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See detailL’apoptose du neutrophile
Fievez, Laurence ULg; Seumois, G.; Lekeux, Pierre ULg et al

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (2005), 149

Regulation of the neutrophil life span by apoptosis provides a fine balance between their function as effector cells of host defence and a safe turnover of these potentially harmful cells. Apoptosis is ... [more ▼]

Regulation of the neutrophil life span by apoptosis provides a fine balance between their function as effector cells of host defence and a safe turnover of these potentially harmful cells. Apoptosis is thus necessary to keep cellular homeostasis under physiologic conditions. Alterations of neutrophil apoptosis are associated with diseases such as bacterial and autoimmune inflammatory diseases where neutrophil apoptosis is delayed. Excessive production of survival factors is often observed in such inflammatory responses and neutrophil survival can be increased several fold. Cytokines withdrawal, as it occurs in the resolution phase of inflammation, leads to the induction of neutrophil apoptosis. Recent studies have shown the involvement of members of the Bcl-2 protein family and caspases in the regulation and execution of neutrophil apoptosis. Cell surface receptors and protein kinases also play critical roles in transducing the signals that result in neutrophil apoptosis or extended survival. The aim of this review is to summarise the principal molecular mechanisms and components of neutrophil apoptosis [less ▲]

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See detailTransport sanguin et métabolisme hépatique des acides gras chez le ruminant
Cuvelier, Christine ULg; Cabaraux, Jean-François ULg; Dufrasne, Isabelle ULg et al

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (2005), 149

Blood transport and hepatic metabolism of fatty acids in ruminants present several particularities. The plasma profile is characterized by a very small proportion of triacylglycerols-rich lipoproteins— ... [more ▼]

Blood transport and hepatic metabolism of fatty acids in ruminants present several particularities. The plasma profile is characterized by a very small proportion of triacylglycerols-rich lipoproteins— chylomicrons and very low density lipoproteins — and a very high proportion of high density lipoproteins, which can reach 80 % of the total lipoproteins. This distribution is concomitant with a low triacylglycerol and non esterified fatty acids plasma content, but with very high esterified cholesterol and phospholipid contents. Futhermore, the ruminant is characterized by the secretion of the majority of very low density lipoproteins at intestinal level and by a very low hepatic capacity to export triacylglycerols in these lipoproteins ; ruminant is therefore more sensible to steatosis. Moreover, the intrahepatic lipogenesis of ruminant is reduced, with as results a dependence on fatty acids blood import, the fatty acids being then directed to one of the two major pathways of intrahepatic metabolism, oxidation or esterification into triacylglycerols. [less ▲]

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See detailImpact physiologique et pathologique du stress oxydant chez le cheval
De Moffarts, Brieuc; Kirschvink, Nathalie; Pincemail, Joël ULg et al

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (2005), 149(1), 1-9

Oxidative stress has become of increasing interest in research and in equine and human medicine. If the pro-oxidant burden overwhelms the endogenous antioxidant defence of the organism, the arising ... [more ▼]

Oxidative stress has become of increasing interest in research and in equine and human medicine. If the pro-oxidant burden overwhelms the endogenous antioxidant defence of the organism, the arising imbalance between pro- and antioxidants is defined as oxidative stress. Different pathways might increase the generation of reactive oxygen species ( ROS) and results in oxidative stress. In physiological conditions, like during moderated exercise, the balance between ROS production and antioxidants allows to maintain an optimal organic function. In the light of the potentially deleterious role of excessive ROS production and the evidence that exercise-induced oxidative stress occurs in horses, the assessment of the antioxidant status should be considered in sport horses. Recent researches indicate that oxidative stress may play a role in physiopathology of several pathological syndromes in horses. Therefore, with classical treatment, the controlled administration of antioxidants appears interesting for the modulation of these processes, as well as in sport horses during intense exercise period. [less ▲]

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See detailSalmonella spp. in food of animal origin: a continuous threat for public health?
Korsak Koulagenko, Nicolas ULg; Clinquart, Antoine ULg; Daube, Georges ULg

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (2004), 148(4), 174-193

Salmonella is a mesophilic bacterium that share common characteristics with Enterobacteriaceae. Two species are described: Salmonella enterica and Salmonella bongori. Beside the fact that the infection in ... [more ▼]

