References of "Acta Neurologica Belgica"
     in
Bookmark and Share    
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailCost estimates of brain disorders in Belgium
Schoenen, Jean ULg; Gianni, F.; Schretlen, L. et al

in Acta Neurologica Belgica (2006), 106(4), 208-214

This article presents the data on cost of the major brain disorders in Belgium which were retrieved from "Cost of Disorders of the Brain in Europe" study sponsored by the European Brain Council and ... [more ▼]

This article presents the data on cost of the major brain disorders in Belgium which were retrieved from "Cost of Disorders of the Brain in Europe" study sponsored by the European Brain Council and performed by Stockholm Health Economics. The disorders selected were : addiction, depression, anxiety disorders, brain tumours, dementia, epilepsy, migraine and other headaches, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, psychotic disorders, stroke and trauma. Figures for prevalence of disorders and direct medical, direct non-medical and indirect costs are based on data coming from available electronic data bases, or when missing for Belgium, best possible estimates or extrapolated data were used. All economic data were transformed to E's for 2004 and adjusted for purchasing power parity (PPP). The results show that the total number of people with any brain disorder in Belgium amounts to 2,9 million in 2004, the most prevalent being anxiety disorders 1.1 million, migraine 860 000, addiction (any) 800.000 and depression 500.000 cases. The total cost of all included brain disorders in Belgium was estimated at 10.6 billion Euros. Most costly per case are brain tumours, multiple sclerosis, stroke and dementia. Because of their higher prevalence, however, depression, dementia, addiction, anxiety disorders and migraine have the highest total costs. Taken together, brain disorders consume 4% of the gross national product and cost each citizen of Belgium E 1029 per year The drug costs for brain disorders constitute only 10% of the total drug market in Belgium, and only 4% of the total cost of brain disorders in Belgium. This should be compared to the cost estimates and to a previous study which showed that brain disorders are responsible for 35% of the total burden of all disorders in Europe. This study suggests therefore that the direct healthcare resources, including expenses for drug therapies, allocated to brain disorders in Belgium are not leveled to the indirect costs and burden of these disorders. A comparison with data available from a direct prospective study in demented Belgian patients suggests that the mathematical estimates presented here reflect quite accurately the real average cost for dementia, although there are large variations depending on disease severity. As, in addition, subjects with brain disorders face collateral costs which have not been taken into account and may vary between countries, it seems worthwhile to conduct, in cooperation with patients associations, a complementary survey in the Belgian ecosystem to establish the cost profile of representative patients for the major brain disorders. Such a survey is being organized by a task force of the Belgian Brain Council. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 27 (2 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailMigraine specificities during childhood to adulthood: diagnosis and treatment
de Tourtchaninoff, M.; Misson, Jean-Paul ULg

in Acta Neurologica Belgica (2006)

Detailed reference viewed: 24 (0 ULg)
Full Text
See detailAnimal models of drug addiction: advantages and limitations
Quertemont, Etienne ULg

in Acta Neurologica Belgica (2006), 106

Various animal models have been developed to investigate the neurobiological and behavioral mechanisms of drug addiction. The most popular of these animal models include the locomotor sensitization ... [more ▼]

