References of "Acta Neurologica Belgica"
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See detailFebrile convulsions: an update
Lagae, L.; Ceulemans, B.; Misson, Jean-Paul ULg

in Acta Neurologica Belgica (2004)

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See detailCognitive impairment, dementia and quality of life.
Kurz, Xavier; Scuvée-Moreau, Jacqueline ULg; Vernooij-Dassen, M. et al

in Acta Neurologica Belgica (2003), 103

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See detailBrain function in the vegetative state
Laureys, Steven ULg; Antoine, S.; Boly, Mélanie ULg et al

in Acta Neurologica Belgica (2002), 102(4), 177-185

Positron emission tomography (PET) techniques represent a useful tool to better understand the residual brain function in vegetative state patients. It has been shown that overall cerebral metabolic rates ... [more ▼]

Positron emission tomography (PET) techniques represent a useful tool to better understand the residual brain function in vegetative state patients. It has been shown that overall cerebral metabolic rates for glucose are massively reduced in this condition. However, the recovery of consciousness from vegetative state is not always associated with substantial changes in global metabolism. This finding led us to hypothesize that some vegetative patients are unconscious not just because of a global loss of neuronal function, but rather due to an altered activity in some critical brain regions and to the abolished functional connections between them. We used voxel-based Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM) approaches to characterize the functional neuroanatomy of the vegetative state. The most dysfunctional brain regions were bilateral frontal and parieto-temporal associative cortices. Despite the metabolic impairment, external stimulation still induced a significant neuronal activation (i.e., change in blood flow) in vegetative patients as shown by both auditory click stimuli and noxious somatosensory stimuli. However this activation was limited to primary cortices and dissociated from higher-order associative cortices, thought to be necessary for conscious perception. Finally, we demonstrated that vegetative patients have impaired functional connections between distant cortical areas and between the thalami and the cortex and, more importantly, that recovery of consciousness is paralleled by a restoration of this cortico-thalamo-cortical interaction. [less ▲]

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See detailMotor and phosphene thresholds to transcranial magnetic stimuli: a reproducibility study
Fumal, Arnaud ULg; Bohotin, V.; Vandenheede, Michel et al

in Acta Neurologica Belgica (2002), 102(4), 171-175

OBJECTIVES: As repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is often applied on different days, it is of interest to know whether motor (MT) and phosphene (PT) thresholds are reproducible across ... [more ▼]

OBJECTIVES: As repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is often applied on different days, it is of interest to know whether motor (MT) and phosphene (PT) thresholds are reproducible across time and whether the intensity determined on the first day can be used in subsequent sessions. METHODS: We studied MT and PT over 5 separate recordings in 10 healthy volunteers using a focal coil and a Magstim(Rapid stimulator. After the initial recording (session 1), the others (2 to 5) were performed respectively after 1 day, 7 days, 1 month and 4 months. RESULTS: Mean MT at rest were 65.30 +/- 5.54%, 65.7 +/- 7.18%, 60.4 +/- 4.27%, 61.8 +/- 4.34%, and 63 +/- 9.1% at sessions 1 to 5. Mean PT were 71.43 +/- 6.68%, 66.29 +/- 10.67%, 60.71 +/- 8.64%, 60.57 +/- 8.08%, and 68.71 +/- 15.48% at sessions 1 to 5. MT and PT were reproducible (ANOVA analysis), however, as shown by coefficients of variation, variability between the first 3 sessions exceeded 10% for MT in 3 subjects and in 4 subjects for PT. CONCLUSIONS: It seems preferable to determine thresholds and adapt output intensity of the stimulator at each rTMS session. [less ▲]

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See detailTraining early Alzheimer patients to use a mobile phone
Lekeu, Françoise ULg; Wojtasik, Vinciane ULg; Van der Linden, Martial ULg et al

in Acta Neurologica Belgica (2002), 102(3), 114-121

The mobile phone may be useful to keep in contact with spatially disoriented and memory impaired patients. In keeping with this idea, this study describes the training program developed to teach two ... [more ▼]