Salmonella is a mesophilic bacterium that share common characteristics with Enterobacteriaceae. Two species are described: Salmonella enterica and Salmonella bongori. Beside the fact that the infection in host cells requires type III secretion-systems, little is known, at present, about virulence mechanisms. Among the cultural detection methods, the use of semi-solid media seems more efficient than the others for Salmonella recovery. The techniques based on genetic amplification may be useful in order to further characterize the isolated strains. Salmonella can be isolated from the intestine of numerous animal species and its survival in the surroundings may be quite long. Several serotypes may cause clinical salmonellosis while others may be responsible for animal species of a carrier state. In this abstract, the influence of swine production system will be developed. The sustainable and ongoing surveillance are justified by the fact that Salmonella leads to numerous foodborne cases and outbreaks and is responsible of important economic and social costs. This surveillance aims to improve the sanitary quality of food from "farm to fork". The preventive methods available for the pre-harvest production step and for the slaughterhouse will be also evoked. [less ▲]

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See detailEctopic ureters in the dog: literature review and case reports in 3 male dogs
Pollaci, Elsa; Balligand, Marc; Hamaide, Annick ULg

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (2004), 148(2), 103-109

Ureteral ectopia is a congenital abnormality in which one or both ureters does not open into the bladder. This is the most common cause of urinary incontinence in the immature bitch, but is rarely ... [more ▼]

Ureteral ectopia is a congenital abnormality in which one or both ureters does not open into the bladder. This is the most common cause of urinary incontinence in the immature bitch, but is rarely diagnosed in the male dog. Some breeds are predisposed (Siberian Husky, Labrador, Golden Retriever). Typical clinical signs are a continuous (but sometimes intermittent) leakage of urine since birth, although micturition can be normal. Other associated congenital abnormalities can be present (hydronephrosis, double vagina, cryptorchidism). Diagnostic techniques include excretory urography coupled with a pneumocystography, vaginourethrography, cystoscopy, vaginoscopy, and ultrasonography. Ectopic ureters can be unilateral (most commonly) or bilateral, and they are either intramural or extramural. Surgical correction is the treatment of choice. After a successful surgery, some patients can still show some degree of incontinence, due to the presence of urethral sphincter mechanism incompetence. This residual incontinence can be resolved in the majority of the cases with the use of alpha-adrenergic agents. [less ▲]

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See detailRisk evaluation of the transmission of the avian influenza virus to humans
Saegerman, Claude ULg; Meulemans, G.; Van Reeth, K. et al

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (2004), 148(2), 65-77

Since mid-december 2003, an epizootic of highly pathogenic avian influenza (type A, sub-type H5N1) occurs in eastern and south-eastern Asia. This epizootic is historically unprecedented in its virulence ... [more ▼]

Since mid-december 2003, an epizootic of highly pathogenic avian influenza (type A, sub-type H5N1) occurs in eastern and south-eastern Asia. This epizootic is historically unprecedented in its virulence, geographical spread, and economic consequences for the agricultural sector. Implications for human health were registered in Vietnam and in Thailand. This paper summarizes the current knowledge about the risk evaluation of the transmission of avian influenza virus to humans. The current asian epizootic has highlighted the key role of global health information systems and also the need for exhaustive notification of human and animal cases. It reinforces the concept of veterinary public health. [less ▲]

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See detailFacteurs influençant la consommation alimentaire et les performances zootechniques du porc sevré: perception et caractéristiques de l'aliment
Laitat, Martine ULg; De Jaeger, F.; Vandenheede, Marc ULg et al

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (2004), 148(1), 15-29

Weaning is a critical period for piglets. Promoting solid food ingestion in the farrowing pen and early after weaning is essential to optimise piglets' performance, health and welfare. A lot of papers ... [more ▼]

