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See detailL'articulation synoviale : un systeme tribologique parfait
Noble, Prisca ULg; Collin, Bernard ULg; Lecomte-Beckers, Jacqueline ULg et al

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (2010), 154(2), 83-93

The synovial joint, by load bearing and by minimal wear and minimal friction conferring, is considered as a perfect tribological system. During these last years, researchs in articular biomechanics have ... [more ▼]

The synovial joint, by load bearing and by minimal wear and minimal friction conferring, is considered as a perfect tribological system. During these last years, researchs in articular biomechanics have been performed to study how the joint friction coefficient, a dimensionless measure which represents the ratio between the frictional force on the normal force, was close to zero. Today, there is still no consensual explanation and the articular prosthesis partially imitates the biological mechanics. This review describes the composition and the general properties of the synovial joint components. Additionally, different theorical models, on the tribology of the articular triplex cartilage-synovial fluid-cartilage, are explained. [less ▲]

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See detailLes tendinopathies et desmopathies de la région métacarpienne et –tarsienne: une revue des thérapies actuelles. Première partie : la structure, les lésions du tendon et le diagnostic.
Verwilghen, Denis ULg; Gabriel, Annick ULg; Busoni, Valeria ULg et al

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (2009), 3(153), 145-155

Lesions to the horse’s tendon are very frequent and are a non negligible reason for early retirement of sport and leisure horses. For decades man has been searching for “the” treatment but unfortunately ... [more ▼]

Lesions to the horse’s tendon are very frequent and are a non negligible reason for early retirement of sport and leisure horses. For decades man has been searching for “the” treatment but unfortunately most of the known treatments have empiric bases and very few have actually proven their real efficiency. Better knowledge of tendon anatomy and pathophysiology of tendonitis together with evolutions in diagnostic techniques like ultrasonography allows us to better evaluate the improvements made in tendonitis therapies today. The first part of this article gives a review on tendon structure, tendon healing and ultrasonographic evaluation of the tendon. In the second part an overview of therapeutic options for tendonitis will be discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailChoix optimisé des plans et séquences utilisés pour l’examen par résonance magnétique du pied équin
Bolen, Géraldine ULg; Haye, Dimitri; Maquet, Nathalie et al

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (2009), 153

The purpose of this work was to establish one or several short protocols for magnetic resonance imaging of the equine cadaver foot, using the most appropriated sequences in a limited number of planes ... [more ▼]

The purpose of this work was to establish one or several short protocols for magnetic resonance imaging of the equine cadaver foot, using the most appropriated sequences in a limited number of planes, allowing the assessment of the anatomical structures. Three feet were scanned with most of the sequences used for evaluation of the osteo-articular system in seven different ection planes (1 sagittal, 3 dorsal and 3 transverse planes). The sequences and the planes in which the anatomical structures were best assessed were selected by scoring the visualization of the anatomical structures. Three short protocols are proposed. The first protocol uses spin echo sequences, one fat suppressed sequence and one sequence to evaluate the cartilage. The second adds gradient echo sequences to show the sites of haemorrhage and the articular cartilage. The third protocol adds special section planes, the first perpendicular to the distal insertion of the deep digital flexor tendon and the second perpendicular to the collateral ligaments of the distal interphalangeal joint and adds another sequence combining cartilage visualization and fat suppression. [less ▲]

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See detailUse of chips and cassava leaves in finishing guinea (Numida meleagris, L): animal performance, costs of production, Aspect of the carcass and meat quality
Dahouda, M.; Toleba, S. S.; Youssao, A. K. I. et al

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (2009), 153(2), 82-87

The effect of feed containing cassava leafs and peels was assessed on 126 local guinea fowls animal performance, production costs and meat quality over a period of 28 weeks in humid tropical climate of ... [more ▼]