The mobile phone may be useful to keep in contact with spatially disoriented and memory impaired patients. In keeping with this idea, this study describes the training program developed to teach two patients with mild Alzheimer's disease (CI and ML) how to use their own mobile phone. Each training session was divided into two parts. In the first part, the spaced-retrieval technique was used to promote the consultation of a card pasted on the back of the phone. The card detailed each stage of phone utilization and which keys had to be pressed to call somebody. In the second part, the patients received repetitive exercises of calling based upon the errorless learning principle. At the end of three-months rehabilitation, the results showed different learning patterns for the patients. ML needed more spaced-retrieval sessions to spontaneously consult the card and to correctly use the phone, compared to CI However, by the repetition of calling exercises, both patients showed a decrease of instruction card consultation, whereas they were still able to correctly call somebody. This learning ability is hypothesized to be a consequence of a relatively preserved procedural memory in both patients. In conclusion, this study highlights the effectiveness of combined specific learning techniques for improving AD patient's autonomy in daily life activities. [less ▲]

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See detailIntravascular malignant lymphomatosis: report of 2 neurological cases
Vandenheede, Michel; Dioh, Alioune ULg; Maertens De Noordhout, Alain ULg et al

in Acta Neurologica Belgica (2002), 102(2), 76-81

We report two cases of intravascular malignant lymphomatosis (IML) with a clinical expression limited to the central nervous system. The first patient presented with signs of cerebral, cerebellar and ... [more ▼]

We report two cases of intravascular malignant lymphomatosis (IML) with a clinical expression limited to the central nervous system. The first patient presented with signs of cerebral, cerebellar and spinal cord involvement. The second had an isolated involvement of the spinal cord. In both cases the diagnosis was made at post-mortem examination; pre-mortem examination of biopsy tissue from peripheral nerve and muscle in the first case, spleen and liver in the second were unhelpful for the diagnosis of lymphoma. We review the published literature on IML, its ante-mortem diagnosis and treatment. [less ▲]

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See detailGuidelines for brain radionuclide imaging - Perfusion Single Photon Computed Tomography (SPECT) using Tc-99m radiopharmaceuticals and brain metabolism Positron Emission Tomography (PET) using F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose
Vander Borght, T.; Laloux, P.; Maes, A. et al

in Acta Neurologica Belgica (2001), 101(4), 196-209

The purpose of these guidelines is to assist nuclear medicine practitioners in recommending, performing, interpreting, and reporting the results of brain perfusion SPECT studies using Tc-99m ... [more ▼]

The purpose of these guidelines is to assist nuclear medicine practitioners in recommending, performing, interpreting, and reporting the results of brain perfusion SPECT studies using Tc-99m radiopharmaceuticals and brain metabolism PET studies using F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG). These guidelines have been adapted and extended from those produced by the Society, of Nuclear Medicine (Juni et al., 1998) and the European Association of Nuclear Medicine by, a Belgian group of experts in the field trained in neurology and/or nuclear medicine. Some indications are not universally approved (e.g. brain death), but largely, supported by the literature. They, have been included in these guidelines in order to provide recommendations and a standardised protocol [less ▲]

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See detailDifferential diagnosis of facial pain
Schoenen, Jean ULg

in Acta Neurologica Belgica (2001), 101(1), 6-9

We will describe the differential diagnosis of primary and secondary facial pains and present illustrative case studies. The diagnosis of facial pain needs a multidisciplinary approach if the clinical ... [more ▼]

We will describe the differential diagnosis of primary and secondary facial pains and present illustrative case studies. The diagnosis of facial pain needs a multidisciplinary approach if the clinical presentation is not pathognomic. While patients with acute facial pain urgently need treatment, those with chronic facial pain need at priority a correct diagnosis. [less ▲]

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See detailNew generation antiepileptics for facial pain and headache
DELVAUX, Valérie ULg; Schoenen, Jean ULg

in Acta Neurologica Belgica (2001), 101(1), 42-46

The prophylactic management of recurrent head and facial pains may be challenging because of lack of efficacy and/or bothersome adverse effects of available drug therapies. New generation antiepileptic ... [more ▼]

