References of "Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire"
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See detailGestion de la faune sauvage au Sénégal : comparaison du Parc national du Niokolo Koba et de la Réserve privée de Bandia
Vincke, Xavier; Hornick, Jean-Luc ULg; Njikam Nsangou, Ibrahim ULg et al

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (2005), 149(4), 232-237

This work compares two dramatically different types of wildlife management in Senegal, a country threatened by poaching and deforestation : the first concerns the management of the Niokolo Koba National ... [more ▼]

This work compares two dramatically different types of wildlife management in Senegal, a country threatened by poaching and deforestation : the first concerns the management of the Niokolo Koba National Park, by a public utility service and the second, the management of the Bandia Reserve, a fenced area which surface is more than thousand times lower, by private investors. In order to do this comparison, the structure, type of management, evolution of flora and fauna, and management problems encountered for each protected area are analysed. This comparison allows to formulate some recommendations for a sustainable management of Senegalese wildlife. [less ▲]

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See detailL'haptoglobine, marqueur protéique de l'inflammation aiguë, dans l'espèce bovine
Humblet, Marie-France ULg; Godeau, Jean-Marie ULg

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (2005), 149(1), 20-33

Among acute phase proteins, haptoglobin is considered as the most interesting in cattle. Due to its early and marked increase in acute inflammation, it is useful for the diagnosis and prognosis of acute ... [more ▼]

Among acute phase proteins, haptoglobin is considered as the most interesting in cattle. Due to its early and marked increase in acute inflammation, it is useful for the diagnosis and prognosis of acute inflammation and for the evaluation of treatment. Physiological variations of its serum concentrations can be observed in the days following parturition. From very low or even undetectable concentrations, its serum levels can rise significantly during acute inflammation. Haptoglobin could improve the sanitary control of animals and the identification of pathologies even before clinical signs become apparent. It could also detect subclinical diseases and improve the sanitary control at the slaughterhouse, because haptoglobin has a good combination of specificity and sensitivity in such a context. At the herd scale, it could be used to evaluate the sanitary status in order to allocate it a quality label. [less ▲]

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See detailPrincipes des microdamiers à ADN et applications potentielles en sciences vétérinaires
Thomas, A.; Closset, Jean ULg; Bureau, Fabrice ULg et al

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (2005), 149

Microarray technology is a miniaturized biotechnological tool with potential applications for study and analysis of multiple molecular compounds as proteins, lipids, carbohydrates or nucleic acids. The ... [more ▼]

Microarray technology is a miniaturized biotechnological tool with potential applications for study and analysis of multiple molecular compounds as proteins, lipids, carbohydrates or nucleic acids. The nucleic acids microarray technology focuses interest of scientists for fifteen years because of its huge potential as regard to the scientific research, clinical diagnosis, and development of new drugs. Only DNA microarrays are investigated in this paper. Born from the conjunction of micro-electronics, biochemistry, molecular biology, and image processing, microarrays allow to analyse several thousands of genetic information simultaneously. Thanks to this new tool, it is possible in parallel to identify, to even proportion, a considerable number of nucleic acid sequences contained in a biological sample (blood, biopsy, water, food, etc). This article proposes, after having considered the operating mode of the microarrays, to understand their quality standards as well as their advantages and disadvantages. The two following parts are devoted to the place the microarrays occupy in scientific research and in the establishment of a clinical diagnosis. Finally the last part evaluates prospects the microarrays offer in veterinary sciences. [less ▲]

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See detailAcides gras et métabolisme énergétique des muscles squelettiques chez le bovin
Cuvelier, Christine ULg; Cabaraux, Jean-François ULg; Dufrasne, Isabelle ULg et al

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (2005), 149(4), 188-201

Energy metabolism of skeletal muscles in cattle is characterized by several specificities, mostly related to particularities of the digestive physiology. Energy metabolism of muscles relies on ... [more ▼]

Energy metabolism of skeletal muscles in cattle is characterized by several specificities, mostly related to particularities of the digestive physiology. Energy metabolism of muscles relies on preferential utilization of some nutrients, such as volatile fatty acids and ketone bodies on the one hand, and glucose on the other hand, the contribution of non-esterified long chain fatty acids being limited. As for other species, nutrients utilization is influenced by the nature of muscle fibers, leading to preferential metabolic pathways. Energy metabolism can be either more oxidative, oxido-glycolytic, or glycolytic. Close relationships are found between energy metabolism, chemical composition of muscle - more particularly its fat level - and organoleptic quality of meat. [less ▲]