The effect of feed containing cassava leafs and peels was assessed on 126 local guinea fowls animal performance, production costs and meat quality over a period of 28 weeks in humid tropical climate of the South Benin. After 12 weeks of classical feeding, animals were randomly allotted in three groups of 42 for the finishing period: the group 1 received a control diet while, in group 2, 8% and 35 % of cassava leafs and cossets were respectively incorporated, vs. 6 % and 25 % in group 3. At the end of the trial, eighteen guinea fowls per group were slaughtered in order to determine characteristics of the carcass and meat quality. Individual daily feed intake was higher in the control group than in the groups 2 and 3. Animals from control group shown higher growth rate (5.0 g/d) (P<0.05) than in groups 2 and 3. Consequently, feed conversion ratios were similar in the three groups with values of 7.5, 6.7 and 6.9, in groups 1, 2 and 3, respectively. At the end of the trial, animals in control group were heavier than those in groups 2 and 3 (P<0.05). No negative influence of cassava cossets and leaf meals was observed on carcass quality in the experimental diets. Feed costs per kg live weight were reduced by 24.6 and 21.0% in groups 2 and 3, respectively, when compared to control group. Guinea fowl production appears thus more profitable with feed containing cassava leaves and cossets. Consequently, these ingredients could be alternative sources of energy and protein, with emphasis during the finishing period. [less ▲]

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See detailL’Ardennaise: statut de la race et de ses variétés.
Moula, Nassim ULg; Antoine-Moussiaux, Nicolas ULg; Farnir, Frédéric ULg et al

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (2009), 153

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See detailMolecular biology techniques to analyze complex Bactrian populations
Huybens, Nathalie ULg; Mainil, Jacques ULg; Marlier, Didier ULg

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (2009), 153(2), 112-128

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See detailReproduction assistée dans l’espèce équine : collecte, évaluation, maturation et utilisations d’ovocytes équins
Deleuze, Stefan ULg; Ponthier, Jérôme ULg; Hanzen, Christian ULg

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (2009), 153(1), 22-30

Malgré le faible nombre d’ovocytes équins disponibles pour la recherche, des techniques de reproduction assistée récemment développées dans cette espèce permettent maintenant de produire des embryons en ... [more ▼]

Malgré le faible nombre d’ovocytes équins disponibles pour la recherche, des techniques de reproduction assistée récemment développées dans cette espèce permettent maintenant de produire des embryons en utilisant des étalons et des juments subfertiles ou même de sauvegarder leur potentiel génétique après leur mort. Cette revue de littérature décrit les aspects cliniques de la collecte d’ovocytes ex vivo ou in vivo, leur évaluation, leur maturation in vitro et leur utilisation pour le transfert intra-folliculaire ou salpyngien et l’injection intra-cytoplasmique de spermatozoïde. [less ▲]

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See detailPerformances zootechniques de la poule Ardennaise, une race ancienne pour le futur ?
Moula, Nassim ULg; Antoine-Moussiaux, Nicolas ULg; Farnir, Frédéric ULg et al

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (2009), 153(1), 66-75

Nowadays, Belgian poultry breeding is characterized by a strong biodiversity that is nevertheless greatly endangered. The present work aims at evaluating the zootechnical potential of an ancient poultry ... [more ▼]

Nowadays, Belgian poultry breeding is characterized by a strong biodiversity that is nevertheless greatly endangered. The present work aims at evaluating the zootechnical potential of an ancient poultry breed originating from the Franco-Belgian Ardennes region, the Ardennaise. This breed shows an important phenotypic variation, with 10 different varieties being recognized. This study evaluates the Ardennaise production performances and is divided into three parts: (1) the analysis of the growth and the consumption indices over a twelve weeks period, (2) the comparison of the growth over seventeen weeks in four varieties, (3) the study of eggs number and eggs weight over 70 weeks laying. The results indicate that the Ardennaise breed constitutes a good dual purpose breed that could be interestingly submitted to selection. Its use in industrial crosses for egg composition amelioration is also proposed. Lastly, this works shows the importance of extending the here developed evaluation protocol to other Belgian endangered poultry breeds to motivate the necessary conservation programs. [less ▲]

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See detailLes ressources alimentaires non-conventionnelles utilisables pour la production aviaire en Afrique : valeurs nutritionnelles et contraintes
Dahouda, M.; Toléba, S. S.; Sénou, M. et al

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (2009), 153

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See detailFood resources unconventional use for poultry production in Africa: nutritional values and constraints
Dahouda, M.; Toleba, S. S.; Senou, M. et al