Weaning is a critical period for piglets. Promoting solid food ingestion in the farrowing pen and early after weaning is essential to optimise piglets' performance, health and welfare. A lot of papers report studies about pigs' perception of the feed's organoleptic properties. Pigs are attracted by specific flavors and show taste acuity for the five basic stimuli. The choice of pigs for a diet formulation is mainly based on the protein content of the food and the absence of toxin or anti-nutritional contaminants. They also tend to prefer eating pellets and crumbles rather than meal. Weaned pigs readily accept liquid feed. Wet/dry feeders give the possibility to the pigs to mix water and food at the same place and notably allow them to eat faster when they are fed meal. However, wet feeding may induce greater food wastage. The influence of food visual aspect on feed intake in pigs has been little assessed. Visual and auditory stimuli produced by the feeding behaviour of penmates have although a better-known impact on feed intake in this species. [less ▲]

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See detailCaractéristiques techniques et aspects environnementaux de l’élevage de porcs charcutiers et de porcelets sevrés sur litières accumulées
Nicks, Baudouin ULg

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (2004), 148(1), 31-38

The technique of raising pigs on deep litter consists of leaving the animals on a 30 to 50 cm depth of straw or sawdust which can be used for several batches. This article gives a synthesis on ... [more ▼]

The technique of raising pigs on deep litter consists of leaving the animals on a 30 to 50 cm depth of straw or sawdust which can be used for several batches. This article gives a synthesis on experimental results on rearing 3 to 4 successive batches of fattening pigs or 5 to 6 batches of weaned pigs on straw-based or sawdust-based deep litters. For fattening pigs, this rearing technique required on average 80 kg of sawdust or 45 kg of straw per pig and produced, on average, 123 kg per pig of sawdust-based compost or 159 kg per pig of straw-based manure with a nitrogen content of 1.29 kg and 1.87 kg respectively. For weaned pigs, the rearing technique required on average 15 kg of sawdust or 6 kg of straw per pig and produced, on average, 17 kg of sawdust-based compost per pig or an equivalent quantity of straw-based manure with a nitrogen content of 177 g and 210 g respectively. The cumulative greenhouse gases emissions (CO2, CH4, N2O), calculated in CO2 equivalents, were higher with sawdust-based litter than with straw-based litter of 42 % during fattening periods and of 53% during post-weaning periods. On the contrary, NH3 emissions were higher from the strawbased litter than from the sawdust-based litter but only during post- weaning periods (+ 160 %), not during fattening periods. None of the two litters presents a decisive advantage on the other on an environmental point of view. [less ▲]

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See detailDeux protocoles d’hyperimmunisation au moyen de vaccins marqués réduisent l’incidence de séroconversion envers l’herpèsvirus bovin 1 en cheptels laitiers : résultats d’une étude sur le terrain
Dispas, M.; Lemaire, Mylène; Speybroeck, N. et al

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (2004), 148(1), 47-61

A 28 months long cohort study was organized in dairy herds in Belgium, to assess the efficacy of hyperimmunisation as a tool for the control of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis. Two protocols of ... [more ▼]

A 28 months long cohort study was organized in dairy herds in Belgium, to assess the efficacy of hyperimmunisation as a tool for the control of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis. Two protocols of hyperimmunisation in which glycoprotein-E deleted marker vaccines were repeatedly administered were compared to a positive control group in which the usual vaccination protocols were authorised. The two hyperimmunisation protocols differed in the primovaccination : the first group was treated with an attenuated vaccine firstly given intra-nasally then by intramuscular route whereas the second group was given an inactivated vaccine by subcutaneous injection. Afterwards, booster vaccinations were the same in both groups : an inactivated vaccine was administered by subcutaneous route every 6 months. In the control group, as a rule, part of the herd was vaccinated annually. For each group, 6 half-yearly reports specify : 1. the evolution of the population, categorized by birth half-year, 2. the incidence of seroconversion against gE in the cohorts and 3. the evolution of the gE seroprevalence. The survival curves of the hyperimmunised groups show a significantly higher proportion (P < 0,001) of animals remaining seronegative against glycoprotein- E compared to the positive control group. No significant difference was shown between the two protocols of hyperimmunisation. Both of them could then be used as tools for the control of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis. [less ▲]

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See detailVirulence factors and specific properties of invasive Escherichia coli : IV) Necrotoxigenic strains
Mainil, Jacques ULg; Van Bost, S.