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See detailProduction,digestion et absorption des acides gras chez le ruminant
Cuvelier, Christine ULg; Cabaraux, Jean-François ULg; Dufrasne, Isabelle ULg et al

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (2005), 149(1), 49-59

From a biochemical point of view, in ruminants, there are two major groups of fatty acids. They are firstly the volatile fatty acids from the rumen metabolism of dietary carbohydrates, and secondly the ... [more ▼]

From a biochemical point of view, in ruminants, there are two major groups of fatty acids. They are firstly the volatile fatty acids from the rumen metabolism of dietary carbohydrates, and secondly the fatty acids from the rumen metabolism of lipids. This second group is made of the fatty acids synthesized by the microorganisms of the rumen and the fatty acids originating from the hydrolysis of dietary triacylglycerols, which are mostly hydrogenated by microorganisms in the rumen before intestinal absorption. In such conditions, the absorbed fatty acids are always more saturated than the ingested fatty acids. [less ▲]

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See detailPositional cloning and genetic engineering of the myostatin gene causing double muscling in cattle
Pirottin, Dimitri ULg; Grobet, L.; Georges, Michel ULg

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (2005), 149(3), 135-147

Double-muscling in cattle is a generalised hypertrophy of skeletal muscle resulting from a hyperplasia of the myofibers. Using a positional cloning strategy, we have identified the gene underlying double ... [more ▼]

Double-muscling in cattle is a generalised hypertrophy of skeletal muscle resulting from a hyperplasia of the myofibers. Using a positional cloning strategy, we have identified the gene underlying double-muscling, namely myostatin, and causal loss-of-function mutations therein. Myostatin is a novel member of the TGF-beta superfamily of growth and differentiation factors. Using conditional gene targeting in a murine model, we have demonstrated that post-natal muscle specific inactivation of the myostatin gene causes full-blown double muscling. This demonstrates the potential value of myostatin antagonist whether to promote muscle regeneration in patients suffering from muscle wasting disease, or to enhance meat production in livestock species. Finally, by targeting a myostatin transinhibitor on the Y chromosome, we have demonstrated in the mouse the feasibility of a more efficient cattle production system combining superior beef production abilities for bulls and dairy abilities for cows. [less ▲]

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See detailL’apoptose du neutrophile
Fievez, Laurence ULg; Seumois, G.; Lekeux, Pierre ULg et al

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (2005), 149

Regulation of the neutrophil life span by apoptosis provides a fine balance between their function as effector cells of host defence and a safe turnover of these potentially harmful cells. Apoptosis is ... [more ▼]

Regulation of the neutrophil life span by apoptosis provides a fine balance between their function as effector cells of host defence and a safe turnover of these potentially harmful cells. Apoptosis is thus necessary to keep cellular homeostasis under physiologic conditions. Alterations of neutrophil apoptosis are associated with diseases such as bacterial and autoimmune inflammatory diseases where neutrophil apoptosis is delayed. Excessive production of survival factors is often observed in such inflammatory responses and neutrophil survival can be increased several fold. Cytokines withdrawal, as it occurs in the resolution phase of inflammation, leads to the induction of neutrophil apoptosis. Recent studies have shown the involvement of members of the Bcl-2 protein family and caspases in the regulation and execution of neutrophil apoptosis. Cell surface receptors and protein kinases also play critical roles in transducing the signals that result in neutrophil apoptosis or extended survival. The aim of this review is to summarise the principal molecular mechanisms and components of neutrophil apoptosis [less ▲]

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See detailTransport sanguin et métabolisme hépatique des acides gras chez le ruminant
Cuvelier, Christine ULg; Cabaraux, Jean-François ULg; Dufrasne, Isabelle ULg et al

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (2005), 149

Blood transport and hepatic metabolism of fatty acids in ruminants present several particularities. The plasma profile is characterized by a very small proportion of triacylglycerols-rich lipoproteins— ... [more ▼]