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (2009), 153(1), 5-21

Numerous works are related to the use of unconventional feed resources, and particularly to Mucuna Spp., in poultry diet. This review aims at describing the context of their use, their nutritional values ... [more ▼]

Numerous works are related to the use of unconventional feed resources, and particularly to Mucuna Spp., in poultry diet. This review aims at describing the context of their use, their nutritional values and the constraints related to their upgrading, before considering the effects of the various methods of treatment on the reduction of the toxic substances that they could contain and on their chemical compositions. The methods of treatment are very variable and their standardisation should allow using them in rural area. Those feed could thus constitute an alternative to costly conventional feed usually used in poultry production. [less ▲]

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See detailLes cardiomyopathies dans l’espèce bovine
Brihoum, Mounir ULg; Rollin, Frédéric ULg; Amory, Hélène ULg

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (2009), 153(3), 156-163

Cardiomyopathies in cattle are disorders that are sometimes encountered by rural practitioner. They usually lead to cardiac dysfunction, heart failure, arrhythmias and even sudden death. Most of ... [more ▼]

Cardiomyopathies in cattle are disorders that are sometimes encountered by rural practitioner. They usually lead to cardiac dysfunction, heart failure, arrhythmias and even sudden death. Most of cardiomyopathies in cattle are of hereditary, nutritional or toxic origin. Bovine cardiomyopathies may involve only one animal as they may affect several animals of the farm and can cause considerable economic losses either in treatment costs, decrease of zootechnical performances or in mortality. The etiological variability of cardiomyopathies as well as non-specificity of clinical signs often complicate the diagnostic approach of the practitioner. In this paper, a literature review on cardiomyopathies that may occur in cattle is proposed. Their different aetiologies and clinical aspects as well as diagnostic means in affected cattle are discussed [less ▲]

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See detailLe point sur le diagnostic de l’aspergillose naso-sinusale chez le chien.
Billen, Frédéric ULg; Clercx, Cécile ULg; Peeters, Dominique ULg

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (2008), 152(2)

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See detailL'évaluation quantitative du risque microbiologique: revue de trois modèles liés à Salmonella dans les aliments.
Delhalle, Laurent ULg; Saegerman, Claude ULg; Farnir, Frédéric ULg et al

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (2008), 152

Following international agreements and european legislation, risk analysis has become a systematic approach to control the food chain safety. The microbial risks in the food chain and their consequences ... [more ▼]

Following international agreements and european legislation, risk analysis has become a systematic approach to control the food chain safety. The microbial risks in the food chain and their consequences for public health can be assessed and managed more effectively. This paper gives a general description of the risk analysis principles based on the Codex Alimentarius commission. This work highlights the advantages and disadvantages of risk analysis and also treats the problems to achieve a complete “farm to fork” model. Salmonella in different food types is taken as an example to illustrate quantitative risk assessment. Two models concerning eggs and broiler chickens developed by the World Health Organization/Food and Agriculture Organization consortium and a third model concerning pigs developed by the Veterinary Laboratories Agency of the United Kingdom are described. An analysis of the methods used for the construction of these two models is also presented. The interest of these three models is that they also include risk management options to limit the spread of food-borne infections. They also describe the final risk for a population following consumption of foodstuffs. These models are valuable tools for health officials but also for feed industry. [less ▲]

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See detailLes kystes ovariens dans l'espèce bovine 3. Aspects thérapeutiques.
Hanzen, Christian ULg; Bascon, Frédéric; Theron, Léonard ULg et al

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (2008), 152(2), 103-115

Ovarian cyst treatment and its efficacy imply to make the diagnosis as early as possible during the end of waiting period or period of reproduction of cows potentially concerned. Moreover, we must keep in ... [more ▼]