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (2004), 148(3), 121-132

Escherichia coli bacterial species is subdivided into several pathogen strains in man and animals, on the basis of their specific properties and factors which are responsible for their virulence. The ... [more ▼]

Escherichia coli bacterial species is subdivided into several pathogen strains in man and animals, on the basis of their specific properties and factors which are responsible for their virulence. The pathogenic strains are classically subdivided into strains with intestinal tropism (enterotoxigenic, enteropathogenic, enterohaemmorrhagic, verotoxigenic and enteroinvasive) and with extraintestinal tropism (uropathogenic and invasive). Invasive strains cause septicaemia and/or bacteraemia with localisations in different internal organs (systemic infections). If specific virulence properties and factors of strains with intestinal tropism are quite well known and described, those of strains with extraintestinal tropism are much less characterised, especially in animals. The purpose of this series of review articles is to present the current knowledge on specific properties and factors of extraintestinal strains. The first three manuscripts reviewed the characteristics of adhesins and colonisation factors, transmucosal transfer, survival in blood and internal organs, and toxicity. After the presentation of the animal and human invasive E. coli, this fourth manuscript reviews the current knowledge on the necrotoxigenic strains and finishes with a discussion on the meaning of the bacterial virulence in general. [less ▲]

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See detailRecent data on a current zoonosis: alveolar echinococcus due to Echinococcus multilocularis
Hanosset, Régis; Mignon, Bernard ULg; Losson, Bertrand ULg

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (2004), 148(4), 153-167

E. multilocularis is a small tapeworm which uses different species of foxes and rodents as final and intermediate hosts respectively. In humans, infection with the metacestode stage can result in a ... [more ▼]

E. multilocularis is a small tapeworm which uses different species of foxes and rodents as final and intermediate hosts respectively. In humans, infection with the metacestode stage can result in a potentially lethal liver condition named alveolar echinococcosis (AE). Recent studies in central Europe have show that E. multilocularis has a wider geographic range than previously anticipated. By the end of the 1980s, endemic areas of E. multilocularis were know to exist in only four countries, but now the parasite is present in at least 14 European countries. This paper provide recent data on the biology of E. multilocularis, the epidemiology of AE and the different tools which are available to treat or prevent this disease which seems in apparent extension. [less ▲]

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See detailErgot poisoning in cattle
Brihoum, M.; Desmecht, Daniel ULg; Bony, S. et al

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (2004), 148(2), 97-101

In addition to the financial losses that ergot ( Claviceps purpurea) contamination causes in crops, the ingestion of ergot-contaminated food by cattle results in an intoxication that develops in several ... [more ▼]

In addition to the financial losses that ergot ( Claviceps purpurea) contamination causes in crops, the ingestion of ergot-contaminated food by cattle results in an intoxication that develops in several patterns. The observed clinical troubles may involve different systems. In this paper, we reviewed the clinical signs observed in ergot-poisoned cattle and some diagnostic and prevention aspects. [less ▲]

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See detailLa bronchopneumopathie éosinophilique idiopathique canine : revue de la littérature
Peeters, Dominique ULg; Clercx, Cécile ULg

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (2004), 148(3), 115-120

Several diseases characterized by pulmonary eosinophilic infiltrates are described in the dog, but a clear and accepted classification of these disorders is lacking. In the present paper, we briefly ... [more ▼]

Several diseases characterized by pulmonary eosinophilic infiltrates are described in the dog, but a clear and accepted classification of these disorders is lacking. In the present paper, we briefly review most of these conditions through a classification based on the cause of the eosinophilic infiltrate. A complete literature review of canine idiopathic eosinophilic bronchopneumopathy is also included in the paper. [less ▲]

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See detailL’aspergillose naso-sinusale dans l’espèce canine
Peeters, Dominique ULg; Clercx, Cécile ULg

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (2004), 148(4), 168-173

Canine sino-nasal aspergillosis is a common cause of chronic nasal discharge. The pathogenesis of the disease is not well understood but factors associated to the fungus and to the host are implicated ... [more ▼]