Blood transport and hepatic metabolism of fatty acids in ruminants present several particularities. The plasma profile is characterized by a very small proportion of triacylglycerols-rich lipoproteins— chylomicrons and very low density lipoproteins — and a very high proportion of high density lipoproteins, which can reach 80 % of the total lipoproteins. This distribution is concomitant with a low triacylglycerol and non esterified fatty acids plasma content, but with very high esterified cholesterol and phospholipid contents. Futhermore, the ruminant is characterized by the secretion of the majority of very low density lipoproteins at intestinal level and by a very low hepatic capacity to export triacylglycerols in these lipoproteins ; ruminant is therefore more sensible to steatosis. Moreover, the intrahepatic lipogenesis of ruminant is reduced, with as results a dependence on fatty acids blood import, the fatty acids being then directed to one of the two major pathways of intrahepatic metabolism, oxidation or esterification into triacylglycerols. [less ▲]

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See detailImpact physiologique et pathologique du stress oxydant chez le cheval
De Moffarts, Brieuc; Kirschvink, Nathalie; Pincemail, Joël ULg et al

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (2005), 149(1), 1-9

Oxidative stress has become of increasing interest in research and in equine and human medicine. If the pro-oxidant burden overwhelms the endogenous antioxidant defence of the organism, the arising ... [more ▼]

Oxidative stress has become of increasing interest in research and in equine and human medicine. If the pro-oxidant burden overwhelms the endogenous antioxidant defence of the organism, the arising imbalance between pro- and antioxidants is defined as oxidative stress. Different pathways might increase the generation of reactive oxygen species ( ROS) and results in oxidative stress. In physiological conditions, like during moderated exercise, the balance between ROS production and antioxidants allows to maintain an optimal organic function. In the light of the potentially deleterious role of excessive ROS production and the evidence that exercise-induced oxidative stress occurs in horses, the assessment of the antioxidant status should be considered in sport horses. Recent researches indicate that oxidative stress may play a role in physiopathology of several pathological syndromes in horses. Therefore, with classical treatment, the controlled administration of antioxidants appears interesting for the modulation of these processes, as well as in sport horses during intense exercise period. [less ▲]

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See detailNecrotoxigenic Escherichia coli : study of the roles of CNF2 and CDT-III toxins in an experimental model of infection in calves
Mainil, Jacques ULg

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (2005), 149(Sp. Iss. SI), 46-48

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See detailA comparison of somatic cell count and antimicrobial susceptibility of subclinical mastitis pathogens in organic and conventional dairy herds
Boutet, Philippe; Detilleux, Johann ULg; Motkin, Michel ULg et al

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (2005), 149(3), 173-182

A comparison of somatic cell count and antimicrobial susceptibility of subclinical mastitis pathogens in organic and conventional dairy herds.Bovine subclinical mastitis is the most important disease ... [more ▼]

A comparison of somatic cell count and antimicrobial susceptibility of subclinical mastitis pathogens in organic and conventional dairy herds.Bovine subclinical mastitis is the most important disease affecting dairy cows. The fluctuating increase in somatic cell count (SCC) that occurs causes major economic losses in dairy industry. This comparative study between conventional and organic dairy herds was conducted in the aim to better characterize which consequences might have different management practices on SCC but also on the frequency of pathogens isolated and their antimicrobial susceptibility. Four conventional and four organic herds, with bulk milk SCC >300x103cells/ml were selected, in which respectively 47 and 44 cows were investigated. Each quarter was sampled 3 times at 15 days interval for SCC, microbiological analysis and antimicrobial susceptibility. In both herd categories, major pathogens isolated were by order of importance Streptococcus uberis, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus dysgalactiae with a great impact on SCC. Coagulase negative staphylococci were the most frequent minor germs and had a moderated but real impact on SCC. In certified organic dairy farms, the three most frequently isolated major pathogens were significantly more susceptible to antimicrobials in vitro. This study suggests that the limited use of antibiotics in organic dairy herds could explain, at least in part, the lower resistance obtained from analysed isolates. [less ▲]

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See detailMaladies infectieuses et micro-organismes : de la préhistoire aux postulats de Koch - grande et petite histoire
Mainil, Jacques ULg

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (2005), 149C(Special issue), 3-4

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See detailSalmonella spp. in food of animal origin: a continuous threat for public health?
Korsak Koulagenko, Nicolas ULg; Clinquart, Antoine ULg; Daube, Georges ULg

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (2004), 148(4), 174-193

Salmonella is a mesophilic bacterium that share common characteristics with Enterobacteriaceae. Two species are described: Salmonella enterica and Salmonella bongori. Beside the fact that the infection in ... [more ▼]