The prophylactic management of recurrent head and facial pains may be challenging because of lack of efficacy and/or bothersome adverse effects of available drug therapies. New generation antiepileptic drugs offer new perspectives in difficult cases. We will review the available published data and present our experience with lamotrigine in various head and facial pains such as migraine, cluster headache, neuropathic trigeminal pain, atypical facial pain, and chronic tension-type headache. Twenty-five patients were enrolled and followed for 18 months. The dose was gradually increased in steps of 25 mg up to the effective dose (mean 250 mg/d). Lamotrigine was most effective in trigeminal neuralgia and dysesthesia, but was of little utility in the other head or facial pains. [less ▲]

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See detailMeningeal inflammatory pseudotumour: a case report.
Gollogly, L.; Sadzot, Bernard ULg; Lejeune, Jean-Luc ULg et al

in Acta Neurologica Belgica (2001), 101(2), 116-20

We report the case of a meningeal inflammatory pseudotumour occurring in a 23-year-old male presenting with focal seizures and headaches. Brain imaging techniques showed a 3.5 cm left parietal meningeal ... [more ▼]

We report the case of a meningeal inflammatory pseudotumour occurring in a 23-year-old male presenting with focal seizures and headaches. Brain imaging techniques showed a 3.5 cm left parietal meningeal tumour. Histology of the surgical specimen showed a dense lymphoid infiltrate permeating the dura mater and leptomeninges, consisting of a predominant polyclonal B cell population as confirmed by immunophenotyping and genotyping. Cultures of serum, CSF, and surgical specimen were negative and there was no serological evidence of a systemic dysimmune disease. The postoperative course was complicated by an episode of brain oedema resolving under steroid therapy. The patient, free from all medication, is asymptomatic at 3 years of follow-up. We discuss previously published cases and the nosology of intracranial inflammatory pseudotumours. [less ▲]

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See detailNeuromuscular transmission in migraine patients with prolonged aura
Ambrosini, Anna; MAERTENS DE NOORDHOUT, Alain ULg; SCHOENEN, Jean ULg

in Acta Neurologica Belgica (2001), 101(3), 166-70

P/Q Ca2+ channels are genetically abnormal in most cases of familial hemiplegic migraine (FHM) and may be involved in other types of migraine. They are also found at the neuromuscular junctions, where ... [more ▼]

P/Q Ca2+ channels are genetically abnormal in most cases of familial hemiplegic migraine (FHM) and may be involved in other types of migraine. They are also found at the neuromuscular junctions, where they control stimulation-induced acetylcholine release. Prolonged aura is a very frequent clinical feature in FHM patients. The objective of this study was thus to explore neuromuscular transmission in migraine with typical and prolonged aura patients. We performed single fiber electromyography (SFEMG) in such patients and compared them to a group of healthy volunteers. Results were expressed as mean jitter (MCD) and percentage of single endplate abnormalities. Mean MCD was on average comparable in controls and migraineurs. By contrast, single endplate abnormalities were only found in patients (p < 0.01), especially in those with prolonged aura (p < 0.001). These results suggest subtle impairment of neuromuscular transmission in a subgroup of migraineurs characterized by prolonged aura, which might be due to dysfunctioning P/Q Ca(2+)-channels. [less ▲]

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See detailNerve biopsy: indications and contribution to the diagnosis of peripheral neuropathy. The experience of the Born Bunge Foundation University of Antwerp and University of Liege between 1987 and 1997.
Deprez, Manuel ULg; Ceuterick-de Groote, C.; Schoenen, Jean ULg et al

in Acta Neurologica Belgica (2000), 100(3), 162-6

We reviewed 355 nerve biopsies analysed at the Laboratories of Neuropathology of the Born-Bunge Foundation/University of Antwerp (BBF/UIA) and University of Liege (ULg) between 1987 and 1997. We examined ... [more ▼]