Various animal models have been developed to investigate the neurobiological and behavioral mechanisms of drug addiction. The most popular of these animal models include the locomotor sensitization paradigm, the place conditioning procedure and the self-administration technique. With these techniques, it is possible to mimic in rodents the major aspects of human drug addiction. The self-administration procedure is the most widely used and show an excellent natural and predictive validity. In the self-administration protocol, experimental animals, usually rats or mice, are allowed to press a lever in order to gain access to a small dose of an addictive drug. The drug may be given to the animal through the oral, the intravenous or the intracranial route of administration, according to the purpose of the study. In recent years, the classical self-administration procedure has been adapted to study the specific neurobiological basis of drug relapse. In this now called drug reinstatement paradigm, when drug self-administration behaviors are well established, an extinction procedure starts, during which lever pressing is no longer reinforced by drug access. After a number of such extinction sessions, lever pressing gradually declines and eventually stops. Drug-seeking behaviors are therefore said to be extinguished. It is then possible to test various stimuli in order to investigate whether they reinstate drug-seeking behaviors and use such a reinstatement as an animal model of drug relapse. Three types of stimuli have been shown to reinstate drug-seeking behaviors: a small priming dose of drug, drug-associated cues and a stressful stimuli. The effects of these three relapse-triggering stimuli are mediated by different neurobiological mechanisms, leading to the expectation that they may be targeted by different pharmacotherapeutic and behavioral interventions. Despite the high value of the current animal models of drug addiction, there show several limitations. In particular, it is difficult to differentiate between self-controlled and compulsive drug use in animals. As only uncontrolled compulsive drug consumption characterizes drug addiction in humans, such a limitation might explain the high frequency of false positive results in animal experiments. Indeed, it is common that therapeutic interventions successfully developed in animals later proved to be disappointing in humans. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 209 (6 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailThe epileptic syndromes with continuous spikes and waves during slow sleep: definition and management guidelines.
Van Bogaert, P.; Aeby, A.; De Borchgrave, V. et al

in Acta Neurologica Belgica (2006), 106(2), 52-60

The authors propose to define the epileptic syndromes with continuous spikes and waves during slow sleep (CSWS) as a cognitive or behavioral impairment acquired during childhood, associated with a strong ... [more ▼]

The authors propose to define the epileptic syndromes with continuous spikes and waves during slow sleep (CSWS) as a cognitive or behavioral impairment acquired during childhood, associated with a strong activation of the interictal epileptiform discharges during NREM sleep--whatever focal or generalized--and not related to another factor than the presence of CSWS. The type of syndrome will be defined according to the neurological and neuropsychological deficit. These syndromes have to be classified among the localization-related epileptic syndromes. Some cases are idiopathic and others are symptomatic. Guidelines for work-up and treatment are proposed. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 207 (4 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailClinical contribution of PET neurotransmission imaging in neurological disorders
Garraux, Gaëtan ULg; Salmon, Eric ULg

in Acta Neurologica Belgica (2005), 105(3), 119-136

Imaging neurotransmission in vivo using positron emission tomography (PET) is a rapidly expanding clinical science. The present review summarizes the actual contribution of PET imaging to clinical ... [more ▼]

Imaging neurotransmission in vivo using positron emission tomography (PET) is a rapidly expanding clinical science. The present review summarizes the actual contribution of PET imaging to clinical problems in movement and seizure disorders and dementia. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 52 (6 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailPain control by vagus nerve stimulation: from animal to man ... and back
Multon, Sylvie ULg; Schoenen, Jean ULg

in Acta Neurologica Belgica (2005), 105(2), 62-67

Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS), already used as a treatment for refractory epilepsy, has also been assessed for its analgesic effect. Numerous studies report that electrical stimulation of vagal afferents ... [more ▼]

Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS), already used as a treatment for refractory epilepsy, has also been assessed for its analgesic effect. Numerous studies report that electrical stimulation of vagal afferents inhibits spinal nociceptive reflexes and transmission. However results are partly contradictory, showing that the VNS effects depend on the stimulation parameters. Clinical data have been collected from VNS-implanted epileptic patients in whom pain thresolds were measured and the VNS effect on co-existing headaches was assessed. In addition, in 2 pilot studies of a few patients, VNS was used to treat resistant chronic headaches and migraines. Taken together these clinical studies tend to confirm the analgesic effect of VNS and to suggest its potential utility in chronic headache patients. In order to better define the nature of neuronal and behavioural changes induced by VNS with devices used in humans and to determine the most adequate stimulation stimulation protocols, we have used a commercially available stimulator (NCP-Cyberonics(R)) for prolonged VNS in rats. Our results show a clear antinociceptive effect of VNS in models of acute or inflammatory pain with different stimulation protocols including the one used in epileptic patients. Using immunocytochemical methods, we find that activity changes in spinal trigeminal nucleus neurons could underlie at least part of the VNS-induced analgesia. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 26 (1 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailCompensating strategies for impaired episodic memory and time orientation in a patient with Alzheimer's disease
Quittre, Anne ULg; Olivier, Catherine ULg; Salmon, Eric ULg

in Acta Neurologica Belgica (2005), 105(1), 30-38

A dedicated training program for teaching a patient with Alzheimer's disease to independently use an agenda is presented. This training capitalises on preserved cognitive abilities and incorporates ... [more ▼]