Salmonella is a mesophilic bacterium that share common characteristics with Enterobacteriaceae. Two species are described: Salmonella enterica and Salmonella bongori. Beside the fact that the infection in host cells requires type III secretion-systems, little is known, at present, about virulence mechanisms. Among the cultural detection methods, the use of semi-solid media seems more efficient than the others for Salmonella recovery. The techniques based on genetic amplification may be useful in order to further characterize the isolated strains. Salmonella can be isolated from the intestine of numerous animal species and its survival in the surroundings may be quite long. Several serotypes may cause clinical salmonellosis while others may be responsible for animal species of a carrier state. In this abstract, the influence of swine production system will be developed. The sustainable and ongoing surveillance are justified by the fact that Salmonella leads to numerous foodborne cases and outbreaks and is responsible of important economic and social costs. This surveillance aims to improve the sanitary quality of food from "farm to fork". The preventive methods available for the pre-harvest production step and for the slaughterhouse will be also evoked. [less ▲]

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See detailEctopic ureters in the dog: literature review and case reports in 3 male dogs
Pollaci, Elsa; Balligand, Marc; Hamaide, Annick ULg

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (2004), 148(2), 103-109

Ureteral ectopia is a congenital abnormality in which one or both ureters does not open into the bladder. This is the most common cause of urinary incontinence in the immature bitch, but is rarely ... [more ▼]

Ureteral ectopia is a congenital abnormality in which one or both ureters does not open into the bladder. This is the most common cause of urinary incontinence in the immature bitch, but is rarely diagnosed in the male dog. Some breeds are predisposed (Siberian Husky, Labrador, Golden Retriever). Typical clinical signs are a continuous (but sometimes intermittent) leakage of urine since birth, although micturition can be normal. Other associated congenital abnormalities can be present (hydronephrosis, double vagina, cryptorchidism). Diagnostic techniques include excretory urography coupled with a pneumocystography, vaginourethrography, cystoscopy, vaginoscopy, and ultrasonography. Ectopic ureters can be unilateral (most commonly) or bilateral, and they are either intramural or extramural. Surgical correction is the treatment of choice. After a successful surgery, some patients can still show some degree of incontinence, due to the presence of urethral sphincter mechanism incompetence. This residual incontinence can be resolved in the majority of the cases with the use of alpha-adrenergic agents. [less ▲]

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See detailRecent data on a current zoonosis: alveolar echinococcosis due to Echinococcus multilocularis
Hanosset, Régis; Mignon, Bernard ULg; Losson, Bertrand ULg

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (2004), 148(4), 153-167

E. multilocularis is a small tapeworm which uses different species of foxes and rodents as final and intermediate hosts respectively. In humans, infection with the metacestode stage can result in a ... [more ▼]

E. multilocularis is a small tapeworm which uses different species of foxes and rodents as final and intermediate hosts respectively. In humans, infection with the metacestode stage can result in a potentially lethal liver condition named alveolar echinococcosis (AE). Recent studies in central Europe have show that E. multilocularis has a wider geographic range than previously anticipated. By the end of the 1980s, endemic areas of E. multilocularis were know to exist in only four countries, but now the parasite is present in at least 14 European countries. This paper provide recent data on the biology of E. multilocularis, the epidemiology of AE and the different tools which are available to treat or prevent this disease which seems in apparent extension. [less ▲]

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See detailRisk evaluation of the transmission of the avian influenza virus to humans
Saegerman, Claude ULg; Meulemans, G.; Van Reeth, K. et al

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (2004), 148(2), 65-77

Since mid-december 2003, an epizootic of highly pathogenic avian influenza (type A, sub-type H5N1) occurs in eastern and south-eastern Asia. This epizootic is historically unprecedented in its virulence ... [more ▼]

Since mid-december 2003, an epizootic of highly pathogenic avian influenza (type A, sub-type H5N1) occurs in eastern and south-eastern Asia. This epizootic is historically unprecedented in its virulence, geographical spread, and economic consequences for the agricultural sector. Implications for human health were registered in Vietnam and in Thailand. This paper summarizes the current knowledge about the risk evaluation of the transmission of avian influenza virus to humans. The current asian epizootic has highlighted the key role of global health information systems and also the need for exhaustive notification of human and animal cases. It reinforces the concept of veterinary public health. [less ▲]

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See detailFacteurs influençant la consommation alimentaire et les performances zootechniques du porc sevré: perception et caractéristiques de l'aliment
Laitat, Martine ULg; De Jaeger, F.; Vandenheede, Marc ULg et al

