that substances with hormonal (or antihormonal) activity are widely distributed in the environment as well as in food, either as natural constituents (as phytoestrogens), or as substances of anthropogenic origin (for example, Several observations concerning both the wild fauna and humans indicate that these products with hormonal activity are endocrine disruptors. Numerous ecotoxicological studies evidenced important disturbances of the fertility of the wild fauna in zones contaminated by pesticides. In humans, epidemiological studies revealed a significant increase of certain cancers (among others, that of the testicles) and a decrease of the male fertility. Substances with estrogenic activity are often considered, but other hormonal effects are more and more frequently discovered (i.e. anti-androgenic). Numerous worries appear concerning the long-term effects on human health linked to a chronic exposure to these substances by food ingestion. It is urgent to review, not only on the actual contamination of our food by endocrine disruptors (in terms of identification and quantification of every individual chemical), but also the potentially toxic activity of food containing a mixture of contaminants present at levels below their individual toxicity threshold. [less ▲]

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See detailLe rôle des synoviocytes dans l’articulation diarthrodiale enflammée
Schneider, Nicole ULg; Lejeune, Jean-Philippe ULg; Deby-Dupont, Ginette et al

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (2007), 151

The degenerative osteoarthritis is a common source of disease in the horse, causing pain and leading finally to the destruction of the cartilage in the diarthrodial joints. The synovial membrane is a ... [more ▼]

The degenerative osteoarthritis is a common source of disease in the horse, causing pain and leading finally to the destruction of the cartilage in the diarthrodial joints. The synovial membrane is a constitutive element of the joint, but often neglected due to its less obvious alterations, despite its crucial role. This review of literature considers the embryology, the histology of synoviocytes in vivo and in vitro, gives information about the production of inflammatory mediators, degrading enzymes, free oxygen radicals, about the composition of the synovial fluid and the interaction with chondrocytes. The number of studies on equine synoviocytes in osteoarthritis is very restricted, therefore we included studies in other species and other types of joint diseases to achieve a more complete image of the complex, interdependent and mutual acting mechanisms. [less ▲]

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See detailLe point sur les méthodes de surveillance de la contamination microbienne des denrées alimentaires d’origine animale.
Ghafir, Yasmine; Daube, Georges ULg

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (2007), 151

Foodborne disease have an important impact on the public health. In Europe and in the USA, Salmonella and Campylobacter are the two main bacterial causes because of their presence in the intestinal tract ... [more ▼]

Foodborne disease have an important impact on the public health. In Europe and in the USA, Salmonella and Campylobacter are the two main bacterial causes because of their presence in the intestinal tract of poultry, pig and beef. For the monitoring of the bacterial contamination of food, the enumeration of certain groups or species of bacteria of intestinal origin is an alternative to the detection of the pathogenic microorganisms. They can be used as index indicating the possible presence of pathogenic agents having a similar ecology, or as indicators announcing the non-observance of the good practices. The most used are the total plate counts, E. coli and the Enterobacteriaceae. During meat production, they are counted at the level of environment, along the food chain, on carcasses at the slaughterhouse, on carcasses and in meat, in plants and distribution. Various surveys are carried out by the producers of food and the authorities for the control of the auto-control, the national inspection plans or to determine the national baseline. [less ▲]

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See detailLe diagnostic des carences en Iode et Sélénium chez les bovins
Guyot, Hugues ULg; Rollin, Frédéric ULg

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (2007), 151

Selenium and iodine deficiencies are frequently present in cattle in Europe with a negative impact on animal health, reproduction and production. Deficiencies in animals also influence human health owing ... [more ▼]

Selenium and iodine deficiencies are frequently present in cattle in Europe with a negative impact on animal health, reproduction and production. Deficiencies in animals also influence human health owing to consumption of their products. These deficiencies must be correctly diagnosed in order to avoid lack of diagnosis or wrong diagnosis. Since there are many interactions between nutrients, a nutritional approach only is of limited interest. Therefore, the diagnosis based on samples obtained on the animals is more reliable. Clinical signs of selenium and iodine deficiencies are rarely pathognomonic. Laboratory analyses are thus necessary to confirm the diagnosis. The present review relates the principal clinical signs of selenium and iodine deficiencies and the confirmation of the deficiency by the measurements of different nutritional and functional markers available for cattle, either on blood, milk, urine or tissues. Finally, a protocol for the diagnosis of selenium and iodine deficiencies is proposed [less ▲]

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See detailLa tumeur faciale transmissible du Diable de Tasmanie
Vanherberghen, Morgane ULg; Desmecht, Daniel ULg

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (2007), 151

The Tasmanian Devil is the largest carnivorous marsupial of Australia. Since 1996, this species faces an emerging transmissible and fatal disease that is characterized by eruption of tumors on the face ... [more ▼]

The Tasmanian Devil is the largest carnivorous marsupial of Australia. Since 1996, this species faces an emerging transmissible and fatal disease that is characterized by eruption of tumors on the face and the neck. Having carried 75.000 animals off in only 8 years, the Tasmanian Devil’s transmissible tumor dramatically threatens the survival of the species, which would have disastrous ecological consequences because of its key role as a predator and as a scavenger. The following text gathers the information available on the features of the disease and brings to the light its astonishing etiology and mode of transmission [less ▲]