We reviewed 355 nerve biopsies analysed at the Laboratories of Neuropathology of the Born-Bunge Foundation/University of Antwerp (BBF/UIA) and University of Liege (ULg) between 1987 and 1997. We examined the indications for nerve biopsy, the yield of the procedure, and the influence of clinical and neuropathological parameters. Contributory biopsies accounted for 35.5% and 47.3% respectively at ULg and BBF/UIA laboratories: of these, one third showed specific histological findings, the majority being informative only when combined with the relevant clinical data. The profile of indications for nerve biopsy was roughly comparable in both laboratories. The search for an inflammatory neuropathy prompted 35-40% of all biopsies with more than 50% of specimens being informative in this indication. The lowest yield (20%) was obtained among the nerve biopsies performed in the absence of any presumptive aetiology. These accounted for 22-33% of all cases. Inadequate surgical resection, delays in transport or processing errors precluded histological study of 4% (BBF/UIA) to 8% (ULg) of the specimens. We conclude that nerve biopsies should be performed by experienced surgeons and handled in specialised laboratories. Only a relatively small number of causes of neuropathy can be diagnosed on the basis of histology alone. More often, contributory biopsies will result from the combination of non-specific suggestive histological features with relevant clinical information. The diagnostic yield of nerve biopsy is function of careful patient selection and close collaboration between the clinician and the neuropathologist. [less ▲]

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See detailMethodological Issues in a Cost-of-Dementia Study in Belgium: The National Dementia Economic Study (Nades)
Kurz, Xavier; Broers, Mattie; Scuvée-Moreau, Jacqueline ULg et al

in Acta Neurologica Belgica (1999), 99(3), 167-75

The NAtional Dementia Economic Study (NADES) is an on-going prospective, one-year cohort study developed in Belgium to assess the socio-economic consequences of dementia in a group of patients and their ... [more ▼]

The NAtional Dementia Economic Study (NADES) is an on-going prospective, one-year cohort study developed in Belgium to assess the socio-economic consequences of dementia in a group of patients and their caregivers (n = 400). Comparison is made with a group of subjects with cognitive impairment and no dementia (n = 100) and a group of subjects without any cognitive impairment (n = 100). Recruitment of subjects is based on screening of warning signs of dementia by general practitioners, followed by a Cambridge Mental Disorders of the Elderly Examination (CAMDEX) performed at home. This paper presents an overview of the study protocol and the rationale for basic design options, such as the choice of study population, screening strategy, and methods used for the case validation. It also presents preliminary results on the prevalence of dementia in general practice, the sensitivity and specificity of the warning signs as a screening test of dementia, and the validity of a computerised case ascertainment algorithm based on DSM-III-R criteria. [less ▲]

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See detailEarly thalamic and cortical hypometabolism in adult-onset dementia due to metachromatic leukodystrophy
Salmon, Eric ULg; Van der Linden, Martial ULg; Maertens De Noordhout, Alain ULg et al

in Acta Neurologica Belgica (1999), 99(3), 185-188

A case of early-onset adult dementia with family history of dementia is reported, characterised by neuropsychological deficits, suggesting frontal involvement, with mild non specific white matter ... [more ▼]

A case of early-onset adult dementia with family history of dementia is reported, characterised by neuropsychological deficits, suggesting frontal involvement, with mild non specific white matter abnormalities on CT scan. Familial Alzheimer's disease was suspected but the neuropathological diagnosis on brain biopsy was metachromatic leukodystrophy. 18FDG-PET revealed a very peculiar pattern of metabolic impairment in thalamic areas, in medial and frontopolar regions, and in occipital lobes. Neuropsychological follow-up showed relatively stable difficulties of long-term memory and signs of frontal lobe dysfunction, similar to those observed in subcortical dementias. MRI subsequently showed periventricular leukoencephalopathy. The brain metabolic pattern observed in that case of metachromatic leukodystrophy was quite different from that reported in other types of dementia. [less ▲]