A dedicated training program for teaching a patient with Alzheimer's disease to independently use an agenda is presented. This training capitalises on preserved cognitive abilities and incorporates principles from learning theories. This case study reports the effective use of a memory book for daily life activities and of a digital clock for time reorientation. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 48 (3 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailFebrile convulsions: an update
Lagae, L.; Ceulemans, B.; Misson, Jean-Paul ULg

in Acta Neurologica Belgica (2004)

Detailed reference viewed: 17 (1 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailCognitive impairment, dementia and quality of life.
Kurz, Xavier; Scuvée-Moreau, Jacqueline ULg; Vernooij-Dassen, M. et al

in Acta Neurologica Belgica (2003), 103

Detailed reference viewed: 37 (5 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailMotor and phosphene thresholds to transcranial magnetic stimuli: a reproducibility study
Fumal, Arnaud ULg; Bohotin, V.; Vandenheede, Michel et al

in Acta Neurologica Belgica (2002), 102(4), 171-175

OBJECTIVES: As repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is often applied on different days, it is of interest to know whether motor (MT) and phosphene (PT) thresholds are reproducible across ... [more ▼]

OBJECTIVES: As repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is often applied on different days, it is of interest to know whether motor (MT) and phosphene (PT) thresholds are reproducible across time and whether the intensity determined on the first day can be used in subsequent sessions. METHODS: We studied MT and PT over 5 separate recordings in 10 healthy volunteers using a focal coil and a Magstim(Rapid stimulator. After the initial recording (session 1), the others (2 to 5) were performed respectively after 1 day, 7 days, 1 month and 4 months. RESULTS: Mean MT at rest were 65.30 +/- 5.54%, 65.7 +/- 7.18%, 60.4 +/- 4.27%, 61.8 +/- 4.34%, and 63 +/- 9.1% at sessions 1 to 5. Mean PT were 71.43 +/- 6.68%, 66.29 +/- 10.67%, 60.71 +/- 8.64%, 60.57 +/- 8.08%, and 68.71 +/- 15.48% at sessions 1 to 5. MT and PT were reproducible (ANOVA analysis), however, as shown by coefficients of variation, variability between the first 3 sessions exceeded 10% for MT in 3 subjects and in 4 subjects for PT. CONCLUSIONS: It seems preferable to determine thresholds and adapt output intensity of the stimulator at each rTMS session. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 19 (1 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailBrain function in the vegetative state
Laureys, Steven ULg; Antoine, S.; Boly, Mélanie ULg et al

in Acta Neurologica Belgica (2002), 102(4), 177-185

Positron emission tomography (PET) techniques represent a useful tool to better understand the residual brain function in vegetative state patients. It has been shown that overall cerebral metabolic rates ... [more ▼]

Positron emission tomography (PET) techniques represent a useful tool to better understand the residual brain function in vegetative state patients. It has been shown that overall cerebral metabolic rates for glucose are massively reduced in this condition. However, the recovery of consciousness from vegetative state is not always associated with substantial changes in global metabolism. This finding led us to hypothesize that some vegetative patients are unconscious not just because of a global loss of neuronal function, but rather due to an altered activity in some critical brain regions and to the abolished functional connections between them. We used voxel-based Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM) approaches to characterize the functional neuroanatomy of the vegetative state. The most dysfunctional brain regions were bilateral frontal and parieto-temporal associative cortices. Despite the metabolic impairment, external stimulation still induced a significant neuronal activation (i.e., change in blood flow) in vegetative patients as shown by both auditory click stimuli and noxious somatosensory stimuli. However this activation was limited to primary cortices and dissociated from higher-order associative cortices, thought to be necessary for conscious perception. Finally, we demonstrated that vegetative patients have impaired functional connections between distant cortical areas and between the thalami and the cortex and, more importantly, that recovery of consciousness is paralleled by a restoration of this cortico-thalamo-cortical interaction. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 116 (32 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailTraining early Alzheimer patients to use a mobile phone
Lekeu, Françoise ULg; Wojtasik, Vinciane ULg; Van der Linden, Martial ULg et al