Canine sino-nasal aspergillosis is a common cause of chronic nasal discharge. The pathogenesis of the disease is not well understood but factors associated to the fungus and to the host are implicated. Even if computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging have been proved valuable in differentiating sino-nasal aspergillosis from neoplasia, the definitive diagnosis of the disease requires visualisation of the fungus either by rhinoscopy, cytology or histology. The best treatment involves topical administration of antifungal drugs. The long-term prognosis is guarded to good. [less ▲]

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See detailLa contamination de la filière laitière par les mycotoxines : un risque pour la santé publique en Afrique subsaharienne
Ruppol, Patrick; Delfosse, Philippe; Hornick, Jean-Luc ULg

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (2004), 148(3), 141-146

Mycotoxins are toxic metabolites produced by some fungi developing on several agricultural commodities. In sub-Saharan Africa, the recent changes in feeding practices increase the risk of contamination ... [more ▼]

Mycotoxins are toxic metabolites produced by some fungi developing on several agricultural commodities. In sub-Saharan Africa, the recent changes in feeding practices increase the risk of contamination for dairy cattle and subsequently the passage of mycotoxins in the food chain. Aflatoxins are the major mycotoxins known to enter into milk and many milk-based foods. The naturally occurring aflatoxin B is (bio-) transformed by mammals into various metabolites including the aflatoxin M excreted in milk. Food processing aiming at long term food storage (sterilization, pasteurisation, freeze-drying.) do not alter, or only slightly, the toxicity of aflatoxins. The best option to reduce milk contamination is to prevent the introduction of contaminated feed in the dairy cattle diet. Very little information is available on the flux and modifications of mycotoxins (synthesis, alteration, dilution or concentration) during the processing of milk and milk-based products. Therefore this field of research is given a high priority by the scientific community. [less ▲]

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See detailMorphology, growth and modelling of bone tissue
Toppets, Vinciane ULg; Pastoret, V.; De Behr, V. et al

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (2004), 148(1), 1-13

Bone is an essential part of the squeletton. Besides its mechanic properties, bone has an important role in metabolism regulation because it acts as a reservoir for the storage of minerals essential to ... [more ▼]

Bone is an essential part of the squeletton. Besides its mechanic properties, bone has an important role in metabolism regulation because it acts as a reservoir for the storage of minerals essential to provide homeostasy. This article describes bone morphology and different ways of classification of this tissue. It gives the composition of organic and mineral extracellular bone matrix, underlines the dynamic character of bone tissue, details the cellular morphology and the metabolism of the elements acting on the synthesis/resorption mechanisms : osteoprogenitor cells, osteoblasts, osteocyts and osteoclasts. It relates the histogenesis of bone tissue and develops the different types of ossification: intramembranous, periostic, endochondral and osteonal remodeling. The last part of this article describe some dietetary and hormonal influences on bone tissue. [less ▲]

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See detailEtude de l'entérotoxémie bovine en Belgique. III. Comparaison de différents protocoles d'immunisation contre la toxine alpha de Clostridium perfringens
Manteca, Christophe; Ginter, Annita; Limbourg, Bernard et al

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (2004), 148(3), 147-152

Previous surveys demonstrated the association between the bovine enterotoxaemia syndrome and proliferation of Clostridium perfringens toxintype A. The purpose of this study was to establish rules for ... [more ▼]

Previous surveys demonstrated the association between the bovine enterotoxaemia syndrome and proliferation of Clostridium perfringens toxintype A. The purpose of this study was to establish rules for vaccination of calves against the a toxin. Bovines were Belgian Blue (BBB) or BBB x Charolais originating from 6 farms with no history of clostridial vaccination. One hundred and thirty-three calves were injected with Tasvax (R) and 70 with Miloxan (R) at one and two months of age, while 94 calves received no vaccine. To study sero-conversion in calves born from vaccinated dams, 67 cows were vaccinated with Tasvax at 7 and 8 months pregnancy. Twenty-nine calves born from these cows were vaccinated at one and two months of age with the same vaccine while 38 calves were not vaccinated. The results of these 67 calves were also compared to the results obtained from the calves born from non-vaccinated cows and vaccinated with Tasvax. Anti-alpha toxin antibodies were measured using an indirect ELISA assay. Anti-alpha toxin antibodies are naturally present in the serums of non vaccinated animals and are transferred to the newborn calf by the colostrum. The two vaccinal injections cause sero-conversions in proportion of the total amount of immunogen received. The best protocol for calf vaccination is a first injection at one month of age, followed by a booster injection four weeks later. Boosters every six months are necessary to maintain a high level of antibody. In case of early problems (< 2 months of age) of enterotoxaemia in a farm, high antibody titres are obtained only following the vaccination of the pregnant cow and colostral transfer. Unfortunately this protocol is not compatible with vaccination of the calf itself. [less ▲]