Ovarian cyst treatment and its efficacy imply to make the diagnosis as early as possible during the end of waiting period or period of reproduction of cows potentially concerned. Moreover, we must keep in mind that during the early postpartum period 38 to 80% of cysts spontaneously regress. The choice of a treatment also depends on criteria and sensitivity level of the identified (follicular or luteinized) cyst. Cysts treatment can be curative or preventive. Give an adequate level of nutrition and reduce the frequency of puerperal diseases during the postpartum period can contribute to reduce the risk of ovarian cysts. Curatively, it's possible manually to rupture or to puncture the ovarian cyst by transvaginal way using or not an ultrasonographic control. Such method can be associated with an hormonal therapy. It's also possible to treat the cyst with hormones. Classically, follicular and luteinised cysts are respectively treated by luteotrope hormones (GnRH, hCG) and by PGF2alpha. As the goal of treatment is to assume a new follicular growth, both cysts can be also treated with progestagens given by intravaginal way. During the last years, different hormonal protocols have been used. Ovsynch has been evaluated and compared with others protocols. Until now, such hormonal associations have a rather limited effect on the pregnancy rates. Moreover, they appear rather expensive. [less ▲]

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See detailLes kystes ovariens dans l'espèce bovine. 2. Rappels physiologiques et étio-pathogénie
Hanzen, Christian ULg; Bascon, F.; Theron, Léonard ULg et al

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (2008), 152

A large number of publications have been devoted to the ultrasonography and hormonal follow-up of the follicular growth. This alteration of the normal follicular growth may concern the recruited, growing ... [more ▼]

A large number of publications have been devoted to the ultrasonography and hormonal follow-up of the follicular growth. This alteration of the normal follicular growth may concern the recruited, growing or preovulatory follicles mainly during the puberty and post-partum periods. Cyst development results (i) in an endocrine inbalance of the hypothalamo-hypophysial axis: the positive feedback of oestradiol on LH is altered because of a lack in progesterone impregnation of hypothalamic receptors;(ii) in a follicular wall dysfunction. However, data on this mechanism are still lacking; (iii) in animal properties like age, milk production, energetic balance, genetics, post-partum and calving pathologies as endometritis or lameness; (iv) in environnemental factors like nutrition, season, stressfull conditions. This different factors shoud be able to disturbe the hypothalamo-hypophysial complex functions. [less ▲]

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See detailExamen échographique transcunéen post mortem de l'appareil podotrochléaire équin à l'aide des sondes linéaires et sectorielles
Schneider, Nicole ULg; Busoni, Valeria ULg; de la Rebière de Pouyade, Geoffroy ULg et al

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (2008), 152

Ultrasound has become more common in the investigation of the podotrochlear apparatus in the horse and the use of more sensible scanheads improved the quality of the images. This study shows six examples ... [more ▼]

Ultrasound has become more common in the investigation of the podotrochlear apparatus in the horse and the use of more sensible scanheads improved the quality of the images. This study shows six examples of the ultrasound anatomy of the distal podotrochlear apparatus in the transcuneal view performed with three different scanheads. The presented transcuneal scans of the podotrochlear apparatus of an 18 months old warmblood foal have been established post mortem on isolated feet. Modus of registration was real-timemotion, linear- and sectorscanheads working at 7.5 (linear) and 7.5 (microconvex) and 3.5 (convex) MHz were used. The echoanatomic structures of the soft tissue and bony surfaces in the distal podotrochlear region are compared by six images. The combination of the different scanheads permits an improved complete visualisation in this area. Therefore these ultrasound pictures show that ultrasonography is an useful complementary investigation method that enables to precise the diagnosis [less ▲]

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See detailLes aliments enrichis en matière grasse dans l’alimentation du cheval : caractéristiques, appétence et digestibilité
Delobel, Agathe; Cuvelier, Christine ULg

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (2008), 152(1), 34-46

Les publications traitant des effets métaboliques des aliments enrichis en matière grasse dans l’alimentation du cheval sont nombreuses. Cet article s’intéresse d’abord au contexte de leur utilisation et ... [more ▼]

Les publications traitant des effets métaboliques des aliments enrichis en matière grasse dans l’alimentation du cheval sont nombreuses. Cet article s’intéresse d’abord au contexte de leur utilisation et à leurs caractéristiques, avant d’envisager leurs effets sur l’appétence et la digestibilité de la ration. Bien que le vocable d’aliment enrichi en matière grasse recouvre des réalités bien différentes en termes de composition, l’examen de la littérature indique qu’ils présentent globalement une bonne appétence et que la digestibilité de la matière grasse est particulièrement élevée. Ils pourraient ainsi constituer une alternative de choix à l’utilisation de quantités importantes de céréales, dont les effets négatifs sont aujourd’hui bien documentés. [less ▲]

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