in Acta Neurologica Belgica (2002), 102(3), 114-121

The mobile phone may be useful to keep in contact with spatially disoriented and memory impaired patients. In keeping with this idea, this study describes the training program developed to teach two ... [more ▼]

The mobile phone may be useful to keep in contact with spatially disoriented and memory impaired patients. In keeping with this idea, this study describes the training program developed to teach two patients with mild Alzheimer's disease (CI and ML) how to use their own mobile phone. Each training session was divided into two parts. In the first part, the spaced-retrieval technique was used to promote the consultation of a card pasted on the back of the phone. The card detailed each stage of phone utilization and which keys had to be pressed to call somebody. In the second part, the patients received repetitive exercises of calling based upon the errorless learning principle. At the end of three-months rehabilitation, the results showed different learning patterns for the patients. ML needed more spaced-retrieval sessions to spontaneously consult the card and to correctly use the phone, compared to CI However, by the repetition of calling exercises, both patients showed a decrease of instruction card consultation, whereas they were still able to correctly call somebody. This learning ability is hypothesized to be a consequence of a relatively preserved procedural memory in both patients. In conclusion, this study highlights the effectiveness of combined specific learning techniques for improving AD patient's autonomy in daily life activities. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 48 (4 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailIntravascular malignant lymphomatosis: report of 2 neurological cases
Vandenheede, Michel; Dioh, Alioune ULg; Maertens De Noordhout, Alain ULg et al

in Acta Neurologica Belgica (2002), 102(2), 76-81

We report two cases of intravascular malignant lymphomatosis (IML) with a clinical expression limited to the central nervous system. The first patient presented with signs of cerebral, cerebellar and ... [more ▼]

We report two cases of intravascular malignant lymphomatosis (IML) with a clinical expression limited to the central nervous system. The first patient presented with signs of cerebral, cerebellar and spinal cord involvement. The second had an isolated involvement of the spinal cord. In both cases the diagnosis was made at post-mortem examination; pre-mortem examination of biopsy tissue from peripheral nerve and muscle in the first case, spleen and liver in the second were unhelpful for the diagnosis of lymphoma. We review the published literature on IML, its ante-mortem diagnosis and treatment. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 38 (7 ULg)
Peer Reviewed
See detailGuidelines for brain radionuclide imaging - Perfusion Single Photon Computed Tomography (SPECT) using Tc-99m radiopharmaceuticals and brain metabolism Positron Emission Tomography (PET) using F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose
Vander Borght, T.; Laloux, P.; Maes, A. et al

in Acta Neurologica Belgica (2001), 101(4), 196-209

The purpose of these guidelines is to assist nuclear medicine practitioners in recommending, performing, interpreting, and reporting the results of brain perfusion SPECT studies using Tc-99m ... [more ▼]

The purpose of these guidelines is to assist nuclear medicine practitioners in recommending, performing, interpreting, and reporting the results of brain perfusion SPECT studies using Tc-99m radiopharmaceuticals and brain metabolism PET studies using F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG). These guidelines have been adapted and extended from those produced by the Society, of Nuclear Medicine (Juni et al., 1998) and the European Association of Nuclear Medicine by, a Belgian group of experts in the field trained in neurology and/or nuclear medicine. Some indications are not universally approved (e.g. brain death), but largely, supported by the literature. They, have been included in these guidelines in order to provide recommendations and a standardised protocol [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 41 (0 ULg)
Peer Reviewed
See detailDifferential diagnosis of facial pain
Schoenen, Jean ULg

in Acta Neurologica Belgica (2001), 101(1), 6-9

We will describe the differential diagnosis of primary and secondary facial pains and present illustrative case studies. The diagnosis of facial pain needs a multidisciplinary approach if the clinical ... [more ▼]

