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See detailLife cycle assessment of hybrid vehicles recycling: Comparison of three business lines of dismantling
Belboom, Sandra ULg; Lewis, Grégory; Bareel, Pierre-François et al

in Waste Management (2016), 50

This paper undertakes an environmental evaluation of hybrid vehicles recycling, using industrial data from Comet Traitement SA in Belgium. Three business lines have been modelled and analysed. The first ... [more ▼]

This paper undertakes an environmental evaluation of hybrid vehicles recycling, using industrial data from Comet Traitement SA in Belgium. Three business lines have been modelled and analysed. The first one is relative to the business as usual with a dismantling to recover batteries and engines followed by shredding and post shredding treatments. The second one considers, in addition, the removal of electronic control units (ECU) before shredding followed by same steps than in the first line and the last one is relative to the additional removal of big plastic parts before shredding and business as usual post shredding treatments. Results show non-significant environmental benefits when ECU or large parts of plastics are recovered before shredding. Improvements in terms of environmental benefits are lower than the uncertainty of the results. Indeed, the performing usual process for end-of-life vehicles (ELV) treatment reaches 97% of the ELV which is valorised in terms of metal and energy recoveries. Post shredding treatment units include metals, plastics and energy recovery of residues. Comet business as usual route for ELV valorisation is in accordance with the requirements of the European directive and recommendations for further improvement with dismantling of other parts (ECU or plastics) before shredding are non-relevant in this case. [less ▲]

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See detailCopper extraction from coarsely ground printed circuit boards using moderate thermophilic bacteria in a rotating-drum reactor
Rodrigues, Michael; Leão, Versiane; Gomes, Otavio et al

in Waste Management (2015), 41

The current work reports on a new approach for copper bioleaching from Printed Circuit Board (PCB) by moderate thermophiles in a rotating-drum reactor. Initially leaching of PCB was carried out in shake ... [more ▼]

The current work reports on a new approach for copper bioleaching from Printed Circuit Board (PCB) by moderate thermophiles in a rotating-drum reactor. Initially leaching of PCB was carried out in shake flasks to assess the effects of particle size ( 208 lm + 147 lm), ferrous iron concentration (1.25–10.0 g/L) and pH (1.5–2.5) on copper leaching using mesophile and moderate thermophile microorganisms. Only at a relatively low solid content (10.0 g/L) complete copper extraction was achieved from the particle size investigated. Conversely, high copper extractions were possible from coarse-ground PCB (20 mm-long) working with increased solids concentration (up to 25.0 g/L). Because there was as the faster leaching kinetics at 50 C Sulfobacillus thermosulfidooxidans was selected for experiments in a rotating-drum reactor with the coarser-sized PCB sheets. Under optimal conditions, copper extraction reached 85%, in 8 days and microscopic observations by SEM–EDS of the on nonleached and leached material suggested that metal dissolution from the internal layers was restricted by the fact that metal surface was not entirely available and accessible for the solution in the case of the 20 mm-size sheets. [less ▲]

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See detailA multiple criteria analysis for-household solid waste management in the urban community of Dakar
Kapepula, K. M.; Colson, Gérard ULg; Sabri, Karim ULg et al

in Waste Management (2007), 27(11), 1690-1705

Household solid waste management is a severe problem in big cities of developing countries. Mismanaged solid waste dumpsites produce bad sanitary, ecological and economic consequences for the whole ... [more ▼]

Household solid waste management is a severe problem in big cities of developing countries. Mismanaged solid waste dumpsites produce bad sanitary, ecological and economic consequences for the whole population, especially for the poorest urban inhabitants. Dealing with this problem, this paper utilizes field data collected in the urban community of Dakar, in view of ranking nine areas of the city with respect to multiple criteria of nuisance. Nine criteria are built and organized in three families that represent three classical viewpoints: the production of wastes, their collection and their treatment. Thanks to the method PROMETHEE and the software ARGOS, we do a pair-wise comparison of the nine areas, which allows their multiple criteria rankings according to each viewpoint and then globally. Finding the worst and best areas in terms of nuisance for a better waste management in the city is our final purpose.. fitting as well as possible the needs of the urban community. Based on field knowledge and on the literature, we suggest applying general and area-specific remedies to the household solid waste problems. (C) 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailEstimation of odor emission rate from landfill areas using the sniffing team method
Nicolas, Jacques ULg; Craffe, Flavien; Romain, Anne-Claude ULg

in Waste Management (2006), 26(11), 1259-1269

The monitoring of the odor annoyance generated by a landfill area is difficult, since it is a multi-area-sources problem, with a discontinuous odor emission. This paper proposes an adaptation of the ... [more ▼]

The monitoring of the odor annoyance generated by a landfill area is difficult, since it is a multi-area-sources problem, with a discontinuous odor emission. This paper proposes an adaptation of the method of sniffing team campaigns to the particular case of fresh waste odors. The method is based on the field determination of odor perception points, followed by data processing with a bi-Gaussian-type model, adapted to handle the odors. In a first step, field observers delineate the region in which odor impact is experienced and then the emission rate is manipulated in a dispersion model until the predicted size of the impact zone matches that observed in the field. In a second step the adjusted emission rate is entered into the model to calculate the percentiles corresponding to the average annoyance zone. The originality of the proposed method is the introduction of all observation points and of all recorded meteorological data into the model. The paper discusses the method limitations and the errors induced on the results, i.e. the odor emission rate and the percentile lines (or iso-concentration lines) which are used to describe the odor concentrations on a map of the surroundings of the plant.The proposed method proves to be reliable for diffuse sources, such as landfill areas. The obtained results are coherent with other results found in the literature with other techniques. [less ▲]

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