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See detailParamètres influençant la structure et la fonction du globule rouge chez le cheval
Portier, Karine; Kirschvink, Nathalie; Fellmann, Nicole et al

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (2007), 151(2), 101-106

The erythrocyte, as an oxygen carrier, is submitted to areas where oxidative stress is important. The maintenance of the structure and fluidity of its membrane is essential to its function. Indeed, oxygen ... [more ▼]

The erythrocyte, as an oxygen carrier, is submitted to areas where oxidative stress is important. The maintenance of the structure and fluidity of its membrane is essential to its function. Indeed, oxygen must diffuse through the membrane and the deformability of the cell is essential to its progression through capillaries. The structure and, as a consequence, the fluidity of the membrane influence these properties. The red blood cell presents antioxydant capacities, but in some cases, free radical production is increased and exceeds antiradical defences leading to irreversible defects of the membrane, and, as a consequence, of its function. Horse erythrocyte seems to be more sensitive to oxidative stress than other species and resulting hemorheological changes could have tissular and organic consequences. [less ▲]

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See detailLes mécanismes d'adhérence des champignons responsables de mycoses superficielles
Baldo, Aline ULg; Mathy, Anne ULg; Vermout, S. et al

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (2007), 151

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See detailNouveaux animaux de compagnie : infections à Salmonella enterica et état sanitaire
Huybens, Nathalie ULg; Delleur, Valéry; Poulipoulis, Anastassios ULg et al

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (2006), 150(4), 241-246

Human transmission of Salmonella enterica from new companion animals is usually suspected even though very few data according Salmonella infections in these animal species are available. The prevalence of ... [more ▼]

Human transmission of Salmonella enterica from new companion animals is usually suspected even though very few data according Salmonella infections in these animal species are available. The prevalence of Salmonella enterica infections in the digestive tract of 450 new companion animals ( 45 ferrets, 7 birds, 308 rodents, 82 rabbits and 8 reptiles) coming from pet shops or individual owners was determined by bacteriological examinations of anal swabs or pooled fresh faeces. Only one Salmonella Enteritidis strain was isolated from a ferret in a pet shop. The symptomatic or asymptomatic Salmonella carriage in ferrets, rodents and rabbits is thus not as frequent as what was suspected. [less ▲]

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See detailCaractéristiques morphologiques des juments de Trait belge
Nicks, Baudouin ULg; Delfontaine, Béatrice; Canart, Bernard et al

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (2006), 150(4), 247-252

Belgian draft mares were measured when visiting their owners. The mean wither height of at least 4-year-old mares (n = 207) was 1.64 m and the girth circumference 2.22 m. Compared with the wither height ... [more ▼]

Belgian draft mares were measured when visiting their owners. The mean wither height of at least 4-year-old mares (n = 207) was 1.64 m and the girth circumference 2.22 m. Compared with the wither height, the hip height was 1 % higher (1.655 m) and the body length 8 % higher (1.775 m). The mean cannon circumference was about 30 cm. The wither height, the body length and the girth circumference of the 2-year-old mares ( n = 39) represented respectively 98 %, 96 % and 94 % of the corresponding measurements of the group of older mares ( at least 4 years old). The morphological characteristics of these last ones, compared with results published about 50 years ago, show that the wither height remained identical whereas body length and width seem to have slightly increased. [less ▲]

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See detailDegenerative osteoarthropathy in horses: pathogeny and diagnostic
Lejeune, Jean-Philippe ULg; Schneider, Nicole ULg; Henrotin, Yves ULg et al

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (2006), 150(3), 173-192

This work presents some important features of the normal articular structures and a definition of the degenerative osteo-arthropathy that points the involvement of all the joint structures. The pathogeny ... [more ▼]

This work presents some important features of the normal articular structures and a definition of the degenerative osteo-arthropathy that points the involvement of all the joint structures. The pathogeny of the pathology is tackled by the potential risk factors and by the cartilage-cartilage, synovium-cartilage and bone-cartilage cycles that lay particular emphasis on the interaction between the different joint structures. The diagnostic tools of the degenerative osteo-arthropathy like the conventional or recent imaging techniques (magnetic resonance imaging, scintigraphy and tomography) and the biomarkers of the cartilage and bone metabolisms are listed. The pathogeny of the degenerative osteo-arthropathy is complex and involves different factors. This disease is characterised by an imbalance between the anabolic and catabolic processes of the cartilage metabolism. Inflammation is also present and lead to the clinical signs. The synovitis, the liberation of degradation mediators, the mechanical stresses and/or the subchondral bone are part of the pathogeny at different degrees. The development of recent imaging techniques and the biomarkers of the cartilage and bone metabolisms allow the precise description of the lesions and give some additional information on the pathogeny of the osteo-arthropathy. These recent techniques raise new questions and allow the in-depth analysis of the study of the osteo-arthropathy. [less ▲]

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See detailInfluence of diet form and feeding equipment on feeding behaviour and performance of weaned pigs
Laitat, Martine ULg