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See detailAcides gras : nomenclature et sources alimentaires
Cuvelier, Christine ULg; Cabaraux, Jean-François ULg; Dufrasne, Isabelle ULg et al

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (2004), 148(3), 133-140

Fatty acids are member of the lipid family. They are aliphatic monocarboxylic acids with or without double bond. They are classified according different nomenclatures : the international systematic name ... [more ▼]

Fatty acids are member of the lipid family. They are aliphatic monocarboxylic acids with or without double bond. They are classified according different nomenclatures : the international systematic name, the omega nomenclature and the trivial names. Fatty acids are major compounds of oils and fats. Among the saturated fatty acids, C12, C16 and C18 fatty acids are the most widely distributed, whereas in the unsaturated fatty acids group, C18 with 1, 2 or 3 double bonds are the most important within the vegetable and animal terrestrian products. Fatty acids with 4 or more than 4 double bonds and 20 to 24 atoms of carbon are largely represented in the marine products. [less ▲]

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See detailEtude des variables spirométriques et des mesures morphométriques des veaux croisés Blanc-Bleu Belge x Holsteins pie noire
Jacqmot, Olivier ULg; Michaux, Charles ULg; Borceux, Ph et al

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (2004), 148(1), 39-46

The bovine species is highly susceptible to respiratory dis-eases. A previous experiment has shown that Belgian Blue and White calves have lower spiro-metric variables than Holstein calves. The first aim ... [more ▼]

The bovine species is highly susceptible to respiratory dis-eases. A previous experiment has shown that Belgian Blue and White calves have lower spiro-metric variables than Holstein calves. The first aim of this study was to measure the spirometric variables (peak inspiratory flow, peak expiratory flow, maximal tidal volume, maximal ventilation in 15 seconds and ventilatory reserve) of 18 crossed Belgian Blue x Holstein calves and of 32 Dual purpose calves by the lobelin test and to compare them with 19 Holstein calves and 22 Belgian Blue and White calves. The second aim was to test the correlation between some mor-phometrical parameters (chest girth, thoracic width, thoracic length, thoracic height, thoracic section and costal angle) and those spirometric variables. The spirometric variables of the crossed calves and of the Dual purpose calves are situated between the ones of the Belgian Blue and White and of the Holstein. There is a positive sig-nificant correlation between these parameters and the spirometric variables. The higher cor-relation is obtained with the chest girth. All these parameters are easier and quicker measura-ble, and at lower cost than the spirometric variables [less ▲]

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See detailEvaluation expérimentale de la fonction pulmonaire chez le porc
Halloy, D.; Cambier, Carole ULg; Kirschvink, N. et al

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (2004), (148), 91-96

This synthesis aims to review the pulmonary function tests available in swine. Two techniques are used in order to measure the variations of the mechanical properties of the respiratory system. The ... [more ▼]

This synthesis aims to review the pulmonary function tests available in swine. Two techniques are used in order to measure the variations of the mechanical properties of the respiratory system. The oesophageal balloon remains the most used technique in order to determine these properties in pigs. However, it requires a systematic anaesthesia of the animal. The impulse oscillometry specifically measures the mechanical properties of the respiratory system, by a non invasive way, but the animals have to be trained to be immobilized or sedated to perform the measurement. The whole body arometric plethysmography allows measuring the respiratory pattern in unsedated freely moving piglets. That method allows investigating pigs for long term studies while minimizing the stress related to handling. From this point of view, it represents the less stressing technique for pigs. Finally, blood gases analysis is the easiest method to use in the field. It permits to assess respiratory function by measuring pH and blood partial pressures in oxygen and carbon dioxide [less ▲]

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