We will describe the differential diagnosis of primary and secondary facial pains and present illustrative case studies. The diagnosis of facial pain needs a multidisciplinary approach if the clinical presentation is not pathognomic. While patients with acute facial pain urgently need treatment, those with chronic facial pain need at priority a correct diagnosis. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 49 (2 ULg)
Peer Reviewed
See detailNew generation antiepileptics for facial pain and headache
DELVAUX, Valérie ULg; Schoenen, Jean ULg

in Acta Neurologica Belgica (2001), 101(1), 42-46

The prophylactic management of recurrent head and facial pains may be challenging because of lack of efficacy and/or bothersome adverse effects of available drug therapies. New generation antiepileptic ... [more ▼]

The prophylactic management of recurrent head and facial pains may be challenging because of lack of efficacy and/or bothersome adverse effects of available drug therapies. New generation antiepileptic drugs offer new perspectives in difficult cases. We will review the available published data and present our experience with lamotrigine in various head and facial pains such as migraine, cluster headache, neuropathic trigeminal pain, atypical facial pain, and chronic tension-type headache. Twenty-five patients were enrolled and followed for 18 months. The dose was gradually increased in steps of 25 mg up to the effective dose (mean 250 mg/d). Lamotrigine was most effective in trigeminal neuralgia and dysesthesia, but was of little utility in the other head or facial pains. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 19 (1 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailMeningeal inflammatory pseudotumour: a case report.
Gollogly, L.; Sadzot, Bernard ULg; Lejeune, Jean-Luc ULg et al

in Acta Neurologica Belgica (2001), 101(2), 116-20

We report the case of a meningeal inflammatory pseudotumour occurring in a 23-year-old male presenting with focal seizures and headaches. Brain imaging techniques showed a 3.5 cm left parietal meningeal ... [more ▼]

We report the case of a meningeal inflammatory pseudotumour occurring in a 23-year-old male presenting with focal seizures and headaches. Brain imaging techniques showed a 3.5 cm left parietal meningeal tumour. Histology of the surgical specimen showed a dense lymphoid infiltrate permeating the dura mater and leptomeninges, consisting of a predominant polyclonal B cell population as confirmed by immunophenotyping and genotyping. Cultures of serum, CSF, and surgical specimen were negative and there was no serological evidence of a systemic dysimmune disease. The postoperative course was complicated by an episode of brain oedema resolving under steroid therapy. The patient, free from all medication, is asymptomatic at 3 years of follow-up. We discuss previously published cases and the nosology of intracranial inflammatory pseudotumours. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 33 (0 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailNeuromuscular transmission in migraine patients with prolonged aura
Ambrosini, Anna; MAERTENS DE NOORDHOUT, Alain ULg; SCHOENEN, Jean ULg

in Acta Neurologica Belgica (2001), 101(3), 166-70

P/Q Ca2+ channels are genetically abnormal in most cases of familial hemiplegic migraine (FHM) and may be involved in other types of migraine. They are also found at the neuromuscular junctions, where ... [more ▼]

P/Q Ca2+ channels are genetically abnormal in most cases of familial hemiplegic migraine (FHM) and may be involved in other types of migraine. They are also found at the neuromuscular junctions, where they control stimulation-induced acetylcholine release. Prolonged aura is a very frequent clinical feature in FHM patients. The objective of this study was thus to explore neuromuscular transmission in migraine with typical and prolonged aura patients. We performed single fiber electromyography (SFEMG) in such patients and compared them to a group of healthy volunteers. Results were expressed as mean jitter (MCD) and percentage of single endplate abnormalities. Mean MCD was on average comparable in controls and migraineurs. By contrast, single endplate abnormalities were only found in patients (p < 0.01), especially in those with prolonged aura (p < 0.001). These results suggest subtle impairment of neuromuscular transmission in a subgroup of migraineurs characterized by prolonged aura, which might be due to dysfunctioning P/Q Ca(2+)-channels. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 39 (2 ULg)