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See detailExploration of implicit artificial grammar learning in Parkinson's disease
Peigneux, Philippe ULg; Meulemans, Thierry ULg; Van der Linden, Martial ULg et al

in Acta Neurologica Belgica (1999), 99(2), 107-117

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See detailOligodendrocytes: From Development to Demyelinated Lesion Repair
Rogister, Bernard ULg; Belachew, Shibeshih ULg; Moonen, Gustave ULg

in Acta Neurologica Belgica (1999), 99(1), 32-9

Spontaneous but incomplete remyelination is observed after a demyelinating lesion. We know since ten years now that oligodendrocyte progenitors, (OP) and totipotent neural stem cells remain present in the ... [more ▼]

Spontaneous but incomplete remyelination is observed after a demyelinating lesion. We know since ten years now that oligodendrocyte progenitors, (OP) and totipotent neural stem cells remain present in the central nervous system of adult mammals. [less ▲]

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See detailNeurotransmitter-Mediated Regulation of Cns Myelination: A Review
Belachew, Shibeshih ULg; Rogister, Bernard ULg; Rigo, Jean-Michel et al

in Acta Neurologica Belgica (1999), 99(1), 21-31

In addition to treatments aimed at preventing or limiting damage to myelin and oligodendrocytes, there is a crucial need for repair strategies in human demyelinating disorders. There is increasing ... [more ▼]

In addition to treatments aimed at preventing or limiting damage to myelin and oligodendrocytes, there is a crucial need for repair strategies in human demyelinating disorders. There is increasing evidence that besides growth factors, neurotransmitters can regulate different steps of the oligodendrogliogenesis. The present review on neurotransmitter receptor expression and function in the oligodendrocyte lineage emphasizes the concept that in this lineage cell proliferation and differentiation can be controlled through the modulation of the functional state of channel proteins and receptors, such as the delayed K+ rectifier, the AMPA/kainate, dopamine or muscarinic receptors, and, most likely, others yet to be found. We anticipate that a better understanding of the neurotransmitter-mediated neuronal oligodendroglial communication network opens prospects in the field of central nervous system (CNS) myelin repair, allowing the recruitment of the myelinating machinery that is known to remain present but quiescent in the CNS of multiple sclerosis patients. [less ▲]

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See detailPositron emission tomography in parkinsonism
Salmon, Eric ULg

in Acta Neurologica Belgica (1997), 97(3), 187-191

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See detailGliomatosis Cerebri: Clinical, Radiological and Pathological Report of a Case with a Stroke-Like Onset
Schoenen, Jean ULg; de Leval, L.; Reznik, M.

in Acta Neurologica Belgica (1996), 96(4), 294-300

A 62 year-old man was admitted with a right hemiparesis, sensory aphasia and right hemianopia which appeared on awakening. He was initially thought to have a stroke, but EEG showed diffuse slowing and ... [more ▼]

A 62 year-old man was admitted with a right hemiparesis, sensory aphasia and right hemianopia which appeared on awakening. He was initially thought to have a stroke, but EEG showed diffuse slowing and both CT scan and MRI irregular white matter lesion suggesting a leucoencephalopathy. His neurological deficit regressed, and he was discharged after 2 weeks. He was readmitted 6 months later because of mental confusion. MRI revealed diffuse white matter lesions extending up to the frontal lobes, these were hyperintense on T2 weighted images and suggested the diagnosis of gliomatosis cerebri (GC). The patient became progressively comatose and died 6 weeks later. At autopsy the brain looked diffusely swollen with irregular greyish areas of the white matter of both centrum ovale and brain stem. On microscopic examination the cerebrum and brain stem were diffusely and asymmetrically infiltrated by numerous neoplastic glial cells without angiogenesis or disruption of architectonic boundaries. There were no mitoses nor necrosis. Many tumour cells were GFAP- and S100-positive. A high proportion of cells contained the leucocyte antigen Leu-7. This case of gliomatosis cerebri is compared to the 9 published cases of GC with an initial focal neurological deficit and to the 19 publications reporting MRI results. The controversial nosological boundaries and etiopathogenetic hypotheses of this peculiar neoplastic disease are discussed. [less ▲]

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