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (2004), 148(1), 15-29

Weaning is a critical period for piglets. Promoting solid food ingestion in the farrowing pen and early after weaning is essential to optimise piglets' performance, health and welfare. A lot of papers ... [more ▼]

Weaning is a critical period for piglets. Promoting solid food ingestion in the farrowing pen and early after weaning is essential to optimise piglets' performance, health and welfare. A lot of papers report studies about pigs' perception of the feed's organoleptic properties. Pigs are attracted by specific flavors and show taste acuity for the five basic stimuli. The choice of pigs for a diet formulation is mainly based on the protein content of the food and the absence of toxin or anti-nutritional contaminants. They also tend to prefer eating pellets and crumbles rather than meal. Weaned pigs readily accept liquid feed. Wet/dry feeders give the possibility to the pigs to mix water and food at the same place and notably allow them to eat faster when they are fed meal. However, wet feeding may induce greater food wastage. The influence of food visual aspect on feed intake in pigs has been little assessed. Visual and auditory stimuli produced by the feeding behaviour of penmates have although a better-known impact on feed intake in this species. [less ▲]

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See detailCaractéristiques techniques et aspects environnementaux de l’élevage de porcs charcutiers et de porcelets sevrés sur litières accumulées
Nicks, Baudouin ULg

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (2004), 148(1), 31-38

The technique of raising pigs on deep litter consists of leaving the animals on a 30 to 50 cm depth of straw or sawdust which can be used for several batches. This article gives a synthesis on ... [more ▼]

The technique of raising pigs on deep litter consists of leaving the animals on a 30 to 50 cm depth of straw or sawdust which can be used for several batches. This article gives a synthesis on experimental results on rearing 3 to 4 successive batches of fattening pigs or 5 to 6 batches of weaned pigs on straw-based or sawdust-based deep litters. For fattening pigs, this rearing technique required on average 80 kg of sawdust or 45 kg of straw per pig and produced, on average, 123 kg per pig of sawdust-based compost or 159 kg per pig of straw-based manure with a nitrogen content of 1.29 kg and 1.87 kg respectively. For weaned pigs, the rearing technique required on average 15 kg of sawdust or 6 kg of straw per pig and produced, on average, 17 kg of sawdust-based compost per pig or an equivalent quantity of straw-based manure with a nitrogen content of 177 g and 210 g respectively. The cumulative greenhouse gases emissions (CO2, CH4, N2O), calculated in CO2 equivalents, were higher with sawdust-based litter than with straw-based litter of 42 % during fattening periods and of 53% during post-weaning periods. On the contrary, NH3 emissions were higher from the strawbased litter than from the sawdust-based litter but only during post- weaning periods (+ 160 %), not during fattening periods. None of the two litters presents a decisive advantage on the other on an environmental point of view. [less ▲]

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See detailDeux protocoles d’hyperimmunisation au moyen de vaccins marqués réduisent l’incidence de séroconversion envers l’herpèsvirus bovin 1 en cheptels laitiers : résultats d’une étude sur le terrain
Dispas, M.; Lemaire, Mylène; Speybroeck, N. et al

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (2004), 148(1), 47-61

A 28 months long cohort study was organized in dairy herds in Belgium, to assess the efficacy of hyperimmunisation as a tool for the control of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis. Two protocols of ... [more ▼]

A 28 months long cohort study was organized in dairy herds in Belgium, to assess the efficacy of hyperimmunisation as a tool for the control of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis. Two protocols of hyperimmunisation in which glycoprotein-E deleted marker vaccines were repeatedly administered were compared to a positive control group in which the usual vaccination protocols were authorised. The two hyperimmunisation protocols differed in the primovaccination : the first group was treated with an attenuated vaccine firstly given intra-nasally then by intramuscular route whereas the second group was given an inactivated vaccine by subcutaneous injection. Afterwards, booster vaccinations were the same in both groups : an inactivated vaccine was administered by subcutaneous route every 6 months. In the control group, as a rule, part of the herd was vaccinated annually. For each group, 6 half-yearly reports specify : 1. the evolution of the population, categorized by birth half-year, 2. the incidence of seroconversion against gE in the cohorts and 3. the evolution of the gE seroprevalence. The survival curves of the hyperimmunised groups show a significantly higher proportion (P < 0,001) of animals remaining seronegative against glycoprotein- E compared to the positive control group. No significant difference was shown between the two protocols of hyperimmunisation. Both of them could then be used as tools for the control of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis. [less ▲]

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