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (2006), 150(Sp. Iss. SI), 36-39

Influence of diet form and feeding equipment on feeding behaviour and performance of weaned pigs

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See detailResidual and contaminants of alimentary commodity: 25 years of their analysis progress. 2. Biological methods of detection
Scippo, Marie-Louise ULg; Maghuin-Rogister, Guy ULg

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (2006), 150(2), 125-130

This article presents a synthesis of the various biological methods used to detect residues or contaminants in foods, by insisting on their evolution during these last 25 years and by illustrating with ... [more ▼]

This article presents a synthesis of the various biological methods used to detect residues or contaminants in foods, by insisting on their evolution during these last 25 years and by illustrating with numerous examples. The biological methods are based on the detection of a biological effect of the analyte of interest. In the years 60-70, this effect was detected by means of histology. At present, the biological tests use cells in culture genetically modified to contain a reporter gene, activated when the analyte of interest is present in the culture medium. [less ▲]

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See detailTableau clinique et mécanismes physiopathologiques des principales maladies inflammatoires chroniques des voies respiratoires du cheval
Mesnil, Claire ULg; Bureau, Fabrice ULg; Lekeux, Pierre ULg

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (2006), 150(4), 227-240

The respiratory tract of the horse can be the seat of several chronic inflammatory diseases whose principal ones are the recurrent airway obstruction, the inflammatory airway disease, the summer pasture ... [more ▼]

The respiratory tract of the horse can be the seat of several chronic inflammatory diseases whose principal ones are the recurrent airway obstruction, the inflammatory airway disease, the summer pasture-associated obstructive pulmonary disease and the follicular pharyngitis. These diseases can have an important impact on horses’ health and on their sports performances. A good knowledge of their aetiologies and their physiopathological mechanisms would allow a better control of these affections. However, even if many studies were made on this subject, there are currently very few certainties as for the inflammatory mechanisms governing these diseases. This article aims to make an inventory of knowledge and deficiencies concerning these four chronic inflammatory diseases [less ▲]

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See detailLe sélénium dans la reproduction des oiseaux
Schoonheere, Nicolas ULg; Istasse, Louis ULg

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (2006), 150(4), 203-211

Selenium is a trace element of importance for antioxidant defence in birds. It is essential for the correct selenoprotein functions implicated in many physiological processes. So, glutathione peroxidase ... [more ▼]

Selenium is a trace element of importance for antioxidant defence in birds. It is essential for the correct selenoprotein functions implicated in many physiological processes. So, glutathione peroxidase plays a central role in the antioxidant defence of the cells owing to its capacity to eliminate free radicals and to the sparing effect on other cell antioxidants. Embryo tissues and spermatozoa are particularly sensitive to oxidative attacks due to their high content in polyunsaturated fatty acids. They require thus an efficient antioxidant system during the reproduction period. A dietary selenium deficiency results in many reproduction disorders, such as, decreases of fertility and of hatchability of fertile eggs. On the other hand, excess of selenium is toxic. There is, however, a large difference between toxic dose and minimal requirements for adequate reproduction processes. Dietary selenium supplementation is thus considered as a major measure to improve reproduction parameters. [less ▲]

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See detailApplication of ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging in the evaluation of the equine podotrochlear apparatus
Busoni, Valeria ULg

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (2006), 150(Sp. Iss. SI), 10-14

Summary of a PhD thesis including main results

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See detailComparaison des performances zootechniques et du contenu en azote de l'effluent lors de l'élevage de porcs charcutiers sur caillebotis ou sur litière de paille accumulée.
Philippe, François-Xavier ULg; Laitat, Martine ULg; Vandenheede, Marc ULg et al

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (2006), 150(2), 137-144

Two identical rooms were arranged to house fattening pigs on a fully-slatted floor in one and on a straw-based deep litter in the other one. Each room was ventilated with an exhausted fan and the ... [more ▼]

Two identical rooms were arranged to house fattening pigs on a fully-slatted floor in one and on a straw-based deep litter in the other one. Each room was ventilated with an exhausted fan and the ventilation rates were adapted to have the same temperatures in the two rooms. Six successive batches of 16 pigs per pen were raised. The slurry pit was emptied and the litter removed after each fattening period. The mean daily weight gains of the pigs raised on slatted floor and on deep litter were of 742 and 729 g/day, the food conversion ratios 3.0 and 3.1 kg/kg, the lean meat percentages 59.8 and 60.0 % and the prices at slaughter 1.06 and 1.04 E/kg live weight, respectively. None of the differences was statistically significant. The amounts of slurry and manure produced were 290 and 187 kg per fattening pig, corresponding to 3.04 and 2.06 kg nitrogen per fattening pig, respectively. These differences were significant. [less ▲]

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See detailEpidémiosurveillance des événements rares chez les bovins en Belgique
Saegerman, Claude ULg

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (2006), 150(Sp. Iss. SI), 4-9

Epidémiosurveillance des événements rares chez les bovins en Belgique. Thèse de doctorat en sciences vétérinaires défendue le 29 septembre 2004.

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